Gender Norms, Labour Supply and Poverty Reduction in Comparative Context: Evidence from Rural India and Bangladesh

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Social Sciences

Abstract

The project focuses on women's well-being as related to their attitudes and their work. It has two branches and involves research in two geographic areas, rural Bangladesh and rural low-income parts of India.

The first branch is to use secondary data to look at changing attitudes and women's labour-force involvement over two decades. This part of the work has highly qualified specialist researchers in four countries (UK, Germany, India, and Bangladesh) working together to apply the most recently discovered methods of statistical analysis to both secondary survey data and a new primary survey data set. The survey experts will advise on the administration of the primary survey with 600 households in India and 600 households in Bangladesh. We gather data in rural areas where two mysteries of labour supply can be explored -- 1) mainly in India, what caused so many women to apparently withdraw their labour from the labour market during the boom of 2000-2007, and what happened during the later years up to 2013?; and 2) in both India and Bangladesh, what attitudes differentiate women (and men) in ways relevant to labour supply, causing some households to avoid offering paid wage labour of women to the market, while gaining their availability for other forms of unpaid, informal and domestic work? We include only poor rural areas.

The primary survey data includes household, personal and village data-collection instruments, and has data at two points in time within one year, allow male-female wage differentials to be examined over a small seasonal panel. We can create models of the supply of labour from these data. The results will be better than standard results.

The second branch involves mixed methods analysis of attitudes about gender and work. Here, the research also moves on to examine the sources of change and resistance to change in women's labour and women's roles, based upon the attitudinal data and semi-structured interviews (80 per country, carried out as followups to the survey for selected individual cases, 60 men and 20 women in India and the same in Bangladesh).

We examine attitudes about women's work and their informal/formal labour supply in each area. Some attitudes about domestic roles to limit the willingness of some women to labour outside their home, and offer resistance to the general trend toward more egalitarian attitudes during the potentially modernising influence of economic growth. We will report on the actual diversity of these attitudes in the states of Jharkand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (India) and two rural areas of Bangladesh. Our Key Stakeholders Meetings in Year 1 analyse the pilot data on attitudes.

The qualitative research offsets a tradition in economics of focusing purely on narrowly defined paid labour, and using individualistic approaches, when studying labour-supply of women. We avoid individualism and yet we combined quantitative and qualitative data. This research integrates demography with sociology and economics. We have a new modelling method that looks at the husband-wife pair. Another strong advantage is our use of multilevel models and our ability to control for change over time in the panel of survey data (for two seasons).

We expect the results to give profound insights into the feminisation of the casual and informal-sector rural labour force that occured prior to 2007. Our interpretation of this change will be very sophisticated. We will consider what economists call efficiency losses, how families achieve 'distinction' and dignity as well as well-being, and feminist approaches to women's work as alternative interpretive frameworks. The project thus encourages a scientific exploration of new data while also being of service in exposing how different poverty alleviation interventions interacted with existing gender roles and norms. The study is strongly interdisciplinary and highly original. The team has a strong track record of such research.

Planned Impact

The project has four pathways of impact. Each works through a different immediate audience.
--1) Villagers and townspeople in the survey areas, and all those who experience Indian and Bangladeshi policy changes. In interviewing, we gather comments on the interventions themselves in the semi-structured interview. In India our focus may be on the National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme plus any changes in local educational provision that affect labouring classes. In Bangladesh we focus on initiatives influencing women as entrepreneurs, workers, and farmers. By involving people in interviews, the research is much enriched and we will be wiser through using mixed methods. Although the research is not action research per se, our approach is continually to be open to discussion, available for consultations, and willing to organise focus groups not for research data gathering but for the purpose of engaging in discussion without recording so that we create a democratic and open setting for considering the difficult issues of women's work. Our ability to 'listen well' will affect the quality and usefulness of the results that we publish. Our first publication of a briefing paper will be within Year 1 based on pilots in each country. IHD staff will lead on this.

--2) Policy practitioners who will be consulted at least once per year in three study areas. A stakeholder workshop in each country in Year 1 involves in-country experts and local policy practitioners by invitation. They can influence the questionnaire, interview plans, integration of men in the study, and analysis of themes. By inviting selected practitioners to data confrontation workshops in year 2, we ensure a continuing two-way feedback route for co-learning.

--3) The project also influences all who are involved in or affected by the new Survey and Interviews. The research enumerators employed by the Institute for Human Development and the BRAC University Centre for Gender and Social Transformation will be influenced toward knowing more about sophisticated Survey and Interview methods as well as about gender roles, norms and attitudes. In India, too, the staff of the project can move onward into research posts with their enhanced data collection and data analysis skills. In creating a survey instrument on attitudes about gender roles, basing the questions on some existing well-known autonomy and attitude questions but also adding new indicators of the attitudes to women's in-house activities and the domestic division of labour, the project creates higher consciousness of gender issues. The integration of the survey data with interviews of both male and female adult rural residents creates new knowledge. Translation and interpretation will be exposed to scrutiny of the whole team in workshops. The project probes changing power and autonomy of women by asking what promotes it, what barriers there are, and what impact the anti-poverty projects have played. Thus gender and development policy issues are raised among the whole large teams of researchers in each country.

--4) Finally this project influences academics and experts in the countries concerned. These impacts are described under 'Academic Beneficiaries' but in addition the considerable Capacity Building element includes two data confrontation workshops (one per country) and numerous training opportunities on-site in the two liaising organisations. The researchers act as role models for masters and phd students in IHD and BRAC, as well. Advanced quantitative methods and critical realist approaches to qualitative interpretation (notably critical discourse analysis) will be promoted. The use of NVIVO software will be actively encouraged among all user groups to hold case-study material. The use of advanced software will be promoted. Programmes will be shared through the public JISC online filestore platform. A JISC shared email will be created, with W. Olsen as moderator and file manager.
 
Description 1. Women in the rural areas of north Central India and rural Bangladesh have attitudes which vary, and thus are not all the same as local cultural norms. Many rural women in both these regions hold both pro-traditional attitudes (favouring housewife roles for women) and egalitarian attitudes at the same time. The younger married women tend to hold the most traditional views of women's roles.
2. The "dual burden" is where women combine household responsibilities with paid work, and is a problem facing women in both rural India & rural Bangladesh. As a result, the non-reporting of women's work is widespread. The GDP accounts hold erroneous representations which understate women's work. Using our time-use data we would get a much higher valuation of women's real contributions. A conceptual advance is to consider three nested forms of women's economic activity, besides domestic work: first the narrowest, then middle or standard forms of working, and finally a wider form considering extra-domestic tasks.
3. There was a gradual reduction in women's market work in north central India over time. It is quite broadly spread, notably among poor agricultural labour families. These women face a problem of mutual disapproval of women working (for pay). Here local norm sets, whether muslim or Hindu, enforce the predominant 'breadwinner ideology'. Women are disciplined into conforming with 'stay at home' rules. Yet many women who feel the criticism do in fact also work. When we widen the definition of what counts as work this is particularly noticeable.
4. The well-being of women in these areas takes diverse forms. Well-being is affected by economic resources but also by social respect and feelings of self-worth.
5. We held numerous workshops, such as "Applying Mixed Methods: Studying work in South Asia", held on 14th June 2016 at GIGA Hamburg. These methods allow the discoveries to be exposed and then analysed rigorously.
6. We used time-use diary methods, adding to public knowledge of what women actually do. Subjective reports were shown to be inaccurate. A proper time-use study with a 24 hour one-day recall diary has different requirements in Rural South Asia than in western settings.
7. Feeling validated in joining in labour markets encourages women to raise their economic (paid, remunerated) labour supply.
8. Widows experienced a clash between their own traditional attitudes about women working, and their need to work; a working widow is typically experiencing personal disapproval.
9. Many of the rural women hide their real work duties by claiming to be a housewife. This role is associated with staying 'inside', including doing kitchen-garden and livestock work. Through redefinitions, women can construe themselves as honourable whilst engaging in work. We have created a large database, with the survey responses from 23 villages and the 81 interview transcripts, and submitted this to the UK Data Service archive.
Exploitation Route Those who do rural interventions of any kind will want to read our briefing papers http://www.cmist.manchester.ac.uk/research/projects/innovation-in-mixed-methods/ because these show how the local norms affect the ethics of research, and how the measurement of social norms can actually reveal with disagreements occur within each local setting. These are innovative and useful contributions.

The project is funded by the ESRC DFID Poverty Alleviation grant stream and is supported through direct involvement in research of BRAC University Centre for Gender and Social Transformation (CGST, Dhaka), the GIGA Institute of Asian Studies, and the Indian Institute for Dalit Studies (IIDS Delhi). Those who want to work on gender issues can examine our results using either the raw data (See UK Data Archive via the UK Data Service) or the reports (forthcoming and submitted papers, and published papers, and conference papers).

The briefing papers of this project are written for a non specialist audience. You can find them here:
http://www.cmist.manchester.ac.uk/research/projects/innovation-in-mixed-methods/
(The use of this site reflects the fact that British Academy has also contributed £25K funding to the production of methods briefings and workshops in relation to mixed methods. It's thus a linked site to our main Project website, cited below.)

Our finalised papers show what inhibits women from doing productive work in agriculture including livestock, and fishing, though many women do in fact engage in these activities. We found out in particular that *wanting* to do paid work is associated with *doing* more paid work, so attitudes about work matter very much in India & Bangladesh. If attitudes can be changed, this may facilitate more women doing appropriate forms of paid work, thus contributing to national income and lower levels of poverty.Further impact is possible when the revision of wording in three areas of development measurement take place, as an effect of our findings: 1) time-use diary data need to show the occupation and industry of each work activity as well as work status (employee, self-employed, or market-substituting non-waged work), and not over-simplify these matters. 2) the measurement of women's well-being requires local nuances of wording. 3) the measurement of women's attitudes must separate out the egalitarian and pro-job attitudes about women working, from the pro-wife and pro-mothering attitudes commonly seen as 'traditional' or patriarchal. It was clear in all our villages that the women held both egalitarian attitudes and traditional pro-wife attitudes at the same time. Furthermore, men's attitudes did not differ from the attitudes of women in each area. Thus we tapped into social norms, and variations were between households, not within households.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.cmist.manchester.ac.uk/research/projects/gender-norms/
 
Description Our research has led to numerous teams being encouraged to do - and to further explore - mixed methods of research that cross the Qual-Quant divide. This will prove highly cost-effective and can lead to high-citation academic articles. Here are 3 examples of our impact within the academic & practitioner community: 1) Academic Beneficiaries, Starting with Conferences and Publications (1A) IACR. Olsen presented a whole stream on mixed-methods research at the conference of the International Association for Critical Realism (IACR). This stream was on methods of research for development studies. Olsen then got a book contract for a volume on the same topic (London: Sage, 2020; manuscript in process). The IACR stream had 6 papers involving 8 presenters, and was a great success with a stronger participative and data-confrontation element than usual. Olsen papers: "The Capabilities Approach to Wellbeing, a data-confrontation workshop (with Bayliss)." And "Critical Realism and Health Data-Response Workshop". These workshops were full. (1b) Presentations in Person - Jawaharlal University in Delhi ( Centre for the Study of Regional Development) (1c) Bourdieu-oriented Sociologists at Bristol in the UK, sharing evidence across the economics-sociology divide. Olsen presented at a Bourdieu conference held by the British Sociological Association (BSA); she presented a jointly authored paper "Labour and Marital Negotiations (and Tensions): Comparing Rural India & Bangladesh". Useful feedback was obtained from an expert sociological audience. The paper uses mixed methods. She also presented this paper in Delhi at the JNU in May 2016. She again visited JNU and made presentations on two themes related to gender norms:1) Decomposition By Social Groups and 2) Bayesian Reasoning in Mixed Methods With Statistics, both in April 2017. She presented the material to a group of post-doctoral and doctoral students in the Jawaharlal University. (2) We gained an internationalisation grant from the Univ. of Manchester, which funded visits by Dr. Anup Mishra, Dr. Santosh Kumar Singh, and Ms. Surbhi Malhotra to the UK, where they attended the Work, Employment and Society conference in Leeds and we held a workshop in Manchester. Malhotra attended the Royal Statistical Society 'development statistics' committee with Prof. Olsen, and we attended a Conference in London on panel data. The PhD of Heather Piggott closed with her submission of the thesis in Jan. 2018. 3) Prof. Amaresh Dubey won a University of Manchester Simon Visiting Professorship which lasted six weeks (all expenses paid). He then went on to get involved in the Chronic Poverty Report effort based at ODI in London. This report has become a major feature in the development calendar, giving an update on poverty-eradication measures and progress over time across the whole world. In June 2017, Prof. Dubey visited CPAN in London to attend the technical workshop at ODI, in London, bringing together researchers and academics leading to the 4th CPAN Chronic Poverty Report on Growth. We continue to develop the Win-Win Partnership which integrates all these moves in one big social network. The Win-Win partners comprise two mailing lists. Our partners number 5 core institutions plus 11 additional indirectly linked institutions across the four countries. Our mailing list for Briefing Papers covers the 17 involved (author) staff and another 95 individual stakeholders. We recently gained another 6 early-career staff participants, namely: Sook Kim, new ESRC Funded PhD student. Giuseppe Maio, MSc student and Research Associate. Wasel Bin Shadat, post-doctoral Research Associate. Jihye Kim, partner to our partner Centre for Women's Development Studies in Delhi, India; PhD student; accompanied Olsen in April 2017 to Delhi. Min Zhang, PhD student and research associate. Joanna Wilson, ESRC funded 1+3 PhD student using mixed methods for UK women's pay. (4) Policy Maker Beneficiaries and Researchers - (4a) Forthcoming works have been presented in public and we have submitted another 3 papers to journals so far. We have in total six papers under preparation of which the 3 submitted and 1 published already (Indian Journal of Labour Economics) have all been presented at conferences in India or UK. (4b) Mahmud, Sultan, Olsen and Dubey presented findings out of this mixed methods project at the ESRC Impact Initiative cross-party working group on Bangladesh, in 2017 at the Palace of Westminster in London, with DFID, press and parliamentarians present. Next we also have results for time-use diary data. These relate to a wide range of Sustainable Development Indicators and the related stakeholder groups. We have advised the ILO by attending the International Conference of Labour Statisticians, ILO, 2018 (a 8 day event with delegates from all countries). The moderate levels of market work which we measured, and which we recommend, for women are now the subject of new ILO guidance and new UN System of National Account measures. Specifically if women have no paid work, their position is considered weak, and their work invisibilised. On the other hand if they work too many hours, that is destructive of health. At the ILO ICLS Conf. Olsen met the representatives from India and Pakistan who agreed that it is controversial but timely to argue that women need moderate paid work (not none; not too much). They agree women should not be forced to work by poverty. Furthermore, the India delegate insisted India is running a time-use diary study nationwide during 2019. The sample size is at issue, so there have been delays getting this largescale random survey started. Yet it will occur. The interpretation of the data requires simpler indicators than we have at present. This task is what Olsen et al are writing about using our project's small-scale data. We therefore know there is audience, and hence 'significance', for the conclusions we draw. An alternative measure of women's time use is found in the Indian Human Development Survey. Here the recall method is used: how many hours they spent on average per day in the recent month on market work, on household chores, etc. Olsen's recent submission to Social Indicators Research gauges children's work time by gender and age group using the IHDS data which Dubey kindly shared, and on which we held a workshop during this Grant. The IHDS data are valuable and offer an alternative, recall method for gauging time spent on tasks. This method was used in the Bangladesh ILO SIMPOC data collection exercise, which is comparable. Olsen has another paper (submitted to World Development 2018) on six countries' child labour time use which follows on from these debates. We await decisions on these 2 follow-on papers.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Education
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description "Indian Human Development Survey: Panel Data Analysis Using Stata", a Training Workshop (Manchester)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Profs Dubey and Olsen jointly ran a one-day workshop, "Indian Human Development Survey: Panel Data Analysis Using Stata", with shared funding from the University of Manchester's Simon Visiting Professorship programme for Prof. Dubey and British Academy to provide learning materials. The Human Development Survey was examined to get details of life satisfaction, paid work, household income, and earnings. These were broken down by sex. The training workshop enabled participants to link together the members of a family. Then we are able to carry out regression. The data is the only panel data set representing an All-India sample survey. We developed a dependent variable which reflected change over time in two years of the panel (two cohorts). This was an achievement and will enable more people to use these data. We will also be offering similar material at the Summer School 2017, so that URL is offered here.
URL http://www.methods.manchester.ac.uk/events/summerschool/courses/integrated/
 
Description A Long Training Lecture Presented to 25 Chinese officials on "Statistical Issues in the National Accounts and Measuring Capital Assets"
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact I was invited to give a long session of training to China's National Bureau of Statistics staff in 2014 when they visited Manchester in November. Half day lecture to 25 Chinese officials from the Government, National Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Issues in the National Accounts and National Balance Sheet of Net Capital Assets. Liaison by Sinobridge, Ltd., a London company. Manchester.
 
Description Presentation at the CECAN Seminar, London, 2018
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact This is a one-hour seminar in a national-level series held by CECAN. The participants are influential including government officials, expert researchers, civil servants. The specific topic, which is in high demand, is how to examine and utilise a mixed-mode database of multiple questionnaire rounds combined with qualitative interviews, to best draw out findings which are explanatory and at the same time relate to impact assessment and to policy related impact evaluation.
URL https://www.cecan.ac.uk/events
 
Description Presented a talk on "Corruption In India", BRAC International Conference on Political Economy, Dhaka
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Olsen, W.K., 2014. "Corruption In India Compared With Bangladesh: A Method Combining Measurement With Impact", Dhaka, BRAC International Conference on Political Economy, December. This presentation was derived specifically from my research under the ESRC DFID grant on gender norms and labour supply. There were radio and news press journalists at the event.
 
Description DFID Programming and Policy Engagement
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ITT Reference No: PRF 4 
Organisation UK Department for International Development 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description ESRC CASE 1+3 STUDENTSHIP SCHEME 2016-2019
Amount £89,000 (GBP)
Organisation NorthWest ESRC Doctoral Training Centre 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2020
 
Description International Mobility Partnership: Innovation in Global Labour Research Using Deep Linkage and Mixed Methods
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Funding ID PM140147 
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 11/2017
 
Description for Charters for Better Work Better Lives: An Indian Partner Network
Amount £34,243 (GBP)
Organisation United Kingdom Research and Innovation 
Department Global Challenges Research Fund
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 07/2019
 
Title Facebook group on Integrated Mixed Methods Network 
Description The analysis of tensions in society is enhanced through mixed methods. Instead of seeing contradictory evidence as an epistemological problem, we see it as potentially showing real conflicts, ambiguity and/or cognitive clashes of view. This website allows a wide range of viewers and members to examine evidence of social tension around labour market social norms. See https://www.facebook.com/groups/438437119631157/ 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We are being partnered by several impressive people including consultants with experience of Resilience training in schools, British Council youth initiatives, and other partnerships between youth and older people. All aim to improve youth entry into the labour market. These partners want to work closely on an international project. 
URL https://www.facebook.com/groups/438437119631157/
 
Title Wendy Olsen and John McLoughlin, https://github.com/WendyOlsen/fsgof. Version 1 July 2016. Version 2 Sept. 2016. 
Description Title: QCA and Fuzzy Set Goodness-of-Fit Tests. Abstract: The method known as qualitative comparative analysis comprises a set of related case-comparative techniques for studying data that originates as case-wise qualitative, or otherwise detailed, evidence. If it starts off qualitative, the QCA stage involves systematically calibrating the data to fuzzy set or crisp set scores. If the data set is a secondary one with continuous variables, again these must be calibrated. I explain the calibration method, and how consistency is measured. I then augment these QCA techniques with a statistical F test of the result. The F test acts both as a hypothesis test and as a measure of goodness of fit of the data to the pattern predicted under either a 'sufficiency' or 'necessity' claim. The sufficiency claim is explored using empirical data from India. These data involve 450 female cases, mostly married and with spousal and household evidence available from a related primary research project. The outcome is whether they did remunerated work. The F test involves a comparison of the distance from sufficiency in a fuzzy set context, compared with the distance we expect under a null hypothesis. We found that having land and not having a husband were sufficient together (but not separately) for a woman to work. Users can get the Consistency and F test results (p-values) from either Excel or our online freeware. Wendy Olsen thanks John McLoughlin for his programming help in Python. We also acknowledge funds given by the British Academy: Innovation in Global Labour Research Using Deep Linkage and Mixed Methods project, see also https://www.facebook.com/groups/mixednetwork/ . The Github address is https://github.com/WendyOlsen/fsgof. We advertised this programme to JISCMAIL QUAL-COMPARE (now at 185 members). Wendy Presented this software at a session titled "QCA and Fuzzy Set Goodness-of-Fit Tests" at the ESRC Research Methods Festival, 2016, in Oxford. This was a videod presentation. This was then offered as a e-print via the ESRC RMF 2016 website. Source files are at: Wendy Olsen and John McLoughlin, https://github.com/WendyOlsen/fsgof. Version 1 July 2016. Version 2 Sept. 2016. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The material is being written up. A draft document titled 'QCA Reaches Adulthood' has been discussed at a conference of the British Sociological Association. We have not got many users yet. 
URL https://github.com/WendyOlsen/fsgof.
 
Title Database on Gender Norms, Labour Supply and Time Use in Rural India and Bangladesh 
Description The data are in two linked parts, with all 86 interviewees located from among the couples who are represented in the two rounds of village questionnaire surveys. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The database will be useful in future to enable estimates of measurement error in labour supply estimates. Specifically we can crosstabulate the degree to which rural women said they were 'housewife' or 'housewife and one subsidiary occupation' with their actual time-use on 2 days in the survey year. Because the submission of the database is 2018, it will take some time before users can be impacted by using these data. We plan to use the database in two summer schools in 2019. Both are held by Methods@Manchester. One is on empirical political economy, and the other is on new mixed methods approaches in social science. 
 
Description Better Work Better Lives 
Organisation Indian Institute for Dalit Studies
Country India 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We have started a new network development project by teaming up again with the Indian Institute for Dalit Studies, the Centre for Women's Development Studies (Delhi) and the Jawaharlal Nehru University. This new project involves testing Civic Meetings to improve women's lives. The focus is on women's quality of working life, including young women working at ages below 18 as well as adult women. The Civic Meetings are planned for four cities in Uttar Pradesh and in Bihar. After testing the community research tools and probing with our Briefing Paper, banners and notecards we will make detailed notes and interpret our findings. We expect to find that some prompts help to engage community stakeholders in a public situation, whilst others may be less useful. My team is attending from UK to make 2-3 India visits.
Collaborator Contribution The Global Challenges Research Fund is helping pay for the IIDS to act as webmaster for a website and webpages in relation to charters for Better Work Better Lives. Each Civic Meeting will lead to suggestions for a charter and manifesto, reflecting our vision for decent work for women. The webpages then reflect how partners have represented these charters in three languages, in photo essays, and in words. The IIDS staff will be going out to our Lucknow and Kanpur meetings, and helping with our Patna and Varanasi meetings. They will host the qualitative evidence during the translation process. They will host the website.
Impact We are starting this in 2019 so no outputs yet. THe project will be finished in 2019. It is multidisciplinary across sociology, development studies, and economics of labour.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Win-Win Partnership 
Organisation Close the Gap
Country Belgium 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Win-Win Partnership aims for economic gains for women via gender empowerment, and it has seven organisational partners. (1) Among these is Close the Gap (CTG), a Glasgow based charity fighting to improve the gender pay gap in Scotland. The research has been conducted jointly, partly as a service for CTG on the Scottish Pay Gap as a service, and now continuing as an ESRC-funded mixed-methods PhD research project. Joanna Wilson, appointed as the PhD student, is receiving a travel subsidy from Close the Gap each year (in-kind contribution) during her PhD. She has also joined with Olsen to hold workshops and training, both face-to-face with CTG individuals and in small group workshops. In 2016, these were invitation-only. In 2018, Joanna presented her own PhD material at a public workshop as a plenary speaker in Glasgow. (2) Meanwhile, the Win-Win Partnership has also bid to the Global Challenges Research Fund via ESRC for £800K funds to do research on Women, Work and Wellbeing, a cross-South-Asian study based upon the Gender Norms Project itself. The new project extends to Nepal and Pakistan, as well as India and Bangladesh. (3) Meanwhile the gender pay gap research has also led to a link with the UK Department for Education (described separately) and a publication on the Gender Pay Gap published by the Close the Gap NGO.
Collaborator Contribution The Close the Gap charity has links with seven major partners of its own in Scotland, including branches of the Scottish Government. They have fostered research on the Gender Pay Gap in Scotland, and they now co supervise the current PhD on the Nature of the Scottish Pay Gap. It uses mixed methods and draws insights from the two projects already supporting the Win-Win Partnership: The Gender Norms Project (ESRC) and the British Academy International Mobility Partnership grant.
Impact The outcomes of the partnership include a report written for the Close the Gap charity, authored by Wendy Olsen, David Bayliss and Min Zhang. This is so far embargoed but will be released in due course in 2018. Meanwhile, the Close the Gap NGO published their 'The Gender Penalty' report. This report is based mainly on the funded research we did for them.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Conference Paper at the BSA Work, Employment and Society (Journal) Conf. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Amaresh Dubey, Kunal Sen and Wendy Olsen
"Causes of Defeminisation of Work in Rural India Over the Long Term" - a submitted paper.
Abstract
India had a declining labour force participation for women 2004-2011. There were positive real rates of economic growth during the same time period. Higher female formal education over this period should have raised the labour-force participation rate. Countervailing factors create a puzzle of 'missing women', also called defeminisation. Using national data on economic activity, we provide a novel analysis of India's rural women using 1983-2011 data and a synthetic panel data approach.
The paper tests several hypotheses. Relative to existing knowledge, this paper is enhanced by a theoretical shift, examining the labour market in its narrow, medium and wide definitions. We decompose the change in labour supply of women over time, according to explained factors and unexplained factors, taking advantage of data from National Sample Surveys for 1983, 1993, 2005, and 2012 involving consistent measurement over time. We use probit regressions of labour supply. Ultimately there was a downward shift of the whole U-curve of women's work over education. Our main finding is that the shift downward in women's work (over education) is concentrated in poor landless worker families of the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe groups. We describe the balance of protective and causal factors for the growing employment gap facing women. We saw a re-establishment of the breadwinner model in the poor rural classes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference Paper at the International Feminist Geographies Conference. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Heather Piggott presented PhD chapter results to the following international conference:
Autonomous University of Barcelona. July 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference Presentatioin in Sri Lanka on "Human Capital, Food security and Economic Development" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation for a Conference on "Human Capital, Food security and Economic Development in South Asia"

by
Simeen Mahmud and Sadia Mustafa

Brac Institute of Governance and Development
Brac University

Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka
Centre for Development Economics and Sustainability
South Asia Research Network, Monash University
January 11, 2017
Colombo
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference Presentation at Mixed Methods International Research Association (MIMRA) Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Heather Piggott presented her second set of PhD results to the following international conference:
Mixed Methods International Research Association (MIMRA) Conference
University of Durham. August 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference Presentation at the Conf. of Work, Employment And Society (Journal) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Unpaid Women Worker as Disguised Exclusion: An Experience from Rural India
Amaresh Dubey, Anup K Mishra , Wendy Olsen , Santosh K Singh

Introduction
In spite of high economic growth during last two decades there has been low rate of female labour force participation (FLP) in India. This has been the recent issue that have to be looked into thoroughly. More than in any other area, it is in the recording of the work done by women that serious inaccuracies and measurement failure occurs. As a result, participation of women in the economic activities in developing countries in general and in India in particular is undermined.
The experience from other countries suggests that the combined effect of economic growth, rising educational label among women and falling fertility rates leads to increasing participation of women in labour force. India's rate of economic growth has averaged over 6 per cent since 1991, female literacy rate of women has increased from 53.7 per cent in 2001 to 64.5 per cent in 2011, and total fertility rate has fallen from 3.71 in 1990 to 2.50 in 2012. In spite of this, female workforce participation rates fell from 33.1 per cent in 1977-78 to 26.1 per cent in 2009-10 for rural females and from 15.6 per cent in 1977-78 to 13.8 per cent in 2009-2010 (using employment in principal and subsidiary status, see Himanshu (2011).
Census after Census, women's contribution has been rendered invisible by failing to quantify their work inputs, especially in agriculture and the unorganized sector. There are basically two kinds of work. Work for which payment is received and work for which no payment is made. Women are known to work longer hours than men and to participate in the work force to a far greater extent than is measured by the data gathered in the census. But a lot of the work they do is unrecognized, leave alone rewarded with equal remuneration. Traditionally, men spend most of their time on tasks for which payment is received or tasks that are clearly within the realm of "economic activity" (Mehta, 2000). However, while a large number of women work outside the home and are remunerated for the work they do, most women spend several hours doing work for which no payment is received. This seems as a disguised exclusion of rural women from the mainstream of economy. The effort of the present paper is to only investigate and share our field experiences of this fact from Rural North India.

Authors locations:
Professor in Economics, CSRD, JNU, New Delhi, India.
Assistant Professor in Economics, DAV PG College, BHU, Varanasi, U.P., India.
Professor in Socio Economics, University of Manchester, U.K.
Post Doctoral Fellow, CSRD, JNU, New Delhi, India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference Presentation of Paper at the Indian Society for Labour Economics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Unpaid Women Work in Rural India: Wage Evasion?

Anup K Mishra, Wendy Olsen, Amaresh Dubey and Santosh K Singh
(Author details below)

Abstract
In spite of high economic growth during last two decades there has been low rate of female labour force participation (FLP) in India. This has been the recent issue that have to be looked into thoroughly. More than in any other area, it is in the recording of the work done by women that serious inaccuracies and measurement failure occurs. As a result, participation of women in the economic activities in developing countries in general and in India in particular is undermined.

The experience from other countries suggests that the combined effect of economic growth, rising educational label among women and falling fertility rates leads to increasing participation of women in labour force. India's rate of economic growth has averaged over 6 per cent since 1991, female literacy rate of women has increased from 53.7 per cent in 2001 to 64.5 per cent in 2011, and total fertility rate has fallen from 3.71 in 1990 to 2.50 in 2012. In spite of this, female workforce participation rates fell from 33.1 per cent in 1977-78 to 26.1 per cent in 2009-10 for rural females and from 15.6 per cent in 1977-78 to 13.8 per cent in 2009-2010 for urban females (using employment in principal and subsidiary status, see Himanshu (2011).

Census after Census, women's contribution has been rendered invisible by failing to quantify their work inputs, especially in agriculture and the unorganized sector. There are basically two kinds of work. Work for which payment is received and work for which no payment is made. Women are known to work longer hours than men and to participate in the work force to a far greater extent than is measured by the data gathered in the census. But a lot of the work they do is unrecognized, leave alone rewarded with equal remuneration. Traditionally, men spend most of their time on tasks for which payment is received or tasks that are clearly within the realm of "economic activity" (Mehta, 2000). However, while a large number of women work outside the home and are remunerated for the work they do, most women spend several hours doing work for which no payment is received. This seems as a disguised exclusion of rural women from the mainstream of economy. The effort of the present paper is to only investigate and share our field experiences of this fact from Rural North India.

Assistant Professor in Economics, DAV PG College, BHU, Varanasi, U.P., India and Adjunct Professor, IDS.
Professor in Socio Economics, University of Manchester, U.K.
Professor in Economics , CSRD, JNU , New Delhi.
Post Doctoral Fellow, CSRD, JNU, New Delhi, India.

(The first version of this paper entitled "Quantifying the Unpaid Households Women: Experience from Time use Survey in North India" has been presented in the ESRC-DFID Joint Fund for Poverty Alleviation Research Conference: "Lessons from a Decade's Research on Poverty: Innovation, Engagement and Impact" On 16th - 18th March 2016, Pretoria, South Africa)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference presentation at the International Association for Feminist Economics, Galway, Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Labour and Marital Negotiation of Work Patterns in Rural North India and Bangladesh

By Wendy Olsen, Anup Mishra, Santosh Kumar Singh, Simeen Mahmud, Maheen Sultan, Sohela Nazneen, and Daniel Neff. Those who did field work will also be acknowledged in the paper.

Keywords rural employment, habitus, discourse, work, marriage, negotiation, couples, India, Bangladesh.

JEL codes J31 J70
Abstract:
In rural north central India and Bangladesh, the prevalent rural pattern is that when woman have children, they "withdraw" from the labour market. We are researching the question: if a woman's role is socially normed to include market work, does a man's activity basket adjust to allow for that? Do their two sets of activities 'fit' well together?
Time-use data show the women working considerable amounts on farm plots and with livestock. Thus it was ideological and a masking strategy for elites to describe the women as 'not in the labour force' or as housewives. Interview data shows widespread lip service to a command/submit pattern in marriages, but in reality, many women and men often negotiate about work duties. As Bourdieu advises, we trace the antifeminist command/submit marital discourse through Bengali and Indian history. Discourse contradicts the reality. Still, the doxa of patriarchy affect the current habitus.
We measured women's overall subjective well-being, comparing widows with other rural women. We consider this both at the ideological level and at the deeper level of resources. Some widows had a more reflective, active life than younger wives.
We test whether women's egalitarian attitudes about work are associated with wealth, land ownership, or doing more work. We transcend the neoclassical human capital approach. We test whether egalitarian women work more (or less) minutes per-day in 2014/5. In villages, demographic features affecting women, like having children, disability, or bad health, are converted into socially normative constraints upon women, yet many people do resist the patriarchal habitus.
Rural local data from 2015/6 about rural and urban labour markets, or particular sectors, will be presented. We use both standard mixed methods and innovative methods. We have time-use diary data for rural India and we also carried out a discourse analysis of interviews translated into English then brought into correspondence with a wide-ranging survey from the same set of 900 rural Indian & Bangladeshi Households.

These findings reflect a research project "Gender Norms, Labour Supply and Poverty Reduction in Bangladesh and India". This exciting project is funded by ESRC DFID.

We combined in one survey the evidence about people's attitudes about gendered work stereotypes alongside measures of work-time in rural India and Bangladesh. We thus discuss our measures of the social differentiation of work (in rural areas with many poor people) in conjunction with attitudes about women's work.

To join our mailing list and get Briefing Papers from this project, please send a short email to wendy.olsen@manchester.ac.uk. Briefings are currently available on Ethics, Sampling, and Factor Analysis. We expect to produce briefings on Mixing Data with Keyness and Discourse Analysis later in 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference presentation: Development Studies Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Conference Paper Abstract
Well-Being Methodology for Studying Well-Being of Poor People In Bangladesh
Our research in Bangladesh shows a dynamic, morphogenetic situation for survey and interview data on Subjective Well-Being. We theorise how the well-being survey data relate to interview data. We triangulate using time-use diary data. Women in villages suffer considerable threats to their self-respect.
Authors: Samantha Watson, Wendy Olsen, Daniel Neff, Simeen Mahmud, Maheen Sultan, Sohela Nazneen, Amaresh Dubey, Anup Mishra, and Santosh Kumar Singh.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference presentation: Work, Employment and Society Conference, Leeds, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Labour and Marital Negotiation of Work Patterns in Rural North India and Bangladesh

By Wendy Olsen, Anup Mishra, Santosh Kumar Singh, Simeen Mahmud, Maheen Sultan, Sohela Nazneen, and Daniel Neff.
Keywords rural employment, habitus, discourse.

Abstract:
In rural north central India and Bangladesh, the prevalent rural pattern is that when woman have children, they "withdraw" from the labour market. We are researching the question: if a woman's role is socially normed to include market work, does a man's activity basket adjust to allow for that? Do their two sets of activities 'fit' well together?
Time-use data show the women working considerable amounts on farm plots and with livestock. Thus it was ideological and a masking strategy for elites to describe the women as 'not in the labour force' or as housewives. Interview data shows widespread lip service to a command/submit pattern in marriages, but in reality, many women and men often negotiate about work duties. As Bourdieu advises, we trace the antifeminist command/submit marital discourse through Bengali and Indian history. Discourse contradicts the reality. Still, the doxa of patriarchy affect the current habitus. We consider the social status and stigma attached to 'working outside the home', both at the ideological level and at the deeper level of resources. Some widows had a more reflective, active life than younger wives. We test whether women's egalitarian attitudes about work are associated with wealth, land ownership, or doing more work. We transcend the neoclassical human capital approach. We test whether egalitarian women work more (or less) minutes per-day in 2014/5. In villages, demographic features affecting women, like having children, disability, or bad health, are converted into socially normative constraints upon women, yet many people do resist the patriarchal habitus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Dhaka Training Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact We held two informal training workshops of 3 hours each in the BRAC, in Brac University (a private University), Dhaka. The topics were: How to analyse qualitative data; and how to use Excel and NVIVO to analyse the keyness or centrality of certain terms, and then conduct a discourse analysis. The workshops attracted researchers from different parts of BRAC with 9 people taking part in total.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Expert Training at Edinburgh on Qualitative Comparative Analysis (1 day) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact QCA Training Day
This training day of 5-6 hours included:
Introduction
NVIVO for coding up cases
fsQCA freeware for crisp set sufficiency testing
Excel Spreadsheet examples to illustrate
Necessary causes
and
Fuzzy set social science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Impact Initiative International Meeting in London With Parliamentary Cross-Party Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact "What Can We Learn From Development Success in Bangladesh?"
Tuesday Feb. 28, 2017
London
This one-hour meeting in the Houses of Parliament involved Members of Parliament, press, academic experts and most of our international research team (Profs. Dubey, Mahmud, Olsen, Drs. Nazneen and Sultan, and others), meeting with the chief of staff of the Asia department of the Department for International Development. We met both formally and informally over a 3-day, 2-nights period.

Funded by ESRC and DFID Strategic Partnership. Partnership with IDS and Sussex and the Cambridge REAL.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Impact Workshop (DFID 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 45 people attended my Gender Impact workshop session of one hour, and this was part of a whole day spent sharing Impact enhancement methodologies.

More enquiries to have me do consultancy (Vietnam, schools in NW England) and capacity building (one-hour lecture on mixed methods).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.esrc.ac.uk/_images/workshop-background-text_tcm8-32235.pdf
 
Description Key Stake Holder Workshop on ESRC DFID-Funded Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gender Norms, Labour Supply and Poverty Reduction in Comparative Context - Key Stakeholder Workshop.

Participants
The workshop was attended by Academicians, Research scholars, NGOs and other stakeholders (women workers doing odd jobs). The list of participants is attached as Annexure 1.

The Workshop
Prof. Amaresh Dubey opened the session by welcoming the participants. He also introduced the key speaker in the workshop, Professor Wendy Olsen, Manchester University and steered a round of formal introduction of the participants reaserch team.

The session started with a by Prof. Amaresh Dubey.This was followed by a detailed presentation by Professor Wendy Olsen. Professor Olsen's presentation elicited very lively response from the participants in the workshop. A summary of the main points of discussion is presented below.

Prof. Nripendra Kumar Mishra (Banaras Hindu University) pointed out the diversified status of the Indian society. Ms. Mitali Gupta (research scholar, BHU) asked why the FLP fell down during 2004-05 to 2009-10 in Indian labour market. Mr. Pawan Kumar Singh, research scholar raised question about women empowerment. Mr. Nilesh Kumar Singh research scholar discussed the role of women in decision making.

The spread of economists and statisticians present is illustrated by this selection of participants' job titles:
Prof. Nripendra Kumar Mishra Dept. of Economics, B.H.U. Varanasi, UP, India
Dr. Anup Kumar Mishra Dept. of Economics, DAV PG College, B.H.U., Varanasi
Dr. Raman Pant Dept. of Statistics, MGKVP, Varanasi
Ms. Bharati Kuril M.G.K.V.P. University, Varanasi
Dr. Santosh Kumar Singh Research Consultant, IIDS, Delhi
Dr. Sharad Kumar Singh T.D. College, Jaunpur
Dr. Neeta Singh Dept. of Economics, T.D., College, Jaunpur
Another 10 people were present, and six female workers from the locality also joined the discussion for 2 hours of the 3-hour long Workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Keyness and Discourse Intertextuality in Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact : Keyness and Discourse Intertextuality in Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research.

By Wendy Olsen with Samantha Watson and John McLoughlin. Abstract:

The need for a dispassionate approach to analysing mixed methods data led me to using NVIVO in combination with the British National Corpus. The latter covers varied uses of English, and we examine the prevalence of words in our own Qualitative Corpus versus the BNC. Next codes in NVIVO reflect the 30 words surrounding each high-prevalence 'keyword' based on Touri and Koteyko (IJSRM, 18:6, 2015). Research teams can agree on this overview of keywords, then conduct discourse analysis, in-depth hermeneutics etc. on a part of these findings. We can discover the presence of intertextuality, examine which cases use which discourses, and check on the absence of certain discursive features. Overall it offers rigour and transparency. The method gives a high level of confidence that a research team has a sense of all the key issues and themes in a set of qualitative materials. The confidence in the balanced attention to topics and discourses is high when compared with the usual method where individuals glance at a few sets of pages (perhaps 40 pages out of 1000 in a typical corpus of 20 Semi-Structured Interviews, with 50 pages per interview). The individual researcher may find 5 intriguing themes in these 40 pages. However what is missed is any sense of the presence/absence and the relative prevalence of intertextuality across the whole range of the materials. In this paper we summarise the findings from matrix coding queries for a set of 35 South Indian interviews that were translated into English from Telugu around 2006-7.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Keyness and Discourse Intertextuality in Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research: A Talk Given in Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Keyness and Discourse Intertextuality in Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research.

By Wendy Olsen with Samantha Watson and John McLoughlin
(video was made, and offered on the internet from this lecture, which was part of the panel of 3 who each spoke on RIgour, Breadth and Quality in Longitudinal Qualitative Research)

Abstract: The need for a dispassionate approach to analysing mixed methods data led me to using NVIVO in combination with the British National Corpus. The latter covers varied uses of English, and we examine the prevalence of words in our own Qualitative Corpus versus the BNC. Next codes in NVIVO reflect the 30 words surrounding each high-prevalence 'keyword' based on Touri and Koteyko (IJSRM, 18:6, 2015). Research teams can agree on this overview of keywords, then conduct discourse analysis, in-depth hermeneutics etc. on a part of these findings. We can discover the presence of intertextuality, examine which cases use which discourses, and check on the absence of certain discursive features. Overall it offers rigour and transparency. The method gives a high level of confidence that a research team has a sense of all the key issues and themes in a set of qualitative materials. The confidence in the balanced attention to topics and discourses is high when compared with the usual method where individuals glance at a few sets of pages (perhaps 40 pages out of 1000 in a typical corpus of 20 Semi-Structured Interviews, with 50 pages per interview). The individual researcher may find 5 intriguing themes in these 40 pages. However what is missed is any sense of the presence/absence and the relative prevalence of intertextuality across the whole range of the materials. In this paper we summarise the findings from matrix coding queries for a set of 35 South Indian interviews that were translated into English from Telugu around 2006-7.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sociology.ed.ac.uk/events/other_events/2015_2016/big_qualidata_tackling_analysis_of_very_...
 
Description Keynote 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on Social policy in India at the India Study Center, Hochschule Bremen on the 15.05.2017 at the invitation of Dr. Shazia Wülbers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paper for Conference of the Indian Society for Labour Economics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference Presentation
"Work of Women is Affected by Norms About Gender Roles in India and Bangladesh"
Abstract
In response to a decline in Indian rural women's formal labour supply, this paper explores attitudes and norms about gender in northern central states of India alongside Bangladesh. The specific coverage of the paper is 1995-2012 including five states of India: Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Chattisgarh. The first part of the paper explores attitudes using a sociological concept of a social norm, against which an individual's attitude may vary toward a more, or less, egalitarian approach to women's roles. The second discovers a positive association of the more egalitarian attitudes of women to their own prevalence in paid work and self-employment. Our baseline for work status is inactivity. In spite of doubts about the accuracy of measurement of remunerated work, this study is able (convincingly) to show two findings. First, that all of this region of India has social norms which are less favourable to women's equality with men than any part of Bangladesh. Second, that attitudes within the area vary sufficiently for women's agency to be both possible, and even encouraged, vis-a-vis their array of different kinds of work both inside and outside the home and farm. We conclude with suggestions for further research to explore social change over time in this phenomenon of social heterogeneity of attitudes. Such research is central to economics, and does not belong only in other disciplines such as sociology.
We use the Demographic and Health Survey data (in India, National Family and Health Survey) alongside the smaller World Values Survey.
Authors Wendy Olsen1, Amaresh Dubey2, Nik Loynes3, Anup K Mishra4, Daniel Neff5, Santosh K Singh6, Samantha Watson7, and Min Zhang8.
Author for contacts wendy.olsen@manchester.ac.uk, Room G20, Humanities Building, Social Statistics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL
1 Professor of Socio Economics, University of Manchester, U.K.
2 Professor of Economics, Centre for the study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
3 Research Associate and PhD Student, Department of Politics and Cathie Marsh Institute for Social Research, University of Manchester, UK.
4 Assistant Professor in Economics, DAV PG College, BHU, Varanasi, U.P., India and Adjunct Professor, Indian Institute for Dalit Studies, Delhi
5 Post Doctoral Fellow, CSRD, JNU, New Delhi, India
6 Research Fellow, GIGA Institute of Asian Studies, Hamburg
7 Assistant Professor, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
8 Research Associate and PhD Student, Cathie Marsh Institute for Social Research, University of Manchester, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk and debate with Marc Saxer at the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation, Berlin broadly on the future of work in India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at India week Hamburg 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presantation on the social and economic situation of Scheduled Tribes in India at the India week Hamburg 2017 at the invitation of Prof. Dr. Tatjana Oranskaia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Qualitative Research Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop introduced participants to use NVivo software in analysing transcripts of semi-structured interviews by applying a new method of discourse analysis. This method selects the prevalent keywords, groups them into sets, interprets these discourses and examines the underlying structural location of the speaker/producer of each passage. The workshop will show us know how to examine the strategic aspect of the speaker's intentions when they utter a phrase. As a mixture of automatic coding and human interpretation is recommended for NVivo, mixed-methods with demographic data is strongly recommended in this workshop. It will show the case-based coded matrix of case characteristics, to which it adds the salient and strategic discourse usage of each speaker.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit to present a paper at Glasgow's International Development Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Work of Women is Affected by Norms About Gender Roles in India and Bangladesh

Authors Wendy Olsen1, Amaresh Dubey2, Nik Loynes3, Anup K Mishra4, Daniel Neff5, Santosh K Singh6, Samantha Watson7, and Min Zhang8.
•Author for contacts wendy.olsen@manchester.ac.uk, Room G20, Humanities Building, Social Statistics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL
•1 Professor of Socio Economics, University of Manchester, U.K.
•2 Professor of Economics, Centre for the study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
•3 Research Associate and PhD Student, Department of Politics and Cathie Marsh Institute for Social Research, University of Manchester, UK.
•4 Assistant Professor in Economics, DAV PG College, BHU, Varanasi, U.P., India and Adjunct Professor, Indian Institute for Dalit Studies, Delhi
•5 Post Doctoral Fellow, CSRD, JNU, New Delhi, India
•6 Research Fellow, GIGA Institute of Asian Studies, Hamburg
•7 Assistant Professor, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
•8 Research Associate and PhD Student, Cathie Marsh Institute for Social Research, University of Manchester, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/research/az/gcid/
 
Description Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshop on "Applying mixed-methods: Studying work in South Asia", held on the 14th of June 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/event/applying-mixed-methods-studying-work-in-asia