The Long Run: Contemporary Performance Practice and Endurance Running

Lead Research Organisation: Falmouth University
Department Name: The Academy of Music & Theatre Arts

Abstract

'As a body-cultural phenomena running has eluded serious study in the humanities...' John Bale, Running Cultures, Routledge, 2004, p1

For 12 years my practice, located in the field of contemporary performance, has focused on ideas of travel, journey and context, often operating across extended timeframes; elements of duration and physical 'endurance' have been central to my work. My other areas of enquiry include performance for public space, the social impact of context-specific performance, and performance and narrative. My practice can be framed as a body-cultural enquiry: the deployment of the human body (often the performer's own) as a catalyst for - and site of - cultural phenomena. Performance art, live art, and specific parts of theatrical, visual and textual practice - contexts my work operates across - can be framed as body-cultural enquiries.

Through critical examination of my own practice and substantial exposure to the broader field, I have identified a key problematic that has been widely overlooked, perhaps due its apparent utilitarian yet complex nature. As a mode of practical enquiry that deploys the human body as its central site of investigation, the field is yet to undertake serious investigation into an activity that - many argue - defines both the cultural history and the present physical form of the human body: running, more specifically endurance running. The relevance of this problematic is thrown into sharp relief by the neighbouring fields of contemporary biology and anthropology, which for two decades have engaged in research on endurance running, resulting in a near complete rewriting of the socio-cultural place of running and the history of the human body; an event to which body-cultural enquiries in the arts are yet to seriously respond.

'Endurance Running Hypothesis', as proposed by Bramble and Lieberman (University of Utah and Harvard University respectively), frames human survival and the evolution of the human body as products of our ability to run considerable distances, typically between twenty and three hundred miles. The hypothesis is linked to persistence hunting, in which prey is exhausted by being outrun. This is how the light Homo sapiens survived when the heavier Neanderthals did not. We are human, the hypothesis implies, because we ran, and we continue to inhabit the bodies of endurance runners.

A critical question for contemporary performance practice emerges from this hypothesis: how does a body-based field of cultural enquiry, especially one such as mine that specifically approaches ideas of endurance and travel, respond to this framing of the human body as an endurance running body? The question is not whether endurance running can be discussed in terms of being 'art', rather what knowledge can be gained by using endurance running as a mode and site of performance-based research.

The programme takes my practical investigations as a model and operates across the schools of Arts and Humanities, Biomedical and Health Sciences, and Physical Sciences and Engineering at King's College London. Mentored by Professor of Theatre Alan Read the fellowship will establish creative dialogue between the specialisms of performance studies, literature, biology, biomechanical engineering and anatomical studies. Practical exploration will produce three professional performance outcomes. Discursive and analytical enquiries will inform and review the research through two papers and a seminar series located at the Anatomy Theatre & Museum - a live and 'digital' space for interdisciplinary performance research at King's. The programme's objective is to create a body of practical research on endurance running as a mode and site of performance enquiry that not only contributes to contemporary performance practice's study of endurance, but impacts across the public realm and related acad

Planned Impact

The research will be beneficial to the following 4 key contexts:

1.National and international artists, professionals, professional bodies and academics in the field of contemporary performance practice/research (including performance art, live art and specific parts of theatrical, textual and visual arts practice). These include, but are not limited to:

Professionals and professional bodies:
The Live Art Development Agency, UK
FADO - Performance Art Centre, CA
Louise Jefferies, The Barbican, UK
New Work Network, UK
Kristy Edmonds, Park Avenue Armory, US
Sven Åge Birkeland, BIT Teatergarasjen, NO
Chuck Helm, The Wexner Centre for the Arts, US

Artists:
Essi Kausalainen, FI
Ivana Muller, HR
Bak Truppen, NO
Adele Prince, UK
Martin O'Brien, UK
Anti Laitinen, FI
Stephine Nadeau, US
Gwendoline Robin, BE
Augusto Corrieri, IT/UK
Search Party, UK
Martin Creed, UK
Franko B, UK
Panther, AU
Regin Igloria, US

2.Academics involved in research on Endurance Running Hypothesis, biomechanical engineering and anatomical studies
3.Academics involved in literary/cultural study
4.The general public

Artists, academics, professionals and professional bodies in the field of contemporary performance practice will benefit from research on the body's relationship to 'endurance'. Although endurance - and duration - are both central areas in much body-based practice/research very little emphasis has been placed on our physical relationship to such activities, and no work, to date, has taken place on Endurance Running Hypothesis's reframing of the human body as a running body. Academics in the field of literary/cultural practice and those in biomechanical and anatomical research will benefit from a unique dialogue with a practising artist - creating a valuable investigation into the cultural agency of endurance running.

All beneficiaries, including the general public, will encounter the research through attending - or by accessing documentatin of - three performance outcomes and by attending - or by accessing online - a series of four seminars. The performance works will take place in public space, engendering public discussion on endurance, journey and travel, health and fitness and the socio-cultural place of endurance running. A seminar and performance event will take place during London's hosting of the Olympic marathon, capitalising on interest in endurance running and ideas of running as public urban spectacle.

The fellowship will be launched at an evening seminar in King's Anatomy & Theatre Museum. All outcome events - the seminar series and performance works - will be open to academics, related professionals and the general public. Outcomes will be widely publicised; print and e-flyers will be circulated; national media (including specialist running publications and websites) will be notified as will all related e-lists and discussion groups; all national and international beneficiaries listed here will be notified and invited.

The academic community and the general public will be further engaged through the publication of two research papers; extracts from these are expected to appear in popular running magazines, widening public awareness of the programme. The programme's website will be extensively networked across all relevant academic, performance-based and public/running contexts. The site will carry live broadcast and recorded documentation of both the research processes and its outcomes.

I have a proven track record of delivering performance outcomes and related activities to a wide national and international audience. Past performances works, similar in size and scope to those proposed here, have received live audiences of over 10,000 people per project and have been widely covered by national and international media alongside academic publications/journals and conferences.

Publications

10 25 50

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
AH/H033386/1 01/09/2010 26/01/2014 £220,639
AH/H033386/2 Transfer AH/H033386/1 26/04/2014 31/07/2017 £98,600
 
Title 2015 ANTI Contemporary Art Festival (running programme) 
Description 2015 ANTI Contemporary Art Festival, Kuopio, Finland, founded in 2002, is one of the world's leading presenters of contemporary performance and live art. The 2015 edition of the festival (01/09/15 -06/09/15) was created in partnership with the fellowship award and was itself produced in collaboration with Kuopio Marathon - this was my initiative and grew from research conducted through the course of the fellowship. The festival's programme responded to the themes and environment of the marathon (the two events occurred at the same time, across the same city). In a programme of 11 international works and new commissions, all responding to ideas of social participation and physical endurance 4 of those were running specific, and it's those 4, as part of the broader festival that are presented here as a set of curatorial outcomes: All The Queen's Men, Fun Run, Vicki Weitz, Running Beyond Language, Sandra Hall, Coming Back and Kai Syng Tan and Alan Latham ANTI-ADULT RUN! RUN! RUN! MASTERCLASS. We are currently editing video material of those works, for dissemination across various networks, an initial, rough-cut, can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbnjqQeptaM&feature=youtu.be Programme information on each project is listed below. http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?anti-adult-run-run-run-masterclass-antiadultrun/ http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?coming-back/ http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?fun-run/ http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?running-beyond-language/ 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact The projects/festival had considerable impact on the event's national and international audience across the festival week. A broad public audience of 10,000 encountered the projects in public space, with each project taking place in everyday city environments. Three of the projects were presented across considerable time periods. Vicki Weitz's Fun Run comprised a 24-hour durational run, Sandra Hall's video work Coming Back played on loop throughout the festival in public space and All The Queen's Men Fun Run occupied the city's market square for some five hours. These durational works created manifold opportunities for audiences to engage with their presence and proposition. All of the works had a participatory element: Kai Syng Tan and Alan Latham worked with a group of local children to deliver their work, Vicki Weitz invited Kuopio residents to run with her across the 24 hours, Sandra Hall worked with local runners to realise her video work and Fun Run engaged numerous local groups and clubs, folding them into the fabric of their arresting live work. In all these projects, focused on running were built around participatory and socially-impactful strategies and ambitions, offering a considerable public audience the opportunity to rethink the cultural, and social value, and agency, of running. A remote audience of many thousands followed the projects online (Running Beyond Language was streamed live for the full 24 hours) and across social media. Further audiences, including performance academics, performance markers and researchers from human and cultural geography, are encountering the work via dissemination of festival documentation. 
URL http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/
 
Title 33 Miles And Counting 
Description A running-based performance which was undertook as an exercise to produce writing, a text, that mapped both the run (a 50K Ultra Marathon through the wilds of Wiltshire) and the 'run' or the 'course' of my research to date. The performance-text, both a document of the live action and the contextual concerns of the broader research project was eventually published as 'Running Through a Field', in Performance Research: A Journal of the Performing Arts, 17:2, 110-120 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact The performance/text has had a considerable impact through it's publication (as above). The text constitutes one of the first mappings of potential of running as site of performance research and as such has led to a number of important invitations to speak at various conferences and events etc. In many ways it announced the presence of my research to the wider contemporary performance community. 
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13528165.2012.671079
 
Title Conversational Pace 
Description A playful essaying of the activities of an informal, amateur, running group based in West Cornwall. The short film is the result of a residency with the running group and is built, on the whole, from (in terms of narration), conversations made and maintained while running. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The film will appear publicly on the Like The Wind magazine TV pages, ensuring a broad and global running-specific audience for the work. 
URL https://www.likethewindmagazine.com/ltwtv/
 
Title The Message: 20 Miles and Counting 
Description A video work essaying the historical activity of message carrying by runners conflated with a contemporary reading of the runner as one engaged in exercise/competition. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact The piece is currently in use as tool to describe to a group of runners how I, as an artist, might work collaboratively with them on a further video work. Both pieces will then form a publicly sited diptych. 
 
Description This Fellowship in the Creative and Performing Arts was focused on a series of research activities (practice-based, discursive, analytical) that explored the potential of apprehending endurance running as a context and site of enquiry for body-based performance practices. A related field of performance-focused disciplines where identified - performance art, live art, and specific parts of theatrical, visual and textual practice - and looked at, and worked with, in terms of their possible relationship, uses of, and resonances with endurance running. Part of that research surveyed contemporary performative approaches on running made by performance-makers - and was shared across articles, conference and seminar papers; and part used creative work, my own and that of others curated by the project and shared across a number of public-facing cultural events and platforms.
What was the most significant achievement of the award? The Fellowship's key achievement lies in the articulation, from the perspective of contemporary performance practice, of a cultural turn in the apprehension and reappraisal of running and its socio-cultural functions. The initial point of departure for this project was located in sports-sociologist John Bale's proposition that running was yet to receive serious critical attention in the humanities. The research enabled by the award forms a significant contribution to what might now, these years later, be termed - in regard to academic enquiry - as 'running studies', and whereas previously such studies would more usually feature the physiological, the biological and the bio-mechanical etc. this research and allied activities that appeared during its course (particularly in the social sciences), have firmly established an understanding of the importance, and value, of a cultural paradigm in our thinking around running. This development is particularly exciting and potentially impactful around ideas of culture, and the arts', contribution to furthering social well-being and public health agendas and imperatives - an area my ongoing research, as informed by this award, is currently engaged with.
Alongside the above achievement other key, and related, findings include identifying a significant, and growing, number of performance-makers whose work moves beyond representations of running and instead uses the physical, body-based, materiality of the act in their work, as both a form of presentation and its content. This work is currently forming the basis of an in-progress book on such practices. In relation to the above a key finding can also be identified in understanding and sharing the value and contribution creative-practice can make to those engaged in the cultural turn in running studies; this feels to be a significant finding, that disciplines such as Cultural Geography, Ethnography, Cultural Anthropology and the such, can draw valuable parallels between contemporary performance practice and their own approaches to running and its cultural efficacy, agency and functions.
Exploitation Route Through various modes and contexts of dissemination the Fellowship's findings have been used by academics (across a number of fields, particularly Performance/Theatre Studies and Cultural Geography), performance-makers and other related actors: curators, cultural programmers, writers, artists and those involved in the sports-focused running sector. In response to an invitation by Dr Kai Syng Tan (Leeds College of Art) and Dr Alan Latham (UCL), to contribute to a conference event in 2014 we, along with the below, co-convened the Running Cultures Research Group, which includes Professor Hayden Lorimer (University of Glasgow), Dr Jennifer Lea (University of Exeter) and Dr Andrew Filmer (Aberystwyth University). The findings of this Fellowship project have been reflected in the work of the above group and has had impact on a number of recent papers in the social-social sciences (via citation). The discursive, academic, research, speaks to a number of disciplines engaged in apprehending the social and cultural impact of running. Across numerous outputs the research has shared a number of perspectives on what the beginnings of a cultural perspective of running might offer, in this case one developed through the lens of contemporary performance practice. Creative (practice-based) and curatorial research has had impact on the thinking and practices of those involved in programming and supporting artists' engagement with running and that involvement with, and from, those professionals is ongoing. Alongside the above I am also taking elements of the research forward; a book on the Fellowship project, although not an outcome listed in the initial proposal, is underway and a recent new funding bid has been submitted (to Catapult Satellite Applications) on how GPS-enabled wearable running technology, encounter through the Fellowship research, might be used to undertake relatively large-scale data analysis of the wellbeing of rural communities - which will considerably extend the reach and uses of the foundational research.
Sectors Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other

URL http://www.thelongrun.org.uk
 
Description The Long Run Fellowship partnered with ANTI Contemporary Art Festival (Kuopio, Finland) to curate and produce an international public programme of three performances and one video work- built from, or made in response to, running - by artists All The Queens Men (Australia), Vicki Weitz (UK), Sandra Hall (UK) and Kai Syng Tan and Alan Latham (UK). With a festival audience of over 10,000 the programme had considerable national and international reach and impact, in terms of audiences encountering the work and participating with it; each project had a participatory element, and via its dissemination through online documentation and live streaming. The programme was discussed widely across Finnish broadcast and print media. The programme was curated in collaboration with Kuopio Marathon, the two events ran concurrently, and thus members of the running community also encountered the projects and participated with them, creating a context of dual cultural and sports participation. The impact of the programme, shown across the ANTI Festival week (01/09/15 - 06/09/15) was on a broad public audience apprehending the agency, presence and potentials of running when framed in social and cultural terms and deployed as a creative act. 'Stage Flight', an article on artists who use running in their work, appears in the March 2017 edition of Runners World Magazine. The article profiles 5 UK and international artists, working in a range of media and forms. The content and focus of the article is relatively unusual for the context, which is primarily focused on pragmatic exercise and nutrition instruction/advice and human-interest narratives. Runners World is the leading UK running publication, with a combined digital and print circulation of 80,000 (monthly) and an average of 4,730,514 page views per 6 months (data as collected in 2013). The publication context provides substantial reach and potential public awareness and impact for the research. 'Conversational Pace' will appear on Like The Wind magazine's website, in the bespoke Like The Wind TV pages. Like The Wind is a specialist, short-run, globally distributed magazine and website created by runners for runners. The film 'Conversational Pace' essays the ambitions of an informal, amateur, running group based in West Cornwall and is a result of a residency with said group.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description ANTI Contemporary Art Festival Partnership 
Organisation ANTI Contemporary Arts Festival 2015
Country Finland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The 2015 edition of ANTI Contemporary Art Festival, Kuopio, Finland, was programmed and produced in collaboration with Kuopio Marathon (the marathon was not in formal partnership with my research, instead the festival and myself - as a single unit - collaborated with the marathon, under the banner of ANTI Contemporary Art festival). I initiated the relationship with Kuopio Marathon and ANTI Festival's focus on running - we commissioned and presented 3 international running-based performance works and 1 international running-based video work, alongside producing an international conference titled 'The Art of Endurance'. The festival had a boarder programme which I also directed (and have done for pervious editions of the festival) however it's the running-specific works that were produced through this partnership; the focus on endurance running was unique to this 2015 edition of the festival, as was the formal partnership between the festival and my fellowship, with the idea growing from my research conducted across the last 4 years. Against £1500 deployed from my fellowship budget the festival team and myself raised a further 20,00 Euro to commission and fund 4 substantial endurance running-based public art projects. As an internationally significant arts festival this constitutes considerable exposure and impact for the research.
Collaborator Contribution As an established cultural festival with an organisational infrastructure and various funding avenues the festival was able to raise funds (20,000 Euro) to commission and present 4 substantial running-based art projects alongside one international conference event. As an annual cultural event (with a 2015 global budget of 150,000 Euro) it provided my research with a substantial and broad specialist and public audience - one which would have been extremely difficult to achieve by solo effort. Various PR support etc. was provided by the festival alongside all production duties. The 2015 festival, itself a collaboration with a large-scale participatory sports event, constitutes a unique contribution to discourse around the meeting and potential common ground for arts and sport, where - in this instance - one adds cultural and economic value to the other.
Impact The outcome of this partnership realised the main programme to the 2015 ANTI Contemporary Arts Festival, which itself was programmed in collaboration with Kuopio Marathon. The various international projects presented at the festival were themselves inherently interdisciplinary, they included participatory/community arts practices, performance work, dance, video and text work - all with a focus on endurance running. The broader festival programme reflected these themes but those works not necessarily focused on running-related matters. And so it is these four projects, along with a conference, that can more specifically be termed outcomes (in a curatorial sense): http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?anti-adult-run-run-run-masterclass-antiadultrun/ http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?coming-back/ http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?fun-run/ http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?running-beyond-language/ http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?art-of-endurance-seminar/
Start Year 2014
 
Description Dialogue with Runners World Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contributing Editor, to Runners World Magazine, Sam Murphy made contact with myself to explore the possibility of producing content for the magazine featuring artists who use running in their work. The conversation ran for some months, and I made contact with a range of artists, internationally/nationally located, to begin looking at possible inclusion in an article or the such. An article was duly produced, by myself, and was published in the March 2017 edition of the magazine. Further to the impact made by its inclusion in the magazine, the best-selling UK running publication, Murphy's initial interest in the research is a welcome sign of its impact and visibility, and the resulting conversation around creative uses of running with the magazine is an indication of the potential public value of such work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.runnersworld.co.uk
 
Description Marathon Expo Presentation (Finland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A conversation/presentation with UK artist and Para Athlete Penny Andrews at Kuopio Marathon Expo 2015. The event was organised to present to the running community an athlete and artist working with running as a cultural and political activity alongside its physical/health benefits. This immediately engendered various conversations that were ongoing throughout the marathon weekend.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description My Life In Running - PechaKucha 20X20 Presentation, Finland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation given to the Kuopio, Finland, PechaKucha evening entitled My Life in Running. This excellent short-format series of talks by myself and other contributors to the 2015 ANTI Contemporary Art Festival was held in a city bar and thus reached a broad and substantial live audience. My presentation outlined the main focus points to my research and their relationship to the broader ANTI Festival programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.pechakucha.org/cities/kuopio/events/55d9a4eebfb6ff3a78000005
 
Description Organising Committee: Dangerous Currents: Risk and Regulation at the Interface of Medicine & the Arts, the Association for Medical Humanties 2015 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As a part of the organising committee for Dangerous Currents: Risk and Regulation at the Interface of Medicine & the Arts, the Association for Medical Humanties 2015 Conference: the event attended by members of the AMH from across the world paired medial practitioners from a range of disciplines with performance makers, whose concerns with the body, health, care and care-giving held resonance with their medical counter-parts. The event was curated through the lens of risk and regulation. A book, edited by Prof. Alan Bleakly, Dr.Larry Lynch and myself, collating and expanding on conference contributions will be published later in the year by Cambridge Scholars.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://amh.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/AMH-Conference-Brochure-3.pdf
 
Description Organising, and contributing to, Art of Endurance, ANTI Festival 2015 International Seminar, Finland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The seminar/conference discussed the potential shared areas of research on cultural/social participation, physical endurance and body-based practices between the arts and sport with specific focus on running. Contributors and titles: Matti Tainio (FI): Parallel Worlds (Keynote), Penny Andrews (UK): Speed Endurance, Kai Syng Tan & Alan Latham (UK): Running into Each Other: RUN! RUN! RUN! A Collaboration, Vicki Weitz (UK): Running Beyond Language , Heather Cassils (CA/US): Artist Talk, Pia Houni (FI): What Moves the Artist?. A panel conversation closed the event featuring the above and myself.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.antifestival.com/2015/eng/programme/?art-of-endurance-seminar/
 
Description Panel presentation with Penny Andrews, artist and Para Athlete at Dangerous Currents: Risk and Regulation at the Interface of Medicine & the Arts, the Association for Medical Humanties 2015 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation with artist and Para Athlete (T36 100m) on contemporary, popular, narratives of running and their problematic relationship to ideas of the 'natural born runner'. The presentation, a part of the panel Bodies Located and Dislocate, was given to Dangerous Currents: Risk and Regulation at the Interface of Medicine & the Arts, the Association for Medical Humanties 2015 Conference. I also chaired the panel.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://amh.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/AMH-Conference-Brochure-3.pdf