Living in Safety: the Culture of 'Safety' and Accident Prevention in Everyday Life in Britain, c.1900-2000

Lead Research Organisation: Oxford Brookes University
Department Name: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sci

Abstract

In 2009 the majority of Britons are fortunate to live their lives in relative safety - relative to other countries, and relative to the past. Despite this, many people perceive danger all around - whether from the threat of crime and terrorism, or from the risk of a road traffic accident or occupational injury. One of the techniques used to minimise danger is safety education, in which the media convey messages that try to persuade people to change their behaviour and adopt 'safe' habits. We see safety education every Christmas, for example, with the anti-drink/driving campaign on TV and radio, in cinemas, on posters and in newspapers. Social commentators complain that these campaigns represent the extension of the 'nanny state.' Yet, for all that it surrounds us everyday, no-one has stopped to examine the origins of safety education in Britain. This project does just that.

It explores how and why safety education started, and what techniques were employed to prevent accidents. Rather than the characteristically Victorian approach of stern warnings, using dense text and unfamiliar language, early in the twentieth century a new method was adopted: visually attractive, using photographs to show people what to and what not to do, it also used a friendly, persuasive tone of address. Accordingly, this project makes use of a range of appealing sources: films, posters, leaflets, booklets, badges, games, cigarette cards, and more. One of the aims of the project is to analyse how messages have been conveyed, something of particular importance given the continued use of safety education in today's Britain. It also sheds light on the role of the government in producing advisory messages for its citizens. This research will show how the state extended its influence into virtually all areas of life for many - if not all - people during the twentieth century.

The project concentrates on three areas: work safety, public safety, and home safety. For each, detailed case studies will be carried out to address the general issues noted above. Safety education started and was shaped in the workplace, so it is here that it took on characteristics now familiar to us all: the research will examine why employers tried to improve worker safety by using posters, films, pamphlets and the like (such as the Great Western Railway's 1914 'Safety Movement' booklet or the National Coal Board's 1978 'Do it the safety way' record, sung by Max Bygraves). By looking at public safety - specifically road safety - it will be possible to see how and why safety education reached audiences outside the workplace. This part of the research will draw on material such as the 'Tufty' and 'Green Cross Code' campaigns; it will explore how safety and safety education started to become part of everyday life. Finally, examining safety education intended for use at home (such as the 1962 'Safety in your Home' booklet) will show the extent to which the state tried to influence the most private areas of peoples' lives, and how there came to be no hiding place from safety education.

Through articles in the local and national press, media interviews and public lectures this research will make the origins of contemporary safety culture widely known. It will provide critical historical perspective on 'health and safety gone mad' stories, whilst enhancing people's ability to decode safety education's messages. Consultations with policy-makers and safety professionals (for example, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents) will raise awareness of past efforts and might suggest new approaches to improving safety. In the longer-term, there will be a public exhibition on the history of safety education; and it is hoped that the insights from this project will produce a larger, international collaborative research programme on the history of safety, stretching back earlier than the twentieth century, and involving specialists from disciplines beyond history.

Planned Impact

* Who will benefit from this research?
Beyond the academic beneficiaries and outputs, this project will have significant impact on two broad groups: the public and professionals/ policy-makers.

As virtually everyone has encountered safety education at some point in their daily life, research examining the origins of this phenomenon will attract public interest. The Impact Plan outlines in greater detail how I will ensure that public interest is generated and realised.

Organisations responsible for safety policy and producing safety education will also be interested in this research. This includes state bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the Central Office of Information, and quasi-autonomous bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA), the Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH), and the British Safety Council (BSC). Again, the Impact Plan provides further detail.


* How will they benefit from this research?
To the public, this research will explain the origins of contemporary safety culture. It will provide historical perspective and allow the public to come to an informed and critical perspective on 'health and safety gone mad' stories, whilst enhancing their ability to decode safety education's messages.

For professionals and policy-makers this research will add historical perspective that is often lacking. Although safety (and health) education has now been deployed in Britain for nearly 100 years, amongst professionals and policy-makers very little is known about educative efforts before the last twenty or thirty years. My findings will offer an opportunity to extend critically this limited institutional memory and to contribute to a longer-term assessment of the validity and success of educative techniques. This is particularly important in relation to the project's exploration of the ways in which the state interacts with its citizens. At the introduction of new educative techniques it is commonplace to hear comments about the 'nanny state' - despite the fact that education is advisory and the state (in general) cannot force people to follow it. My research allows insight into this trend and could offer alternative techniques for producing educative material palatable to the target audiences.


* What will be done to ensure that they benefit from this research?
- I will seek dialogue with policy-makers (for example the HSE) and organisations producing safety education (for example, RoSPA and the BSC), providing expert comment on safety and safety education
- To reach as many policy-makers as possible, I will work with the History and Policy network, an organisation connecting historians and policy-makers
- Through an exhibition, I will communicate my findings with a general audience. I have discussed staging an exhibition in 2013 with the National Railway Museum, to mark the 100th anniversary of the introduction of safety education in Britain, and am preparing the second stage of the proposal
- I will approach national and local newspapers, offering illustrated features emphasising those aspects of my research that are most relevant to the readerships
- I will seek opportunities to present my findings to lay audiences in person (for example, through local history groups)
- I will publish my findings in the newsletters and journals of these lay groups
- I will seek opportunities to discuss my findings with professional audiences (for example, IOSH or the BSC, with whom I have established relationships)
- I will present my findings in the publications of these professional groups
- Through Oxford Brookes' press office, I will provide press releases when my research yields findings and conclusions
- I will add my details to Oxford Brookes' consultancy list, ensuring availability for comment
- I will take advice from the Centre for Hea
 
Description This project has revealed the origins of Britain's modern safety culture: not the current obsession with 'elf 'n safety', but a more subtle concern with preventing accidents in daily life. Starting just before the First World War, it made use of safety education: the attempt to persuade people to change their behaviour and act safely.



Focusing on accidents at work, on the roads and in the home, the project has looked at the huge range of items conveying safety advice: from photographs, leaflets and posters, to messages on milk bottle tops, bars of soap and even on Christmas paper! One key finding has been just how widespread and inventive these accident prevention materials were. Tens, if not hundreds, of millions of items were produced and shared: at times it must have been hard to avoid safety education. Importantly, they tried to engage people's attention; they relied on psychological methods, and new technologies were used at an early stage - for example, safety films were made from 1916.



The range of people involved has also been astonishing: this was the 'big society' of its time. Safety activities were initially undertaken by private companies, for the benefit of their employees. With the coming of the motor car and the increase in road deaths, concerned individuals formed 'Safety First' groups to distribute road safety messages; these eventually became the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents. With the Second World War, the Government stepped in, forming the Ministry of Information (later the Central Office of Information) to produce and disseminate important messages to British citizens - including about safety. So, it can be seen that concern about safety and accident prevention was spread throughout British society for much of the twentieth century.



Another part of the project's findings has concentrated on the advice given in safety education. The messages have been remarkably consistent, stressing the individual's personal responsibility for safety. The messages were, unsurprisingly, highly gendered: for much of the period, women were shown as responsible for home safety and child safety, whereas men were responsible for safety at work and whilst driving. Young children - or their mothers - were also a major focus of accident prevention advice, particularly road safety material. Whilst all of these messages might have appeared to be neutral 'common sense,' they reflected the values of the day; so, in terms of road safety, until the end of the twentieth century roads were claimed to be places first and foremost for motorised vehicles and not for pedestrians or cyclists. These were not neutral messages; instead, they offered particular views on safety.



How did people respond to accident prevention activities? Initial findings suggest that many simply ignored safety education, and continued to do things as they wanted.



This brief project has only scraped the surface of accident prevention in Britain during the twentieth century. The topic has great potential for future research - particularly as it is something that continues to affect every person in the country to this day.
Exploitation Route Project research - into safety education and accident prevention in twentieth-century Britain - has great potential use outside academic history. For example, working with safety/ accident prevention organisations such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents and the British Safety Council may provide pathways to impact - I am currently working with both these organisations to explore the possibilities.



Perhaps most immediately, this would be in the worlds of policy and practice. My research has the potential to show what has been tried in the past to prevent accidents, and how these methods have fared. In meetings with practitioners carried out during the project lifespan I was able to demonstrate how some techniques currently being promoted as new ideas had been tried in the past - some as early as the 1920s. This would apply most directly in workplace safety and road safety, with groups including accident prevention charities, government committees of enquiry, and safety professionals (such as Road Safety Officers).



There is also great potential for public interest, capitalising on interest in and concern about the spread of 'health and safety culture,' as well as on the nostalgia factor, with campaigns such as the 'Green Cross Code', 'Charley Says', or Tufty the road safety squirrel fondly remembered by many people. This has been demonstrated in my 'BBC History Magazine' article on this topic (August 2011), and in my online exhibition produced for the National Railway Museum and focusing on railway safety (went live in November 2014). Public exhibition, therefore, seems to be an important potential use of this research.



Where possible I have started to make all of these links, although this has been a long-term process and is ongoing.



One of the problems the project has suffered from has been a fortunate one: an overabundance of sources. Safety education and accident prevention materials were so commonplace and widespread - tens, if not hundreds, of millions of items were produced and shared - that even though only a fraction of these items have survived, this has still represented a huge challenge. As a result, this project and its findings can only be considered a first look at a massive area. The scope for further research is enormous, and more detailed analytical work needs to be carried out - particularly in relating historical findings to contemporary concerns and to the needs of practitioners/ policy-makers, as well as in bringing this area to the attention of the public.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport

 
Description I have disseminated my findings widely, across a variety of public and practice-based outputs, with the result that they have been taken up by practice-based professional organisations (such as the British Safety Council and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents) as well as in the heritage sector (e.g. National Railway Museum). The direct impacts are, at this stage, often intangible, although the frequent requests for help, collaboration or assistance that I have received over the years from people and groups beyond the academic community suggests that my research has had an impact. Evidence gathered from events I have hosted suggests that my research changes people's opinions of health and safety. In the 2016-17 submission year, particular impacts were seen on three counts. Firstly, my work with the British Safety Council (BSC) on its 60th anniversary, including production of an illustrated book for the BSC's members (health and safety professionals) and the wider public, and providing general advice about digitising and making available its archive. Secondly, I was consulted by the London Road Safety Council on its centenary, and invited to give a presentation about using the past to understand the present at its centenary conference, held in January 2017 at London Guildhall. Thirdly, I worked with the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) on its centenary, including specific consultation over historical content and provision of content for the May 2017 exhibition at the Library of Birmingham. I have continued these relationships since and am working with these and other organisations on future collaborations.
First Year Of Impact 2010
Sector Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Policy & public services

 
Description Conference funding - Economic History Society & Wellcome Trust
Amount £3,274 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 10/2013
 
Description Research project funding - IOSH
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 07/2015
 
Description Symposium funding - Economic History Society
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic History Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2011 
End 07/2011
 
Description Symposium funding - Economic History Society
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic History Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2011 
End 07/2011
 
Description 'Railway Work, Life & Death' crowd-sourcing project 
Organisation National Railway Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have developed the idea and led the project, including developing (with in=house support from Portsmouth, including provision of server space) the project website. I have arranged for a series of state-produced railway worker accident reports to be made available electronically to volunteers, covering the period 1911-15. The data contained within these reports has been entered into a spreadsheet, which has been made publicly available. I have managed the data, including cleaning and checking it. I also run the project Twitter account.
Collaborator Contribution The NRM has provided the time and expertise of one of its Librarians, Karen Baker, and a vounteer coordinator, Craig Shaw. They have also put a team of 16 of their volunteers onto the project, contributing over 1,000 hours of time to make the data available.
Impact I have presented two papers based upon the project - recorded elsewhere (given at York in November 2016 and Lancaster in November 2017). The project spreadsheet has been made available publicly and features details of 3,911 railway worker accidents, of value to social and labour historians, railway enthusiasts, current-day industry representatives and museum curators. Since going live in August 2017, the website has received over 9,400 views, and the spreadsheet downloaded over 1,200 times from locations across the world (the UK and Ireland, the USA, Canada, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Spain, France, Russia, Finland, Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands). The Twitter account (launched in October 2017) has nearly 500 followers, including interactions with the Head of the Office of Rail and Road (the rail safety regulator), current rail workers, academics and the interested public. This project & the AHRC-funded project have, together, resulted in work with Network Rail (described elsewhere).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Academic advisor to the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents 
Organisation Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Recognising my research and its relevance to RoSPA's mission, and my experience of using its archive, I was invited to act as academic advisor on RoSPA's centenary planning committee. I provided guidance about outcomes and activities for the 2016-17 centenary, as well as material from RoSPA's archive. The committee was otherwise comprised of senior RoSPA staff from across the UK.
Collaborator Contribution RoSPA provided resources and access to its archives.
Impact The key output was a public exhibition at the Library of Birmingham, for which I was academic advisor, including providing suggestions of content.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Advisor to British Safety Council 
Organisation British Safety Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Arising from my research, I have since 2010 been working with the British Safety Council to try to demonstrate the importance of securing its archive and of opening it up for internal and external use. I have worked with a number of BSC officials to promote interest in the organisation's past and its archive, including discovering what archival material is held, a number of site visits, advice on how to understand the archive and on what to do with it, and a submission to the BSC's Board of Trustees outlining support for plans to move material into a formal archive. As a result of my work, the BSC Trustees have invested the money to digitally preserve their archive and make it publicly available (URL below). I have also provided substantial input into the BSC's 60th anniversary events, including preparing a book targeted at BSC members and the general public. This involved producing text and selecting images, contextualising the BSC; this was based upon my expertise accrued as a result of this project.
Collaborator Contribution The BSC have provided access to their holdings and their resources (including staff time), as well as covered the costs involved in the production of the 60th anniversary book.
Impact The archive has been scanned and made available to the public.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Co-organisation of amateur conference - 'Railway Work: then and now' 
Organisation Friends of The National Archives
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution On the basis of my research, arising from this project and from the paper I gave at the National Railway Museum's September 2015 conference (listed elsewhere), I was invited to co-organise a conference for amateur historians, based around the materials held at Kew at the National Archives and at York at the National Railway Museum. This took place in September 2016 and was very successful. I contributed the conference topic and was involved in selecting papers.
Collaborator Contribution FTNA are hosting the conference at their cost; both organisations are providing intellectual and organisational direction. I provided both practical organisational support and key decisions on the quality of presentations. I also gave one of the papers.
Impact N/a
Start Year 2015
 
Description Co-organisation of amateur conference - 'Railway Work: then and now' 
Organisation Friends of the National Railway Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution On the basis of my research, arising from this project and from the paper I gave at the National Railway Museum's September 2015 conference (listed elsewhere), I was invited to co-organise a conference for amateur historians, based around the materials held at Kew at the National Archives and at York at the National Railway Museum. This took place in September 2016 and was very successful. I contributed the conference topic and was involved in selecting papers.
Collaborator Contribution FTNA are hosting the conference at their cost; both organisations are providing intellectual and organisational direction. I provided both practical organisational support and key decisions on the quality of presentations. I also gave one of the papers.
Impact N/a
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Peter Itzen 
Organisation Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Country Germany 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution I worked with Dr Peter Itzen to develop a Marie Curie funding application, although this was, unfortunately, rejected in the current round. We intend to resubmit in the coming round. I worked with Peter and his postdoc over a three-day workshop in June 2016 to explore the European national contexts to ideas about risk and accidents in the twentieth century. This has fed into the book they are co-editing, and to which I am contributing a chapter.
Collaborator Contribution As well as collaborating on the intellectual direction of our work, Peter ihosted me at a 3-day workshop in Freiburg in June 2016.
Impact None, as yet.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Conference: 'Accidents and Emergencies: Risk, Welfare and Safety in Europe and North America, c.1750-2000' 
Organisation Oxford Brookes University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working with the project mentor, Dr Tom Crook, I co-organised a major three-day international conference devoted to the history of safety, accidents and risk. Keynote speakers were Professor Bill Luckin (University of Bolton, UK) and Dr Arwen Mohun (University of Delaware, USA). The conference took place in September 2013, at Oxford Brookes University; it was supported financially (and in kind) by Oxford Brookes and Portsmouth, the Wellcome Trust and the Economic History Society. The conference included a 'History and Policy' plenary session, with contributors from professional and policy sectors examining the potential value that history and historical case studies might have in an applied environment. This, and the keynote addresses, have been podcast (noted in an additional ROS entry).
Collaborator Contribution Oxford Brookes provided support in-kind through the use of facilities.
Impact A co-edited book, with Tom Crook, arising from this conference has now been published: Governing Risks in Modern Britain: Danger, Safety and Accidents, c. 1800-2000 (Palgrave, 2016). Includes co-authored introduction and conclusion.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Consultation about British Safety Council manifesto 'A Future Free from Harm' 
Organisation British Safety Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution In February 2012 I was approached by the British Safety Council (BSC), as a result of my contact with them over the project lifespan, and asked to comment on the draft manifesto that they are developing about workplace health and safety and that will be released to the public in April 2012. I was asked to consider whether there were changes that should be made and whether there were other major aims that the BSC should focus on. The BSC is an international charity.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Exhibition: 'Caution! Railway safety since 1913' 
Organisation National Railway Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have guest curated an online exhibition for the National Railway Museum (NRM) in York, on the history of railway worker safety and particularly safety education, based on my AHRC-funded research. I have provided all content, involving selection of items featured, discussion with curatorial staff at the NRM and provision of interpretive texts. I also provided images of some items not held by the NRM, including where necessary liaison with the relevant rights holder to secure clearances.
Collaborator Contribution The NRM have digitised images of many of the items involved in the exhibition, as well as providing the funding and technical support to enable the exhibition.
Impact Web-based exhibition exploring the history of railway worker safety: http://www.nrm.org.uk/OurCollection/health-safety/main.aspx The exhibition has been featured prominently on the NRM's website, and attracted over 1,100 views in the first 10 days (launched November 2014). In its first year it received over 23,000 views. The AHRC logo and acknowledgement features prominently at the foot of the first page - it is quite unusual for the NRM to do this, so this is a new move for them. One of the senior curatorial team also contacted me at the point of release to say that he was impressed with the exhibition and that this was the sort of thing (working with external partners) the NRM should be doing more of.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Formation of collaborative international academic network 
Organisation H-Net: Humanities & Social Sciences Online
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution At the April 2011 symposium I co-organised and co-hosted in Hagley (Delaware, USA), it became clear that the further development of the history of safety, accidents and risk was being held back by the lack of a single point around which scholars interested in these topics could gravitate. As a result, the establishment of an H-Net Group dedicated to the history of safety and risk was suggested; since then I have been working with the editors (particularly Dr Amy Gangloff) and advisory board to develop the Group. Although progress through H-Net's validation procedures was extremely slow going (for reasons beyond my/ our control at H-Net), we have been validated and launched (in May 2013) as 'H-Risk-and-Safety' - http://www.h-net.org/~risk/ Since then I have been working with the editorial and advisory team to sign up those who have expressed interest (approximately 90 academics, based in North America, Australia, and Europe) and to kick-start the group. The editorial team for the Group currently consists of Drs Amy Gangloff, Jamie Bronstein, Arwen Mohun and Mark Aldrich, all of whom are academic partners based in the USA, and Professor Bill Luckin (University of Bolton, UK).
Collaborator Contribution Dr Gangloff in particular has been working closely with me to steer the network through H-Net's validation procedure and get the network formally recognised; the other collaborators have provided input and advice.
Impact No formal published outputs, but the intention was to form a meeting place to bring scholars together, and this is ongoing.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Herefordshire Health & Safety Group - 50th anniversary 
Organisation Herefordshire Health and Safety Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution With an undergraduate student acting as researcher, we are researching the history of the Herefordshire Health and Safety Group (HHSG) as it approaches its 50th anniversary in 2018. With a graphic designer (a former University of Portsmouth student), we have produced a short commemorative booklet on the basis of this research, to be printed shortly and distributed to HHSG members later in 2018. I was contacted on the basis of my expertise gained during the AHRC project, via Roger Bibbings (a collaboration partner already recorded in this system).
Collaborator Contribution The HHSG is covering all research costs involved, and has provided access to all of its files.
Impact None as yet; more to come in the form of a booklet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Interaction with Catherine Harper 
Organisation University of Portsmouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution At my public lecture at the University of Portsmouth (6 November 2013, detailed elsewhere in ROS), I was introduced by Professor Catherine Harper, Dean of the Faculty of Creative and Cultural Industries (CCI). As a result of the lecture, she has extended an invite to come to CCI to discuss the implications of my historical research on contemporary practice. This is expected to take early in 2014.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Interaction with David Rooney 
Organisation Museum of Science and Industry (MOSI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution As a result of my research I was contacted by David Rooney (Curator of Transport, National Museum of Science and Industry), as he was researching congestion on urban roads in the twentieth century, a topic that was (and is) connected with road safety issues. I was able to make some suggestions, and we are remaining in contact.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Interaction with Janice Cave 
Organisation Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Through Roger Bibbings (interaction detailed elsewhere), I was put in touch with Janice Cave (Director of Public Affairs, Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents [RoSPA]). I met with her at RoSPA headquarters in Birmigham to discuss my work and possible future collaborations, and to view a cache of recently rediscovered safety posters. We will be keeping in touch to explore opportunities for future collaboration. In addition, as a result of this interaction I have provisionally been asked to contribute a chapter to a publication being planned on RoSPA's safety posters.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Interaction with Jean-Baptiste Fressoz 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I'd been aware of Dr Jean-Baptiste Fressoz's work on risk in the nineteenth century for some time, but through Thomas Le Roux (interaction detailed elsewhere) I was able to meet Fressoz and discuss common research interests. As a result, Fressoz is interested in joining the H-Risk and Safety group currently being established (detailed elsewhere); and I have been invited to present project research at Imperial College London in the next academic year.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Interaction with Jennifer Clark 
Organisation University of New England
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Following publicity for the 'Road Safety in History' symposium (detailed elsewhere), I was contacted by Dr Jennifer Clark (University of New England, Australia) as she was unable to attend the symposium. We have discussed research interests (particularly relating to road safety), and will remain in contact to discuss possibilities for deeper engagement in the future.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Jenny McWhirter 
Organisation Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I was given the contact details for Jenny McWhirter (RoSPA's Education Advisor) by Roger Bibbings (interaction noted elsewhere). I have contacted McWhirter to discuss the project, and to explore possible links with contemporary practice. As a result, I have provisionally been asked to present some of my findings to RoSPA's Safety and Risk Education Committee. When this happens I would hope to use the opportunity as a dialogue, to examine possible connections between past and present practices and potential ways for historical research to inform practice.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Julia Moses 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the seminar paper I gave at Oxford Brookes in March 2011 I was contacted by Dr Julia Moses (University of Sheffield). Her research concentrates on risk in late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century European society. Following our meeting in May 2011, I have been invited to participate in a two-day symposium on the history of risk that Julia is hosting in June 2012. Moses has also asked to join the H-Risk and Safety network (detailed elsewhere) when it launches later this year.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Kevin Thompson, Rail Safety and Standards Board 
Organisation Rail Safety and Standards Board
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Rail Safety and Standards Board (RSSB) is a not-for-profit company, operating across the rail industry in Britain to try to improve safety. Kevin Thompson was invited to my 'Danger on Film' screenings (detailed elsewhere on ROS), attending the Oxford showing because he wanted to consider how the material and my research might be applicable to the modern rail industry. As a result, we have since been discussing how it might be possible to make use of some of the films and material used in my introductory comments, particularly in relation to the RSSB's 'Learning from Operational Experience' programme.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Interaction with Lenore Layman 
Organisation Murdoch University
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A colleague introduced me (electronically) to Dr Lenore Layman (Murdoch University, Australia), who is researching safety and health in the Australian mining industry in the past. Although contact has so far been limited, we have made the initial connection, and Layman has requested to join the H-Risk and Safety network (detailed elsewhere) when it launches later this year. I will remain in contact with Layman and seek future collaboration as appropriate.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Marjan Hagenzieker 
Organisation Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Following the 'Road Safety in History' symposium (detailed elsewhere) I was contacted by Dr Marjan Hagenzieker (Technical University, Delft, Netherlands), who was interested in the proceedings of the symposium. Hagenzieker researches contemporary road safety and was seeking historical context. We have discussed research interests, and I will keep her informed about the publication resulting from the symposium, as well as looking for future collaborative efforts (such as a research network). As a result of this interaction, Hagenzieker was encouraged to submit a proposal for the September 2013 'Accidents and Emergencies' conference; she duly did so, and was accepted, presenting at the conference. She added a valuable contemporary layer to a meeting that was designed to bring academics (including, as in this case, going beyond the discipline of History), policy-makers and practitioners together.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Mary Sissons Joshi 
Organisation Oxford Brookes University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the public lecture delivered in December 2011 at Oxford Brookes (detailed elsewhere), I met and have remained in contact with Dr Mary Sissons Joshi, Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Oxford Brookes. She has interests in road safety, and particularly in risky practices. We are exploring possible areas of mutual interest.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Network Rail 
Organisation Network Rail Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Contacted by Network Rail on the basis of my research expertise, as they were looking to publicise the 100th anniversary of the safety campaign that has formed the basis of some of my research. I have had a number of meetings with Safety Improvement Specialists within Network Rail, to discuss future collaboration and to work on marking the 100th anniversary. This has involved discussion of my research and exploration of past safety initiatives and materials in relation to contemporary safety needs. This has led to my contribution to the Network Rail stand at the STEAM museum (detailed elsewhere on ROS) and my ongoing work with Network Rail to produce a new safety campaign, informed by past initiatives (currently 'in progress' on ROS). The AHRC has been credited throughout. Comments from one of Network Rail's Safety Improvement Specialists support the impact that my research has had. According to Becky Ray (10/10/13), my contributions to Network Rail's work on the 100th anniversary were 'invaluable': 'We were grateful that your research and knowledge into this topic has helped us run and exhibit a successful project as well as combining aspects of it with our overall Safety message to achieve a holistic approach.' She continued: 'I have been actively sending the resources we have produced out to the wider business and our Supply chain and I have had nothing but great feedback', and ends: 'this has a great impact on our safety community.'
Start Year 2013
 
Description Interaction with Peter Wilson 
Organisation Westminster City Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution As a result of my contact with the London Road Safety Council I was introduced to Peter Wilson (Road Safety Officer, Westminster City Council). I have met with him on a number of occasions, and invited him to the 'Road Safety in History' symposium (detailed elsewhere). Peter has proved an extremely useful and supportive ally, providing insight into contemporary road safety practices and a willingness to consider how historical context might be of use in current practice. He and I are both keen to make links between academic and practice worlds, and remain in contact to find ways that we might achieve this.
Collaborator Contribution Peter has provided expertise and access to key stakeholders.
Impact Peter has secured invites for me to discuss my research with Road Safety GB (listed elsewhere).
Start Year 2010
 
Description Interaction with Roger Bibbings 
Organisation Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Following my presentation to the London Road Safety Council's quarterly meeting (detailed elsewhere), I was put in contact with Roger Bibbings (Head of Occupational Safety at the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents [RoSPA]). I invited Roger to my public lecture (December 2011, detailed elsewhere), which he attended (and described as 'really excellent', and asked me to let him know when the Podcast was available). He subsequently invited me to attend the February meeting of the National Occupational Safety and Health Committee of RoSPA, a valuable link into the world of policy/ practice. He has also asked me to join the History of Safety and Health Working Group, a national group currently being formed to make the history of safety and health at work more visible and more easily accessible to practitioners and the public. I am continuing to work with this group, and with Roger, in order to bring project findings to the widest possible audience, and will look for ways to collaborate with RoSPA in the future. In addition, I invited Roger to represent RoSPA in the concluding 'History & Policy' roundtable at the September 2013 'Accidents and Emergencies' conference. This session brought together practitioners, policy-makers and academics to explore the value of history in informing current debates. Roger was unable to attend, but David Eves (former HSE, now working with RoSPA) attended in his place. The conference - and podcast of this session - are detailed elsewhere on ROS.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Steven Gunn 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Merton College
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Following up on the news that Dr Steven Gunn (Merton College, Oxford) had been awarded a four-year grant by the ESRC for his reseach into sixteenth-century British accidents, I set up a meeting to discuss our respective projects. Although widely separated chronologically, there are overlaps in topics, and we have remained in contact - Gunn attended my public lecture, and his postdoctoral fellow (Dr Tomasz Gromelski) attended the 'Road Safety in History' symposium. Both Gunn and Gromelski have asked to join the H-Risk and Safety network (detailed elsewhere) when it launches later this year - this is a particularly promising development as it helps to extend the chronological range of the network's interests, which bodes well for future collaborative work.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Thomas Le Roux 
Organisation National Center for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution At the end of the project's lifespan I discovered that a French project, looking at the history of industrial accidents and risk in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries had been awarded funding and that the Principal Investigator, Dr Thomas Le Roux, was based at the Masion Francaise in Oxford. I contacted him and invited him to my public lecture (December 2011). He attended, and we have met subsequently to discuss common interests and possible collaborative work. As a result of these interactions I have been invited to present a paper based on my project research in Paris in the next academic year; and I have been asked to consider whether I could make a contribution to Le Roux's end of project public exhibition (to be staged in Paris late in 2013). Le Roux has also introduced me to Dr Jean-Baptiste Fressoz, a French historian based at Imperial College London and exploring industrial risk in the nineteenth century (detailed elsewhere). In addition, I will be participating in a day symposium on accidents in history organised by Le Roux and taking place in June 2012; and Le Roux has asked to join the H-Risk and Safety network (detailed elsewhere) when it launches later this year.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Interaction with Tim Carter 
Organisation Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution Although I'd had contact with Tim Carter (Chief Medical Adviser, Maritime and Coastguard Agency, and Research Committee, Institution of Occupational Safety and Health [IOSH]) before the project started, we met during the project lifespan to discuss how history might be brought into current-day practice, and Tim encouraged me to apply for follow-on funding from IOSH. Although this application was unsuccessful, it was valuable in bringing me into greater contact with practitioners and in helping me to consider how to bring historical insight to bear on contemporary problems. I will continue to work with Tim to explore future possibilities. One of these possibilities was Tim's participation in the concluding 'History & Policy' roundtable at the September 2013 'Accidents and Emergencies' conference. This session brought together practitioners, policy-makers and academics to explore the value of history in informing current debates. The conference - and podcast of this session - are detailed elsewhere in ResearchFish and attached to this grant. Another of these possibilities was a further application to IOSH for funding - this time collaboratively, with a colleague at the University of Reading - for a project incorporating an historical element, aimed at contemporary policy-makers and health and safety practitioners. Detailed elsewhere in ResearchFish and attached to this grant.
Collaborator Contribution This is an informal collaboration, though Tim has provided support and advice on making historical study relevant to current practitioners and professionals.
Impact No formal (published) outputs/ outcomes have resulted, but the intangible benefits have been significant, helping me to cast my research in ways that will make it appropriate for policy and practice audiences in the future.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Interaction with Tim Jones 
Organisation Oxford Brookes University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the publicity surrounding the start of the project, I was contacted by Dr Tim Jones (Research Fellow, Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes/ Research Fellow, Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford). We have since met on a number of occasions; Tim suggested one of the speakers for the 'Road Safety in History' symposium, in which he also participated. One area of interest we have in common is road safety, and we remain in contact about this; we are exploring options for collaboration in the future.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Interaction with Tony Crabtree 
Organisation University of Portsmouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the media coverage of my research (August 2013; detailed elsewhere on ROS), I was contacted by Tony Crabtree, a lecturer based in the Learning at Work department at the University of Portsmouth, and who had previously worked in the health and safety industry. We are discussing how we can integrate my research and teaching into the PG Cert in Occupational Health and Safety.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Meeting with Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety 
Organisation Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety (PACTS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution As a result of my attempts to work with policy-makers and practitioners, I made contact with the Executive Director of the Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety (PACTS). He presented a paper at the June 2011 'Road Safety in History' symposium organised as part of the project, and we met in September 2011 to explore how history might be of use to policy-makers and practitioners. At this meeting, Oliver Carsten (a member of PACTS, and Professor of Transport Safety at the Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds) also participated. I believe the exchange was useful for all concerned ? I was able to provide an historical perspective to some contemporary problems, and I was given a much greater insight into the ways in which contemporary transport safety issues are being examined and dealt with. Robert Gifford suggested that I put together a position paper, drawing on some of the things we discussed, and when this was done, I come to a PACTS members meeting to discuss with a wider, practice-based, audience. Although I have yet to do this, I will be putting a position paper together in the future. We have also kept in touch since the meeting, passing on relevant information and updates.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Prospective Zooniverse project 
Organisation National Railway Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This has arisen from my September 2015 conference presentation at the National Railway Museum (listed elsewhere), and is drawn from my funded research. I am leading the development of a crowd-sourcing project to look at transcribing and making data accessible from railway worker accident records. I am developing the rationale behind the project, including the research questions to be answered. I have discussed this with a Zooniverse representative based at Portsmouth and they are interested in the project. I remain in ongoing discussions with my other collaborators about how we might get the project started. I am also in discussion with practice-based organisations, including the Office of Rail and Road, as this may have implications for practice. Recorded elsewhere as a collaboration, I have been working with the National Railway Museum on a pilot project entitled 'Railway Work, Life & Death', trialling the ideas behind the wiser Zooniverse project. This has been very fruitful and I am now involved in planning the next stages, which may produce the Zooniverse project (if sufficient funding can be won to support the costs involved).
Collaborator Contribution Access to original archival files necessary to make the project happen; access to expertise in crowd-sourcing projects; contribution of staff time. Active discussions are to be resumed in the coming year with Zooniverse, on the basis of recent and coming scoping activities.
Impact N/a
Start Year 2015
 
Description Prospective Zooniverse project 
Organisation Sanofi
Department Sanofi Research Division
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution This has arisen from my September 2015 conference presentation at the National Railway Museum (listed elsewhere), and is drawn from my funded research. I am leading the development of a crowd-sourcing project to look at transcribing and making data accessible from railway worker accident records. I am developing the rationale behind the project, including the research questions to be answered. I have discussed this with a Zooniverse representative based at Portsmouth and they are interested in the project. I remain in ongoing discussions with my other collaborators about how we might get the project started. I am also in discussion with practice-based organisations, including the Office of Rail and Road, as this may have implications for practice. Recorded elsewhere as a collaboration, I have been working with the National Railway Museum on a pilot project entitled 'Railway Work, Life & Death', trialling the ideas behind the wiser Zooniverse project. This has been very fruitful and I am now involved in planning the next stages, which may produce the Zooniverse project (if sufficient funding can be won to support the costs involved).
Collaborator Contribution Access to original archival files necessary to make the project happen; access to expertise in crowd-sourcing projects; contribution of staff time. Active discussions are to be resumed in the coming year with Zooniverse, on the basis of recent and coming scoping activities.
Impact N/a
Start Year 2015
 
Description Prospective Zooniverse project 
Organisation The National Archives
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This has arisen from my September 2015 conference presentation at the National Railway Museum (listed elsewhere), and is drawn from my funded research. I am leading the development of a crowd-sourcing project to look at transcribing and making data accessible from railway worker accident records. I am developing the rationale behind the project, including the research questions to be answered. I have discussed this with a Zooniverse representative based at Portsmouth and they are interested in the project. I remain in ongoing discussions with my other collaborators about how we might get the project started. I am also in discussion with practice-based organisations, including the Office of Rail and Road, as this may have implications for practice. Recorded elsewhere as a collaboration, I have been working with the National Railway Museum on a pilot project entitled 'Railway Work, Life & Death', trialling the ideas behind the wiser Zooniverse project. This has been very fruitful and I am now involved in planning the next stages, which may produce the Zooniverse project (if sufficient funding can be won to support the costs involved).
Collaborator Contribution Access to original archival files necessary to make the project happen; access to expertise in crowd-sourcing projects; contribution of staff time. Active discussions are to be resumed in the coming year with Zooniverse, on the basis of recent and coming scoping activities.
Impact N/a
Start Year 2015
 
Description Prospective Zooniverse project 
Organisation University of Warwick
Department Modern Records Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This has arisen from my September 2015 conference presentation at the National Railway Museum (listed elsewhere), and is drawn from my funded research. I am leading the development of a crowd-sourcing project to look at transcribing and making data accessible from railway worker accident records. I am developing the rationale behind the project, including the research questions to be answered. I have discussed this with a Zooniverse representative based at Portsmouth and they are interested in the project. I remain in ongoing discussions with my other collaborators about how we might get the project started. I am also in discussion with practice-based organisations, including the Office of Rail and Road, as this may have implications for practice. Recorded elsewhere as a collaboration, I have been working with the National Railway Museum on a pilot project entitled 'Railway Work, Life & Death', trialling the ideas behind the wiser Zooniverse project. This has been very fruitful and I am now involved in planning the next stages, which may produce the Zooniverse project (if sufficient funding can be won to support the costs involved).
Collaborator Contribution Access to original archival files necessary to make the project happen; access to expertise in crowd-sourcing projects; contribution of staff time. Active discussions are to be resumed in the coming year with Zooniverse, on the basis of recent and coming scoping activities.
Impact N/a
Start Year 2015
 
Description '"Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic and Road safety . ." Educating British road users in safe and responsible behaviour, c.1916-1970.' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited seminar paper, presented at the National Railway Museum, and drawing an audience from across England. The talk produced discussion and questions.

Has helped establish my place as a leading researcher in this field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description '"Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic and Road safety . ." Educating British road users in safe and responsible behaviour, c.1916-1970.' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an invited presentation (27/05/15) to the Transport Research Laboratory, a private company based in Crowthorne, Surrey. As a result of my AHRC funded work they had heard of me and were interested in exploring the possibilities that history might have to inform their work. Approximately 35 members of senior staff were present, and the talk provoked some discussion very useful for both sides, as well as a desire (noted below) to work collaboratively in the future.

I am now in discussion with the Director of the TRL Academy about collaboration on an AHRC Research Networking bid, as well as the possibility of bringing historical insight to bear on the TRL's future work.

I am also starting a dialogue with the TRL's Head of Transport Psychology about collaborative work on road safety education, including potential funding bids for joint research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Danger on Film! Railway Safety Films from the 1920s to the present' - Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public film screening at the Phoenix Picturehouse cinema, Oxford, showing 7 films themed around railway safety from the 1920s to the present day. Attended by over 40 people (including public, postgrad students, former railway workers, current railway industry safety professionals), it featured a short introductory talk to contextualise the films and use of safety education in Britain, the films and then a lively question-and-answer session.

In addition to the screening, comments were received from India and Australia noting that the films were of interest and there was an international audience. However, I was unable to webcast the films (both for reasons of technology and permission to use).


54% of impact questionnaire respondents stated their opinion of the topic had been changed by the screening; 90% said they learned something new.

Comments from the questionnaire included:

* 'I am inspired to view more videos and explore opportunities to use other materials'
* One respondent (a safety manager in the rail industry) stated that he would 'look more at historical accidents and look at lessons learnt'

One indication of the impact value of the film screening comes from one of Network Rail's Safety Improvement Specialists, Becky Ray, who said (10/10/13): 'This can be used as a CPD opportunity for those of us who need to record and maintain our professional safety statuses. So this has had a great impact on our safety community.'

I have also been in discussion with a representative of the RMT Union to explore the possibility of repeating the film showing at the RMT's annual health and safety conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description 'Danger on Film! Railway Safety Films from the 1920s to the present' - Portsmouth 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public film screening at the University of Portsmouth, showing 7 films themed around railway safety from the 1920s to the present day. Attended by over 30 people (including the public, postgrad students, current health and safety professionals), it featured a short introductory talk to contextualise the films and use of safety education in Britain, the films and then a lively question-and-answer session.



In addition to the screening, comments were received from India and Australia noting that the films were of interest and there was an international audience. However, I was unable to webcast the films (both for reasons of technology and permission to use).



One indication of the impact value of the film screening comes from one of Network Rail's Safety Improvement Specialists, Becky Ray, who said (10/10/13): 'This can be used as a CPD opportunity for those of us who need to record and maintain our professional safety statuses. So this has had a great impact on our safety community.'

88% of impact questionnaire respondents stated that their opinion of the topic had been changed.

Comments from the questionnaire included:
* '[I will] view the history of safety campaigns in a different light'
* '[I will] not speak so much in unthinking reflex about the excesses of the Health & Safety industry'
* 'It has made me think about ... wider dangers in society'
* 'It has made me want to find out more'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description 'I cannot say that the pay they receive is adequate to the risk and danger they encounter': British railway workers and safety after c.1850. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited seminar paper at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris. A well-attended seminar paper, which produced some helpful questions and avenues for further exploration/ future research. As a result of the seminar, I was invited to submit a version of the paper for publication in the 'Revue d'histoire des chemins de fer'.

Continued collaboration with international colleagues, including a possible international network bid.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description AHRC virtual exhibition scheme 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Submission to the AHRC's call for virtual exhibitions to be featured on their website. Drawn from my AHRC-funded research in safety and accident prevention, the proposed gallery would take viewers on a visual journey through the past 100 years of safety education and accident prevention initiatives in Britain.

None. The application was unsuccessful, although it was placed on the reserve list, as it was highly commended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Academic conference (York, UK) - 'Digital disasters: Crowdsourcing the railway accident' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact My paper was selected through open competition, and represents an outgrowth of the original project research, through the 'Railway Work, Life and Death' project (detailed elsewhere under this grant). It was delivered to an audience comprised largely of academics, numbering around 50 in total, but also including significant representation from the Science Museum Group. The paper outlined the 'Railway Work, Life and Death' project but also posed methodological questions about public engagement, crowd-sourcing and co-production which the concluding summary noted challenged all present to consider how we approach the past and who is involved in interpreting the past.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Academic conference presentation, T2M conference, Lancaster 2017: 'Another turn of the wheel? Co-production, engagement beyond the academe & the mobility research agenda' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A conference presentation arising from the 'Railway Work, Life & Death' follow-on project, to an academic audience, particularly focused on the crowd-sourcing methodology, but based on ideas and research undertaken during the AHRC project lifetime.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Academic conference, invited paper (Strasbourg, France) - '"What does the firm get out of subscribing?" Selling health and safety in Britain, c.1916-1950' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to present at the inaugural conference of the European Research Council funded 'BodyCapital' project, held in Strasbourg in February 2017. Presentations were only made by invited scholars, leading in their field, and the 3 day conference involved only a single strand, so the dialogue between papers and audience was amplified. A number of participants from across Europe and North America (including Germany, France, Switzerland and the USA) commented favourably upon the project and its research, and I will be following up the connections made with a view to both informing the project outputs and greater involvement in the BodyCapital project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Article in BBC History Magazine - 'Safety first! Preventing Accidents in Twentieth-Century Britain' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature in the August 2011 issue; I can't find this listed elsewhere, which surprises me that I'd have missed it, but this may be my uncertainty over the best place to include this sort of dissemination activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Article in Health and Safety International - 'Be Safe not Sorry. The history of hand and arm protection on Britain's railways' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited contribution (pp. 37-45), on the basis of my expertise; journal aimed at a professional and practitioner audience. As a result of this piece I have been asked to contribute further work, provisionally in 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Article in Health and Safety at Work - 'The awakening conscience' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An invited feature, included in the October 2015 issue of this magazine for health and safety practitioners; invitation made on the basis of my research expertise and arising from this project. As a result of this piece a follow-up piece is planned for September 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Can the past inform the future? A brief look at the history of the London Road Safety Council 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given to a mixed audience of public, professional and political participants, including representatives of 18 London Boroughs, the Cities of London and Westminster, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, the Department for Transport, the Metropolitan Police, and the Cyclists' Touring Club. Questions to the audience were built into the presentation, as it was intended as a dialogue.



This presentation was also reported in detail in the formal minutes of the meeting.

As a result of my work on their archives, I was invited to talk to the London Road Safety Council (LRSC) Quarterly Meeting in October 2011. The audience included politicians, the public and professional organisations (e.g. the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Deviant Accidents: Constructing safe behaviour in twentieth-century Britain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Conference paper, selected by competitive process, that produced discussion and questions. Social History Society annual conference. In this case - as in every presentation/ paper given as part of this project - the AHRC logo was prominently displayed on the title slide, and verbal acknowledgement of AHRC support was given.

This paper was reported in the Newsletter of the International Association for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility (June 2011, p.16).

This has helped establish my position as an expert in this area, recognised by fellow academics as well as by practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Everyday disasters? Scale and subjectivity in the history of disasters 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International conference paper, selected by competitive process; delivered at the Hagley Museum and Library, Delaware, USA. Conference organised by the University of Delaware Hagley Fellows, and supported by the University of Delaware and the Hagley Museum and Library. Provoked lively discussion and was complemented by the keynote speaker as the most significant paper of the day.

I substituted this conference - a direct fit with project research - for one of the UK-based conferences identitified in the original proposal. Papers were pre-circulated, and my contribution was critically acclaimed by the conference's keynote speaker, Professor Michael Adas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Initial work with Network Rail on safety resource for current industry, based on historical research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Building on the AHRC-funded research project and subsequent follow-on project ('Railway Work, Life & Death'), I was invited in to talk with the Head of Safety at Network Rail (Wessex) about making use of the historical research from both projects as a means of providing safety-related case studies for current staff, to encourage discussion about safe working practices. This is ongoing at March 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview featured in BBC2 series 'The Age of Steam', broadcast August 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact On the basis of project research I was contacted by the TV production company behind BBC2's 'Full Steam Ahead' programme to provide expert comment about worker safety on Britain's railways in the steam era. We filmed at STEAM museum in Swindon, and in addition to the production company's material, I was able to use my research to provide content and material used on the programme and to shape the direction of the narrative around worker safety.

As the producer later commented: "We wanted you to be involved in our programme on the basis of your expertise and existing research into the history of safety, risk and accident prevention on Britain's railways. Your work ... [was] informative and we wanted to make use of your insights in the programme. The material you provided on the day really aided the narrative and shaped the scene, especially the Safety token which provided a different insight into the minds of 1920s attitudes towards Health and Safety."

A large number of people outside the academic world have commented since that they saw the programme and were intrigued by my research. The estimated audience for the series was 2 million per episode.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Making safe citizens: Informal education, accident prevention and discourses of citizenship in Britain, 1913-1939 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Academic conference paper, selected for presentation: History of Education Society Annual Conference.

As a result of the encouragement and feedback given at this conference, I have submitted a revised version of this paper to the History of Education Society's journal (History of Education) for publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Network Rail report featuring my research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A summary of Network Rail's work to mark the 100th anniversary of the start of the Great Western Railway's safety campaign, which drew upon my research.



The report was featured on the Network Rail intranet site 'Connect', with a national audience of around 36,000 people; it featured direct mention of my research.

As a result of this work I have been exploring possibilities for future collaboration with Network Rail.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Newcomen Society (Southern Branch) invited paper - '"Is it safe?" Technology, education, and workplace accidents on Britain's railways, c.1875-1948' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An invited paper, the audience numbered 16 people and generated some discussion around the themes of the project research and introduced engineering historians to some of the 'softer' approaches to parts of their topics. They posed some important questions for me to consider as I develop the research outputs, particularly around the role of technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Newsletter report, project symposium (Hagley) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Report of the day symposium that I co-organised and that was hosted at the Hagley Museum and Library, USA. Featured in the Newsletter of the International Association for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility (June 2011, pp.15-16).

Distributed to approx. 200 international members of the Association, including academics, museologists, and policy-makers/ practitioners. Helping to raise my profile and establish my international credentials as a leader in this field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Newsletter report, project symposium (Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Report of the international two-day 'Road Safety in History' symposium, hosted at Oxford Brookes. The report was written by one of the participants (Craig Horner, Manchester Metropolitan University) and featured in the Newsletter of the International Association for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility (September 2011, pp.10-11).

None as yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Newsletter reporting, International Association for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The newsletter of the International Association for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility (T2M), included notifications of the start of the project and the road safety symposium.

Details of the start of the project (with particular reference to the road safety element; October 2010 Newsletter) and the two-day international symposium on the history of road safety (June 2011 Newsletter). The Newsletter is distributed to members of the International Association for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility and freely available online. In conjunction with my other activities, this has helped establish me internationally as an expert in this area (for example, resulting in the request to referee a German grant proposal).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Newsletter reports, 'Accidents and Emergencies' conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Reports of the international 'Accidents and Emergencies' conference, September 2013. Featured in:

* the Newsletter of the International Association for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility (November 2013, pp.13-16); written by one of the participants, Peter Itzen (Freiburg Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Freiburg).

* the Gazette of the Society for the Social History of Medicine (November 2013, pp. 14-15); written by one of the participants, Michael Mantin (Swansea University).

* SHOTNews, the online news forum of the Society for the History of Technology; written by Ben Taylor (King's College, London).

None yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Newsletter, Hastings Local History Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The November 2011 Newsletter of the Group included a detailed account of my paper 'Safety and Accident Prevention in Hastings and East Sussex, c.1920-1950', and was distributed to Hastings Local History Group members (approx. 50 people).

I have been invited to contribute a more formal paper to the Group's journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Of handkerchiefs, milk bottle tops and soap: preventing accidents in twentieth-century Britain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture, selected (by competitive process) as part of Oxford Brookes University Open Lecture Series 2011-12. Other lectures in the same series were given by professors, including Hayden White. Good discussion afterwards.

This event was in Brookes' Open Lecture Series, a key part of the University's public engagement activity (other lectures in the series included inaugural professorial lectures, and a lecture by Hayden White). It was widely publicised, including in Oxford and the wider area, and attracted people from as far afield as Birmingham and London. Attended by public and practitioners. This event has enhanced my work with both the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents and the British Safety Council, helping in securing further contacts and work with both organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Podcast - Do it the Safety Way! 100 Years of Accident Prevention 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a podcast of my November 2013 public lecture of the same title, listed elsewhere on ResearchFish and attached to this grant.

None that I am aware of, although it increases the profile of my research and so has indirect benefits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://videoupload.port.ac.uk/upload/showvid.php?id=ce80a411-eea3-49c1-843c-ee51cef34dde
 
Description Press release and publicity about reseach findings: Queen's jubilee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Timed to coincide with the Queen's Golden Jubilee, details were circulated about a Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents poster that used the Coronation to disseminate safety messages to children.



As this was topical, it was picked up by a number of outlets:



'The News' website (Portsmouth area newspaper)

'Aboutmyarea' website

Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents website

Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents publication 'Care on the Road' (print; August 2012)

University of Portsmouth website



Credit was given to the AHRC for funding the research.

This involved liaison with the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents and has helped to cement my working relationship with them; this is one element of my work with RoSPA that has led on to their appointing me (2014) as the academic advisor on their cententary preparations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Press release and publicity about research - 100th anniversary of introduction of safety education into Britain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Timed to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the introduction of safety education into Britain, a press release was distributed and carried by a range of national and international media, including:



* Daily Mail (online, 5 August 2013)

* Daily Telegraph (print, 6 August 2013)

* Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (online, 6 August 2013)

* the Health and Safety Executive (online, 2 August 2013)

* Western Daily Press (online, 4 August 2013)

* The Guardian (online 8 August 2013; print 9 August 2013)

* MSN (online, front page, 6 August 2013)

* Rail Network (online, 5 August 2013)



The press release as distributed credited the AHRC.

Since this press release, I have received requests for interviews on related matters from national and local media and been consulted by a BBC researcher about a possible programme on risk that they wanted to commission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Professional talk - Road Safety GB (London): 'Learning from the past 100 years of road safety education' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to present my research to the October 2015 quarterly meeting of Road Safety GB's London branch, comprising local council road safety officers, road safety charity representatives and police representatives from across London. The presentation and discussion was focused on ways to make the past more accessible and useful to current day practitioners; the audience engaged constructively with the content and I have details to follow up with a number of those present for potential future contacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Professional talk - TRL: '"Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic and Road safety . ." Educating British road users in safe and responsible behaviour, c.1916-1970.' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was invited to present my research to the internal research seminar for the Transport Research Laboratory, a business (formerly a state-run research organisation) which works on road safety amongst other issues. The presentation was preceded by a meeting with the Director of the TRL Academy, the intellectual leadership behind TRL, with a view to further collaboration - something agreed upon in principle in two ways: firstly, potential funding bids for research involving making use of the past in current day practice; and secondly, further work with key TRL officials, including co-authored research. Both of these are ongoing prospects.

The paper itself was well attended - noted by the contact who had invited me as the best attended paper for some time. There was great interest in my research from the 30 or so attendees, including a wide-ranging question and answer session after - in part this has helped cement the interest from TRL in working with me further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Project webpage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The project web presence, created at the start of the project, hosted on Oxford Brookes' website and maintained until support for the content management system was withdrawn (when the School of Arts and Humanities was reorganised, in June 2011).



This page was linked to my staff profile, since removed after the expiry of my contract. Both pages featured prominent mention of the AHRC.

It provided a point of contact through which other researchers (such as Marjan Hagenzieker) were able to establish contact with me, resulting in continued relationships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011
 
Description Provided content for article by 'Flight Safety Australia', online publication of the Australian Government Civil Aviation Safety Authority - 'Parallel Tracks: the rail safety story' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As a result of the online exhibition produced from project research with the National Railway Museum (and detailed elsewhere under this grant), I was contacted and asked to provide comment for a feature looking at human factors in relation to safety issues, using the past to suggest lessons for the present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.flightsafetyaustralia.com/2016/07/parallel-tracks-the-rail-safety-story/
 
Description Public conference (London Road Safety Council, London) - 'Accident Prevention in London since 1916: a brief look at the LRSC's history' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Having consulted and used the London Road Safety Council's archives as part of the project, I have been working with the LRSC over the years on various aspects of their past, including feeding into the organisations knowledge and use of its past and making public presentations about the LRSC's history. As a result I was invited to give the only historical presentation of the day-long centenary conference, held at London Guildhall, and attended by approximately 90 people. Participants were interested in the possibilities that better awareness of the past had for understanding the present and for shaping the future. I am now following this up with the LRSC and we are seeking to develop resources based on my research for the use of road safety practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public conference (The National Archives, London) - '"The peril of railway work": Accidents and the British railway worker, c.1875-1948.' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following on from my 2015 public presentation at the National Railway Museum, listed elsewhere under this grant, I was invited to present my research and co-organise a day conference, hosted by the Friends of The National Archives, Friends of the National Railway Museum and London Transport Museum Friends, at Kew at The National Archives. I helped to organise the call for papers and selection of participants. The day was popular, with approximately 50 attendees, and my paper produced a large number of questions and further interest in the ongoing research and its findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public conference (Victorian & Albert Museum, London) - '"Arresting the eye", shocking the public? What the safety poster says about British society' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Organised by the Posters Network (an Arts Council England funded body), the conference drew people together from across the UK. My paper formed part of a panel which, although submitted as individual proposals, when it became clear that the others were working in related fields (and indeed were colleagues with whom I have collaborated as a result of this grant), I drew the papers together and gave the session its rationale and title. My paper produced some interesting questions from the audience, including making links across all the panel papers. The event organiser emailed me aftewards to say: "Thank you so much for the brilliant presentation yesterday. You got the afternoon off to a terrific start, and many colleagues have said how much they enjoyed your session, including the stimulating debate afterwards. Another remarked that it is only in the world of posters that you get an academic on health and safety persuasion participating in the same event as an expert on Edwardian melodrama!"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public lecture - Do it the Safety Way! 100 Years of Accident Prevention 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture, selected (by competitive process) as part of the University of Portsmouth's Public Lecture Series 2013-14, a key part of the University's public engagement activity. Other lectures in the same series were given by professors and high-ranking guests. The lecture was widely publicised, including a radio interview (listed elsewhere as an outcome) and produced some interesting discussion afterwards.

This lecture has been podcast, listed elsewhere on ResearchFish and attached to this grant.

The lecture was well attended and feedback was extremely positive.

An 'impact questionnaire' showed that 60% of attendees' opinions of safety were changed as a result of the lecture.

Responses to the 'what will you do differently question' included:

* From a road safety officer: 'Share with my colleagues what has gone before us. The history of safety campaigns could should us which angles not to take.'
* 'Look at safety educative material with a more critical eye'
* A health and safety professional wrote: 'Review concept of choice in application of safety and what is appropriate role of government'

One indication of the impact value of the lecture comes from one of Network Rail's Safety Improvement Specialists, Becky Ray, who said (10/10/13): 'This can be used as a CPD opportunity for those of us who need to record and maintain our professional safety statuses. So this has had a great impact on our safety community.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://videoupload.port.ac.uk/upload/showvid.php?id=ce80a411-eea3-49c1-843c-ee51cef34dde
 
Description Public talk - National Railway Museum: 'What will my poor wife and kiddies do?' Workers, safety and accident prevention on the railways before 1948 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an invited presentation, to the National Railway Museum's annual research event, intended to link railway historians and family historians. Approximately 40 people attended and showed great interest in the research, as well as in the discussion (deliberately canvassed as part of the talk) about the possibility of a crowd-sourcing, Zooniverse-style project using railway worker accident records - noted in a related entry under 'collaboration'. This presentation has also resulted in my involvement in organising a conference, with the Friends of The National Archives and the Friends of the National Railway Museum, also noted in related entry under 'collaboration'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public talk - Portsmouth History Centre: 'Less home life, more accidents': Keeping Portsmouth safe since 1900 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an invited talk, as part of the national 'Explore Your Archives' week; it focused upon Portsmouth and Hampshire and made use of my project research to situate local events in a national context. Although only a small audience there was some valuable discussion following the talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Publication in the journal of the Ephemera Society - 'The ephemera of road safety' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A piece published in the Autumn 2016 issue (pp.3-6) of The Ephemerist, the journal of the Ephemera Society, focusing on road safety in Britain and drawing upon items uncovered as part of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Radio interview about research - Express FM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 10 minute structured interview on 4 November 2013 on Express FM, to promote forthcoming public lecture at the University of Portsmouth (6 November 2013, detailed elsewhere on ROS) and to discuss the history of health and safety. Express FM broadcasts to Portsmouth and South East Hampshire, with a listening audience of 30,000 per week.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Re-training road users: the technology of safety education in twentieth-century Britain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A symposium paper producing questions and discussion, and feeding into the special issue of the top journal 'Technology and Culture' which I went on to co-edit (published in April 2015), arising from the June 2011 international symposium I organised and hosted at Oxford Brookes University as a part of this project.

This paper was precirculated, and was delivered and discussed at the project symposium (outcome detailed elsewhere), to an international audience (participants from Belgium, France, Italy and the USA, as well as the UK). In addition to academics, the audience included practitioners and policy-makers (e.g. from Transport for London).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Reconnecting Health and Safety? Safety education and mass persuasion in twentieth-century Britain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Academic seminar paper, delivered in the annual series at the Centre for History in Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; prompted questions and discussion, and resulted in an invite to review a book for the journal 'Social History of Medicine'.

Although largely an academic/ postgraduate audience, professionals/ practitioners were also present - including Tim Carter (at that point, Chief Medical Advisor, Maritime and Coastguard Agency) and John Rimington (former Director-General of the Health and Safety Executive). I have had extended interaction with both Tim and John since then, including securing their participation in a 'history and policy' plenary session at the 'Accidents and Emergencies' conference I co-organised and held in Octo
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Safety and Accident Prevention in Hastings & East Sussex, c.1920-1950 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk, given to the Hastings Local History Group. Lengthy discussion afterwards.

This talk drew upon project research undertaken in East Sussex. The talk was advertised locally (including the local newspaper), and a substantial report of the talk was featured in the Group's Newsletter. No impact yet.



As a result of the talk I have been provided w
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Safety at Work - and Beyond - in Britain, c.1900-1970 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following my talk to the Oxfordshire Railway Society in March 2011, I was invited to talk to the UNITE Retired Members' Association, Oxford branch. Approx. 40 people attended, from a mix of national and ethnic backgrounds, and had worked at the local BMW plant.

I have been invited back to speak with members about my research, and am currently considering how I may involve members in co-constituting research in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Safety at Work - and Beyond - in the North East, c.1900-1970 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk, given to the North East Labour History Society (an amateur history group based in Newcastle). Enthusiastic discussion followed, along with an invite to produce a written version for the Society's journal.

This paper made use of project research undertaken at archives in the North East, and was very well received by talk attendees - one of whom emailed me later to reiterate his comment made at the talk: 'As I said at the conclusion of your talk: "The best in 10 years".'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Safety first! Individuals, voluntary organisations and the British state in twentieth-century accident prevention 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited seminar paper, delivered in the annual series of the Centre for Health, Medicine and Society: Past & Present, Oxford Brookes University; it produced questions and discussion. The paper was podcast (listed separately in this section).

This paper was recorded and subsequently podcast (noted elsewhere as an output).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Safety first! Individuals, voluntary organisations and the British state in twentieth-century accident prevention 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited seminar paper at the University of Portsmouth producing questions and discussion with the audience, subsequently shaping my research questions (including consideration of the international context for this research topic).

This paper was delivered to an audience including academics and postgraduate students from the School of Social, Historical and Literary Studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Seminar paper -'"How to be Safe": Preventing accidents in 20th-century Britain.' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited seminar paper, at the University of Freiburg, Germany. Well attended and prompting valuable discussion, including about the nature of social, political and cultural differences between nations in relation to risk, safety and accidents in the past.

As a result of this paper, I am working with my contact at Freiburg, Peter Itzen, to develop a research proposal involving collaboration and bringing him to the UK (Marie Curie Fellowship). I have also been invited to return to Freiburg in June 2016 to discuss further research with German and French colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar with potential applicants to University of Portsmouth, based on this research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I worked through project research with 14 potential applicants to the History programme at Portsmouth, as an example of the unusual but important research undertaken within the History team. I volunteered for this role and was selected on the basis that the sample seminar would give students an idea of the sorts of research that drives teaching and that they would encounter when studying at Portsmouth. They engaged well with the material, both in terms of the content and the methodological questions we considered about how to 'do' history. The applicants were heard discussing the content afterwards with their parents; hopefully the students will apply to study wth us next year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Series of public talks at STEAM museum in Swindon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited, on the basis of my research expertise, to give a series of short public talks at the STEAM museum's 2013 Railway Festival (14-15 September 2013), attached to Network Rail's stand at the event. Talks were presented to over 70 people (including families, amateur enthusiasts, former railway workers, and current railway workers); they were well received and covered the Great Western Railway's safety campaign. Plenty of discussion and questions followed the talks.

According to one Network Rail contact, my contributions to the event were 'invaluable', with my talk 'compliment[ing Network Rail's stand] seamlessly and add[ing] another perspective' to the event. As a result of this work and these talks I have maintained a working relationship with Network Rail, with a view to future collaboration.



When asked whether the talks had changed opinions of t
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Symposia reports (Hagley; Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Reports of symposia co-organised (Hagley, USA, April 2011) and organised (Oxford Brookes, June-July 2011), featured on the news website of the Society for the History of Technology.



The report on the Brookes symposium was written by Steve Bernardin (Universite Paris I, France), one of the symposium participants.

The Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) is the largest and most important organisation for historians of technology; based in the USA, it has an international membership of approx. 2,000. SHOTnews.net is the online news resource for SHOT. No impact as yet, beyond establishing my place as a leader of this field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Teaching: final year 'Special Subject' unit - 'Everyday Slaughter? Accidents and Safety in Britain, c.1850-1970' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Delivered at the University of Portsmouth for the first time in the academic year 2012-13 and taught as a final year 'Special Subject' unit, based heavily on the use of primary sources. This drew significantly upon my AHRC-funded research and introduced students to first-hand historical research. This unit will be running again next year and for the foreseeable future. One of the resources used on the unit from the 2013-14 session onwards is the podcast of my public lecture at Portsmouth (6 November 2013), both detailed elsewhere on ROS. This unit has helped expose students to a new area of research, producing lively debate across the 12-week term in each of the years the unit has run. In the 2017-18 year I have been contacted by one of the previous students from the 2014-15 year who is now undertaking further study and wishes to focus on safety and accidents for at least part of their research.

Delivered for the first time in 2012-13, some of the feedback from students included:

* 'The content is much different from everything else learnt, makes a nice change'
* 'It was made interesting. I really enjoyed the group discussions'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description The Great Western Railway worker safety campaign, 1913-39 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk, to the Oxfordshire Railway Society. Long discussions afterwards.

This talk was advertised locally, including in the Oxford Times newspaper, and was well attended. I was invited to speak to the Society again, fulfilled in 2014, and to another group of retired trades union members, fulfilled in 2012.



This talk also led to an invite to talk to the Oxford Branch of UNITE's Retired
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Verbal dissemination: London Road Safety Council AGM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As a result of my work on their archives, I was introduced to the AGM of the London Road Safety Council in July 2011, including details about the project; approximately 80 people - including policy-makers, practitioners and local/ borough politicans were present.

I have been invited to work with the London Road Safety Council in the future on various activities, including marking their centenary. This relationship is ongoing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Virtual exhibition, National Railway Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As this is on online exhibition, the product of an ongoing collaboration, it is difficult to demonstrate the results, other than to say that the exhibition went through the NRM's planning process and was approved, including the allocation of resources to make it happen. In the first 10 days of the exhibition going live, over 1,100 people viewed it; over its first year, it received over 23,000 hits.

Again, difficult to ascertain impacts, although I am keeping in contact with the NRM about this. One of the NRM's senior curators contacted me when the exhibition went live to say that he was impressed by it and that this sort of external collaboration with partners was the sort of thing that the NRM should be doing more of. I intend to follow this comment up to see if there might be an impact on the institution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nrm.org.uk/OurCollection/health-safety/main.aspx
 
Description Website post examining safety messages 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An entry for the website of the Ephemera Society, a British-based organisation with an international membership.

The entry appears in the 'Item of the Month' feature, and shows an image of an ephemeral item - a postal frank, stamped on an envelope - with contextual details and an explanation of the item's significance.

It is aimed at a public audience, and was timed to coincide with the publication of my piece in 'BBC History Magazine.'

None yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Website post examining the first modern safety campaign in Britain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An entry for the website of the Ephemera Society, a British-based organisation with an international membership. The entry appears in the 'Item of the Month' feature, and shows an image of an ephemeral item - a booklet with safety hints and tips given to railway workers - with contextual details and an explanation of the item's significance. It is aimed at a public audience, and was timed to coincide with publicity surrounding my research (and noted elsewhere within ROS) and the 100th anniversary of the introduction of the safety campaign into Britain.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013