Children, transport and mobility in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a child-centred evidence base to improve policy and change thinking across Africa

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Anthropology

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This was the first extensive cross-country study in Africa to examine children's mobility and associated access to school, services and livelihoods: it examined children's mobility in 24 research sites [urban and rural] across Ghana, Malawi and South Africa. It utilised a novel peer research approach whereby 70 young people aged 9-19 years were trained as co-researchers to provide preliminary key insights and questions for the academic team to then pursue further.
Exploitation Route The outcomes are being taken forward by others - for instance the peer research approach is now being utilised by research teams in Nigeria and Tunisia on our current GCRF project . An Oxford Transport Studies research team is employing our approach in a study in Istanbul [GP sits on their advisory group]. UCL DPU have recently approached the PI and Ghana team about working with us in some comparative studies that would take the work forward.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Healthcare,Transport

URL https://www.dur.ac.uk/child.mobility/
 
Description Findings from this project have continued to have some influence on approaches taken in the DFID funded AFCAP and RECAP projects, in HelpAge International, and have been incorporated in the PI's advisory contributions [training and guidelines] to gender mainstreaming in the African Development Bank [including November 2018 invited presentations in Tunis to engineers and gender/social development specialists at the African Development Bank and the Islamic Development Bank]. The PI subsequently prepared literature reviews on children's and young people' s mobility and transport for the DFID-funded High Volume transport programme which draw substantially on our work and should help to shape future work in the area by that programme. Many findings have been taken forward through our subsequent ESRC DFID phones project and ongoing GCRF Skills project, so that it is not always easy to distinguish impacts between the projects. We are building further on these findings in the current GCRF Education and Skills research.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Energy,Healthcare,Transport
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Advisory role [G. Porter, Transport Services Advisor] in DFID Africa Community Access Programme, 2012-14
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/249276/AFCAP_RU_case_study...
 
Description Contracted advisory support role [G.Porter] to NGOs researching gender issues in the transport sector in a DFID funded programme RECAP [ongoing]
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL http://research4cap.org/Recap-news/Lists/Posts/Post.aspx?ID=40
 
Description Evaluation panel member, Establishment of a Centre for sub-Saharan African transport leadership [for Cardno/DFID]
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Mainstreaming gender in the transport/communications sector of the African Development Bank [ongoing]
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://www.afdb.org/en/news-and-events/article/women-in-transportation-bank-holds-two-day-capacity-...
 
Description Preparation of a Transport User position paper for the Volvo Research and Education Foundation as a base for VREF commissioning new work in Africa
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Preparation of a position paper on Young people's mobliity and transport needs for the DFID High Volume Transport applied research Programme -as a base for commissioning new studies
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Training on working with community peer researchers at ITDP Mobilize virtual summit interactive training workshop
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://mobilizesummit.org/
 
Description Tunis engagement with transport/gender practitioners
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Staff from the African Development Bank and Islamic Development Bank engaged with the gender mainstreaming work I have been engaged with along with the AFDB and looked at how it would shape their ongoing work in the transport sector, with specific ref to users access to public services. However, I do not have evidence that the plans they discussed have been implemented on the ground.
 
Description UNICEF: Invited review of and contributions to UNICEF's International Ethics Charter and Guidelines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/eric-compendium-approved-digital-web.pdf
 
Description •UNHabitat: contributionS to Global Report on Human Settlements 2013: Sustainable Urban Transport - includes reference to and case study from the child mobility study
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://mirror.unhabitat.org/pmss/listItemDetails.aspx?publicationID=3503
 
Description ESRC DFID
Amount £466,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/J018082/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Department ESRC-DFID Joint Fund
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2012 
End 12/2015
 
Description Economic and Social Research Council
Amount £858,936 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/S005099/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 02/2021
 
Title Co-investigation 
Description Young people trained as peer researchers, then contribute through this work to question design in subsequent phases of qualitative and survey research. Also applied in researching older people's mobility. Details in G. Porter, Qualitative Research, 2016. Currently being applied again in the GCRF Education and Skills project 2018-21, this time with young unemployed women and peer researchers in peripheral urban low income neighbourhoods in Nigeria, Tunisia and South Africa. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Many of the 70 young people trained in the child mobility project 2006-10 have themselves gained substantially from their work as peer researchers. Some went on to university or to jobs in the NGO sector (using the certificates provided by the project). Some continued 2012-15 to build their skills under the follow-on phones project. Impacts have been substantial re focusing our attention on key questions in the academic research component. The approach has subsequently been used with older people in a HelpAge International research project in Tanzania. Various relevant project publications e.g. Robson et al. 2009, Porter et al. 2010; Hampshire et al. 2012; latest comparative published review of approach across projects and age groups, extending info provided, in Qualitative Research 2016. Presentation of this method requested by the DLR Institute of Transport Research at a Workshop on Research Methods for Urban Informal Transport, Berlin Sept. 2016, and for the DEVEX webinar, Sept 2016. Subsequently utilised with unemployed women as peer researchers in the Education and Skills GCRF project and show-cased at international meetings in 2019 in Berlin, Fortaleza and Addis Ababa. Basis for a training programme for ITDP Mobilize virtual summit in October 2020. Refinement of the method is ongoing as experience builds through the projects. 
URL https://transportandyouthemploymentinafrica.com/
 
Title SPSS CHILD MOBILITY DATA SET 
Description SPSS DATA SET [SUBMITTED TO ESDS 2012] 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Many papers from our research group, including some prepared by local collaborators. 
 
Description GCRF NETWORK ON URBAN TRANSPORT FOR VULNERABLE POPULATIONS 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department Institute of Transport Studies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Cape Coast, a project partner on the child mobility and phones studies is a member of the GCRF network, along with Durham University. We ran a workshop in May 2017 built from our project for researchers from UK, Nigeria, Uganda and Bangladesh who are members of the network and we have participated in subsequent network meetings in Nigeria, Bangladesh and Kampala.
Collaborator Contribution Organised the Cape Coast workshop including field studies re participatory work with children and young people.
Impact Workshop at Cape Coast, participation in other network workshops. Multi disciplinary collaboration - geography, anthropology, transport studies
Start Year 2017
 
Description CAS@50 conference, Edinburgh University, June 2012. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact paper presented, Gender, mobility and technologies of connectivity in sub-Saharan Africa, 1910-2010. Raised diverse issues and encouraged plans for future research.

Proposal plans for current ESRC DFID project encouraged.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Intalink International network on transport and accessibility for vulnerable urban populations, Oxford University, keynote (May 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact GP Keynote in network dissemination event at end of Intalinc project - 'Future priorities for meeting the transport and accessibility needs of low income communities in developing urban contexts' [May 18]
Participants from overseas partner institutions, transport practitioners, industry, academics. Various links which have assisted with development of new research project and with impact on phones and child transport projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited keynote, Plenary of RGS/IBG transport research group, Sept 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Much discussion afterwards, including both academic and practitioner participants.

Requests to attend energy discussions/workshop at Loughborough University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://conference.rgs.org/Conference/Sessions/SearchResults.aspx?conference=AC2015&rg=TGRG
 
Description Sheffield University, invited paper. Exploring childhood in the rural South: Africa in focus, May 2012. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Invited paper presented: Researching the daily mobilities of children and young people in Africa: some reflections on theory, methods and ethics. Linked to work of 3 other invited speakers, and formed base for day's workshop discussion.

Contribution to various discussions on ethics of research with children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description A moving issue : children and young people's transport and mobility constraints in Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Children and young people are rarely at the forefront of
transport studies, despite the fact that their ability to access
health and educational facilities is crucial to the
achievement of many of the Millennium Development
Goals. The project explored the travel
challenges faced by girl and boy children through their own
eyes alongside traditional adult-led research methods. It
looked at their access to health, education and other
services, at the lack of direct information on how mobility
constraints impact on children's current and future
livelihood opportunities, and at the lack of available
guidelines on how to tackle them. In this issue of Forum
News we highlight the key findings of the project, share
relevant resources and ask where do we go from here?
This led to informal requests for information from newsletter readers as far afield as Peru and Indonesia.

The newsletter raised the profile of child mobility issues among transport practitioners and policy makers across the South. The need to address child moibility issues is now specifically mentioned, for instance, The Tanzania Draft National Transport Policy Framework.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
URL http://ifrtd.gn.apc.org/files/uploads/ForumNews_15_1_english_colour.pdf
 
Description African Development Bank 2-day training session and guideline development on gender mainstreaming in transport 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Response to African Development Bank request for support on gender mainstreaming in the transport sector. Preparation of guidelines [incl. link to phones research], 2 day training session for Bank staff and associated projects [Abidjan with skype to other Bank offices across Africa], participation in Bank mid-term review Nigeria, presentation and participation in AFDB session streams at NEPAD Johannesburg infrastructure meeting, May 2016. .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description African Development Bank 2-day training session and guideline development on gender mainstreaming in transport 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact afdb
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ESRC FESTIVAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE EVENT IDS 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Spoke at a workshop organised by the Impact Initiative on Women's Life Choices at IDS- this drew on findings from both projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Impact initiative child poverty conference Addis Ababa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Participation in child poverty workshop including writing a blog beforehand, giving a paper, interviewing key participants [World Bank, Save the Children] for Impact Initiative dissemination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.esrc.ac.uk/news-events-and-publications/news/news-items/putting-children-first-event-call...
 
Description International workshop on headloading, Accra, Ghana, 27 Mar 2013. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of findings on headloading to an invited audience of c. 50 policy makers, practitioners and academics.

Preparations towards an ESRC proposal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Interview US National Public radio re girls and mobile phones 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview re girls and phones, linking to a report just out from the NGO GirlEffect with funds from Vodafone Foundation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited keynote Ist International conference on Geographies of Migration and Mobility iMigMob, Loughborough university 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A mixed audience with academics as well as other groups listed above. Raised attention to migration within sub-Saharan Africa and role of mobile phones in supporting migrant and home household linkages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/geography/news/events/imigmob.html
 
Description Invited speaker in Devex Webinar 'Research to Practice: Engaging local communities in the future of transportation' sponsored by RECAP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One of 3 invited speakers [other two presenters were practitioners] in a webinar on Research into Practice prepared by Devex and sponsored by RECAP [a DFID-funded programme run by Cardno]. Participants from Tanzania, Germany, etc. put questions on diverse issues following our presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://pages.devex.com/research-to-practice-registration.html
 
Description Mobilize conference, Fortaleza, Brazil [sponsored by ITDP/VREF], June 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International review of mobility issues and study methods including value of participatory research methods. with communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.itdp.org/event/mobilize-fortaleza/
 
Description Oxford transport studies unit leadership summer school 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Wideranging discussion on recent changes in mobilities in Africa and implications for policy and practice following paper presented: Infrastructure, development and finance: user perspectives from rural sub-Saharan Africa

Requests for papers and further information eg.from Indian participant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at Mobilities congress, Berlin [sponsored by Friedrich Ebert Stiftung], May 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Invitation to present and join panel discussions at a major mobility congress that attracted a large and diverse audience. Subsequently I have been contacted by Futurium Berlin re adivice on a planned exhibition around African mobilities [+invitation to other meetings e.g. from GiZ]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.fes-skopje.org/e/mobility-congress-in-berlin/
 
Description Presentation at UN Commission on the status of women NGO forum presentation, New York (March 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Presentation at a session organised by the Impact Initiative at the UN Commission on the status of women NGO forum, New York (March 2018)
Much discussion and some continued engagement with third sector organisations after this meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to African Development Bank and Islamic Development Bank, Tunis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting to present draft Guidelines on gender mainstreaming in the transport sector [including ICT-transport linkages], I had prepared with/for the African Development Bank drawing on both the phones and child mobility research.
AfDB invited their engineers and social development staff from across Africa - participants came from South Africa, Ghana, Sudan, Tunisia, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Kenya
Islamic Development Bank invited engineers and gender specialists from Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Nigeria
GiZ and DFID High VolumeTransport Programme staff also attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentations y research team at Women in Transport conference, Addis Ababa, Dec 2019, organised by Flone Initiative and WRI. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Presentation of the community peer research approach I have promoted across the 3 projects I am reporting on in researchfish. Interest in potentially adopting this approach from donors and 3rd sector organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://womenandtransportafrica.org/
 
Description UCC Ghana Institute of Education workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop involving the University of Cape
Coast (UCC) Institute of Education, the Ghana Education Service (GES) Directorate and teacher
training college staff from across Ghana [about 65 participants in total] focused on discussing our research that showed that transport difficulties
affect pupil punctuality, children's performance in the classroom, and safety and security on the
journey to school.

As a result of the workshop, Ghana's UCC and the GES Directorate have committed [albeit not yet formally], to curriculum interventions to reduce harsh school punishments for pupil lateness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Urban mobilities conference, Addis Ababa, including to present my first draft of a position paper on User needs [commissioned by the Volvo Education and Research Foundation, Sept 2019, funded by VREF and GiZ.] 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion re my first draft of a position paper on Transport User needs [commissioned by the Volvo Education and Research Foundation, Sept 2019, funded by VREF and GiZ.] Interest and follow up by diverse individual organisations - 3rd sector + consultancy practices.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.transformative-mobility.org/news/tumi-mac-shift-addis-ababa
 
Description Volvo Research and Education Foundation Cape Town meeting and related interactions re development of new programme for transport research/education in African cities, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Panel convened in Cape Town made preliminary recommendations towards a new research programme for transport in urban Africa - followed by subsequent interactions and review of recommendations. Enabled opportunity to draw attention to the importance of ICT -including mobile phones- in new transport organisation.

Followed by second meeting in Nairobi and led to VRF's development of a new research programme to support research and teaching in African universities and linkages with other key transport-focused bodies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description paper on project at Development Studies Association Annual Conference, London, Nov. 12. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Paper given with Prof Abane [UCC Ghana] Reflections on the UK-Ghana partnership in a Child Mobility project funded under the ESRC-DFID Joint Scheme - led to discussion on the role of Country Consultative Groups etc.

Further consolidated partnership with UCC collaborators.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description presentation at DFID Gender and Transport seminar, London, 19 June 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation - Gender and pedestrian load-carrying in Africa: implications for education, health, and livelihoods - videod to DFID staff in c. 8 countries, in addition to UK.

Request to review social impact of transport study at DFID.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description talk at methods for intergenerational research workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact workshop - presentation on co-investigation methods used in the phones and chiid mobility projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017