The Breaking of Britain: cross-border society and Scottish independence 1216-1314

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: School of Humanities

Abstract

The Scottish Wars of Independence created a new and fundamental divide in the north of Britain. There had long been a political border in the north, but by 1314 there was a social border as well: it was no longer possible to hold land on both sides of the divide and be a member of both the English and Scottish realms. It has been argued that this was a violent change of direction because England and Scotland had been moving closer together, not further apart, during the thirteenth century. Alternatively, it has been suggested that in the century before the Wars 'the national shutters' between England and Scotland were coming down. It has also been argued from chronicle evidence that inhabitants of south-east Scotland saw themselves as English at the beginning of the thirteenth century but by the 1280s identified themselves as Scots.
The project seeks to investigate whether these divergent views can be resolved by focusing on the key elements of society and identity. To gain a fresh understanding of society, the critical mass of detail that is required for researching social structures and patterns will be achieved by creating two free-access web-based resources. The first is an extension of the database of the 'Paradox of Medieval Scotland, 1093-1286' (PoMS) to embrace all individuals and their social interactions recorded in documents relating to Scotland 1286-1314. The second is a new database of all information about all individuals in extant royal records relating to Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland for the three northern counties of England in English Royal Records 1216-1307. Both will be interlinked, and will be designed to be fruitful for scholars and informative for beginners. They will enable the project to investigate social structures and patterns of development on both sides of the Border. In particular, although the gentry-who were the backbone of local society and government-have been the subject of scholarly debate, its precise nature in northern England and whether it had parallels north of the Border has yet to be researched. The database research will be complemented by a detailed investigation of a cohort of gentry families in Northumberland and Cumberland. Further down the social scale, the middling folk and more substantial peasantry who formed the common army of Scotland played a crucial role in the Wars. What was their role in peacetime as well as war, and how (if it all) did this differ from that of their counterparts in northern England?
To gain a fresh understanding of identity the key resource is chronicles, not as a source for events but as a window into the assumptions and interests of those who wrote and approved these texts. Striking statements of English identity in southern Scotland can be found in this context in the late twelfth century. The most important Scottish chronicle of the period, the Chronicle of Melrose, survives (very unusually) as a manuscript updated by 44 scribes during the thirteenth century. The last section (1216 to 1282) will be edited and translated deploying an innovative method that will enhance the reader's understanding of the varied and changing patterns of interest revealed by the chronicle's scribes. It will also be investigated, alongside a cross-border chronicle kept by a friar in Scotland (to 1297) and another Scottish chronicle (datable to 1285), for what they reveal about Scottish perceptions of English kingship immediately before the Wars of Independence.
By creating new research tools and methods, the Breaking of Britain will investigate whether the Wars of Independence and the divide they created in cross-border society were a rupture or a natural outcome of longer-term developments. The results will be freely accessible to a wide spectrum of users, and should contribute a deeper understanding of a pivotal phase in British History that is particularly relevant today when the relationship between Scotland and England is being actively debated.

Planned Impact

Schools:
The project's website will, like www.poms.ac.uk, provide summaries of the period and the topics under investigation, as well as discussions of particular issues or subjects of interest in the 'feature of the month'. It will be linked to LTS's intranet for schools. It will also include the PoMS database, extended to 1314, available with free access from June 2012. The links between it and the project's other database 'The Three Northern Counties in English Royal Records 1216-1307' will be available for free access by August 2013.
The database and website will be of particular importance for sixth-year students taking the Advanced Higher History course on the Wars of Independence, and to fifth-year students taking the Wars of Independence option in paper 2 of the Higher History curriculum. A prototype of the PoMS database 1093-1286 has been trialled with Advanced Higher History students. The results will inform both the PoMS database and its extension to 1314. A similar trial of the extended database, with links to the other database in this project, 'The Three Northern Counties in English Royal Records 1216-1307' (NE-DB), will be held during the final year.
The database and website is seen by LTS and HMIe (Scotland) as playing a role in supporting not only Higher and Advanced Higher History students and teachers, but also the teaching of Scottish History at earlier stages within the new 'Curriculum for Excellence' framework. A prototype of the database 1093-1286 was trialled with teachers in a workshop held as part of the LTS and HMIe (Scotland) 'Good practice in teaching Scottish History' conference on 30 September 2009.

The interested public
The databases and website will be brought to the awareness of the interested public in Scotland and northern England in conferences in Glasgow and Lancaster in 2013. The Scottish database to 1314 will also be featured on the NAS website from June 2012 (via a link to CCH). Tthis will be the occasion of a public launch. The launch would follow the same pattern as the launch of the PoMS web resources on 8 September 2009 by the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning, Fiona Hyslop, an event attended by a cross-section of academics, archivists, librarians, teachers, school students, research students and the interested public (including clergy and aristocracy).
A prototype of the database 1093-1286 has been trialled (as in section (i), above) with adult users on 16 December 2009 (separate from the trial with Advanced Higher students), and the metrics have informed the final design of the database's user interface. This interface will be carried forward into the extended database to 1314. Both NE-DB and the extended PoMS database (each with the links to the other) will be the subject of similar trials with school students, teachers, researchers and local librarians during the final year of the project. The design of the database and particularly its user interface will be informed throughout the duration of the project by meetings with the project's Knowledge Transfer Advisory Group.

Homecoming 2014
The Scottish Government has announced its intention to celebrate the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn with another Homecoming event following the success of Homecoming 2009. The website and databases have an obvious potential to feature in these celebrations. There are too many imponderables to make it possible to see exactly how the project's outcomes will feature, but the strong academic participation in some of the events in Homecoming 2009 suggests that there should be occasions where it would be highlighted.

The PI is responsible for the Impact Plan, liaising with Scottish teaching organisations and local and national archivists and librarians. Prof. Stringer will coordinate the Impact Plan in northern England.
 
Description Cross border links in the thirteenth century were more extensive than previously expected. Landowners in the three northern counties of England had family ties or lands as far north as Inverness. This interconnectedness ran deeper still: 40% of those who lost their lands in the northern counties because they came out with the Scots against Edward I in 1296 are not known to have had lands in Scotland (see http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/march-2013/). No single reason is likely to explain this: the databases completed in this project (People of Medieval Scotland: www.poms.ac.uk, and People of Northern England, www.pone.ac.uk) show the variety of social interactions that occurred even within the limited view provided by charters (in www.poms.ac.uk) and central government records (www.pone.ac.uk). One of the main findings of the project, however, is that the deeper and more extensive these cross-border connections were, the more that people were aware of the differences between the kingdoms of England and Scotland. It is this, paradoxically, which explains why Scottish independence became more entrenched and clearly articulated from the mid-thirteenth century onwards. The chief reason was that the difference between the two kingdoms was not simply that they were separate jurisdictions. It was that landholders--particularly the greater lords--saw advantages in keeping Scotland free of English royal authority. The key difference was in governance. England was precociously centralised: royal power could be intrusive and demanding, and royal justice readily available to freeholders. Kings of Scots, by contrast, had limited bureaucracy and depended on local lords for the administration of law and order. The most powerful lords in Scotland all had landed and family ties in England, and would have been acutely aware of how much more freedom they had as lords in Scotland compared to England. As a result, they were all the more likely to invest in Scottish kingship: in Scotland moves to make royal government more effective seem to have been as likely to happen when there was no king in charge (1249-58, 1286-91) as when there was. These cross-border ties could be geographically and socially extensive, with the widely ramified interests of leading lords creating a pattern of relationships across the kingdoms that could be replicated by their followers and allies. As a result, high level politics in Aberdeenshire could have an impact on minor landownership in Warwickshire (http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/april-2012/). Research into minor landholding and estate management in Angus and Perthshire showed in more detail the interactions between absentee lordship and local society. This provided an opportunity for small landholders who, by becoming a local presence for their lords, gained greater prominence in local society than they would otherwise have been able to. This group are a significant element in the emergence of surnames by place, where the place-name is local. In England there was much more occasion to interact with royal power through the central courts and the demands of royal government. The database for northern England (www.pone.ac.uk) showed in detail how people could benefit as well as be afflicted by the accessibility and reach of royal authority in England. An important conclusion of the project is that burdens are likely to have outweighed benefits: this provides a possible explanation for the willingness of some to side with the Scots in 1296. The contrast would have been particularly obvious in Cumberland and Northumberland where Scottish kings exercised royal authority within the lordships of Tynedale and Penrith, and followed the Scottish rather than the English pattern of kingship there.



Moving onto the Wars of Independence, the project's findings about the deep level of interaction of the Scottish nobility with England allowed a new perspective to be developed on the approach of Scottish leaders first to the challenge of governing without a king after Alexander III's death in 1286 and later to resistance to Edward I's overlordship from 1291 (anticipated in negotiations with Edward I in 1290 in the expectation of a dynastic union between the two kingdoms). At one level the insistence on Scottish independence, already in 1290, becomes readily intelligible as part of a longer pattern of seeking protection from the pressures and constraints of English royal government. At a deeper level the reactions of Scottish leaders and their followers can be understood as part of a wider dynamic of political responses to English kingship that embraces Magna Carta and barional reform of 1258-65. This is particularly evident in the Chronicle of Melrose, which provides a detailed commentary from a Scottish monastery on events in England. This is the principal element in the latter stages of the chronicle, making it a key source for the cult of Simon de Montfort. The edition and translation of the Chronicle that has been completed in the project (to be published by Scottish Historical Society) will make this accessible to those without good Latinity and palaeography for the first time. Members of the Scottish nobility participated in the wars arising from Baronial Reform, and would all have been acutely aware of this precedent both for governance without a king, and for resisting oppressive kingship. It is not necessary to look farther than this for the origins of the idea of the community of the realm that lay at the heart of Scottish politics after 1286 (something reinforced by the discovery during the project of a source that suggests that there were seven rather than six guardians elected in 1286). In the project it was also argued that this provides a context for understanding a key text, the 'Scottish King's Household', as a tract outlining an ideal of Scottish kingship, drawing on ideas and practice from the baronial reform movement in England (http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/october-2011-the-scottish-kings-household/). In sum, not only has the project shown the depth of interrelationships between Scotland and England in the lead up to the Wars of Independence. It has also developed a new framework for understanding the Wars as part of a wider narrative of reactions to oppressive government, setting the Wars in a series of upheavals against English royal government that includes Magna Carta and the Baronial War.



The project also made significant discoveries about specific aspects of the Wars of Independence. This included new information on Wallace's killing of the sheriff of Lanark in 1297 and on his leadership (http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/september-2011-the-guardians-in-1286-and-wallaces-uprising-in-1297/); on the charges faced by Wallace and on his execution (http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/may-2011-the-execution-of-william-wallace/ and http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/august-2013/); and on Robert I's reaction to the first significant English invasion he faced as king (http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/june-2013/). There was also a reappraisal of the submissions of Scottish freeholders to Edward I in 1296 preserved in the Ragman Roll, showing that more than 1600 were in Berwick on 28 August to renounce the treaty with France and recognise Edward I's lordship (http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/november-2011-the-making-of-the-ragman-roll/; http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/december-2011-the-texts-of-the-ragman-roll/; http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/january-2012/; http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/february-2012/; http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/blogs/feature-of-the-month/march-2012/.) Previously it was thought that such a large gathering was implausible, and that submissions were made locally and gathered together later into the Ragman Roll. The finding that so many Scots made the journey to Berwick personally to give fealty and (if they held land of the king) homage to Edward I at the end of his victorious progress through the country in the summer of 1296 brings vividly to life the scale of Edward I's achievement, transforming the pattern of relations between Scotland and England, and the course of British history.
Exploitation Route Key project outcomes are already being used beyond the academic community:

(i) a Follow-On project with Education Scotland developing learner journeys on the Wars of Independence for Broad General Education using research generated by the People of Medieval Scotland (www.poms.ac.uk) database.

(ii) Archivists in Cumbria and Northumberland record services received training in how to maximise use of the People of Northern England (www.pone.ac.uk) database for local research, and are now able to use this training to support local and family historians.
Sectors Education,Other

URL http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/
 
Description There are four aspects which have led to impact. The first is in articulating a fresh and distinctive medieval perspective on the place of Scotland in Britain in the discussions leading up to the Scottish Independence referendum. This took the form of newspaper articles and public lectures, in particular a series of public talks in association with The Herald newspaper on 'How British is Scotland?' The second strand was new information on the Wars of Independence, in particular new findings on William Wallace's rising in 1297, his execution in 1305, and the discovery of a letter from Robert I to Edward II written in 1310. These were widely reported in radio and print media both nationally and in the UK. The third was the extended People of Medieval Scotland database, now covering the period to 1314. The launch on 5 September 2012 received the greatest degree of media publicity (TV, radio and print). There have since then (as of 18 February 2016) been 69,378 users worldwide and 115,231 sessions, users in every country in Europe (except Macedonia); Australasia; the Middle East; North, Central and South America (except Paraguay); Asia (except Burma, North Korea, Mongolia, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan); plus 17 countries in Africa and 3 countries in the Caribbean: 26.4% in Scotland, 24% in USA, 23.2% in England,6.1 % in Canada, 5.2 % in Australia). The fourth aspect is with Higher and Advanced Higher students and teachers especially in the Wars of Independence option. This can now be updated with these statistics from google analytics on 21 Aug 2017 Overall Users: Sessions: Pageviews 74,516 123,098 727,208 There are users in every country in Europe, Australasia; the Middle East; North, Central and South America (except Paraguay); Asia (except North Korea, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan); there also users in 22 countries in Africa and 3 countries in the Caribbean. By country (all those with 0.6% or above users or sessions) Ordered by number of users Users Sessions Scotland: 19,394 (26.11%) 38,077 (30.93%) USA: 18,089 (24%) 24,345 (19.78%) England: 17,186 (23.14%) 31,280 (25.41%) Canada: 4,487 (6.04%) 6,481 (5.26%) Australia: 3,870 (5.21%) 5,783 (4.7%) New Zealand: 1,071 (1.44%)1,424 (1.16%) Germany: 940 (1.21%) 1,172 (0.95%) France: 774 (1.04%) 1,313 (1.07%) N. Ireland 705 (0.95%) 1,076 (0.87%) Wales 503 (0.67%) 722 (0.59%) Rep. of Ireland: 469 (0.63%) 749 (0.61%) Japan: 220 (0.3%) 779 (0.63%) Poland: 163 (0.22%) 1,384 (1.12%) By city (all those with 0.9% or above users or sessions) Ordered by number of users Users: Sessions: Glasgow 6,488 (8.72%) 14,319 (11.63%) Edinburgh 5,086 (6.84%) 10,277 (8.35%) London 5,178 (6.96%) 9,436 (7.67%) Aberdeen 1,295 (1.74%) 2,286 (2%) Melbourne 1,021 (1.37%) 1,611 (1.31%) Sydney 995 (1.34%) 1,406 (1.14%) Dundee 793 (1.07%) 1,683 (1.37%) Brisbane 757 (102%) 1,374 (1.02%) Inverness 629 (0.85%) 1,387 (1.13%) York 228 (0.31%) 3,323 (2.7%) Szczecin 19 (0.03%) 1,117 (0.91%)
Sector Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Major Research Grant
Amount £240,327 (GBP)
Funding ID RPG-2012-805 The Transformation of Gaelic Scotland in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2013 
End 04/2016
 
Title People of Medieval Scotland 1093-1314 
Description This is a database of all known people of Scotland between 1093 and 1314 mentioned in over 8600 contemporary documents. The People of Medieval Scotland is an outcome of two projects, The Paradox of Medieval Scotland (2007-2010) and The Breaking of Britain (2010-2013), funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)., This is a database of all known people of Scotland between 1093 and 1314 mentioned in over 8600 contemporary documents. The People of Medieval Scotland is an outcome of two projects, The Paradox of Medieval Scotland (2007-2010) and The Breaking of Britain (2010-2013), funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The People of Medieval Scotland is an outcome of two projects, The Paradox of Medieval Scotland (2007-2010) and The Breaking of Britain (2010-2013), funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)., This is a database of all known people of Scotland between 1093 and 1314 mentioned in over 8600 contemporary documents. 
URL http://www.poms.ac.uk/
 
Title People of Northern England 1216-1286 database 
Description This database of the people in the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland is drawn from two types of material, one financial and one legal. The financial material is drawn from the pipe rolls from 1219 to 1286, and the legal material from the plea rolls from 1219 to Trinity term 1275. It is a unique database since nothing comparable has been constructed before for any English county. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database of the people in the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland is drawn from two types of material, one financial and one legal. The financial material is drawn from the pipe rolls from 1219 to 1286, and the legal material from the plea rolls from 1219 to Trinity term 1275. It is a unique database since nothing comparable has been constructed before for any English county. 
URL http://www.pone.ac.uk/
 
Description Aiming High in Higher Scottish History: a Conference for Teachers and Learners 
Organisation History in Schools/scottish History Society
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Conference featuring project research on Wars of Independence on 1 December 2012 and 9 March 2013 involving (overall) 103 teachers and 243 pupils from across Scotland
Start Year 2013
 
Description Border Society: States, Governance and People, c. 1150?c. 1300 conference 
Organisation Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Conference held in Lancaster University attended by 89 delegates, co-sponsored by the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, Friends of Cumbria Archives, and the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne. The conference focused on how the English and Scottish monarchies asserted their respective authority in ?Middle Britain?, the different styles of royal rule, and the varying experiences of local communities within the Border region in terms of crown power and its demands.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Border Society: States, Governance and People, c. 1150?c. 1300 conference 
Organisation Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Conference held in Lancaster University attended by 89 delegates, co-sponsored by the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, Friends of Cumbria Archives, and the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne. The conference focused on how the English and Scottish monarchies asserted their respective authority in ?Middle Britain?, the different styles of royal rule, and the varying experiences of local communities within the Border region in terms of crown power and its demands.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Border Society: States, Governance and People, c. 1150?c. 1300 conference 
Organisation Friends of Cumbria Archives (FOCAS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Conference held in Lancaster University attended by 89 delegates, co-sponsored by the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, Friends of Cumbria Archives, and the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne. The conference focused on how the English and Scottish monarchies asserted their respective authority in ?Middle Britain?, the different styles of royal rule, and the varying experiences of local communities within the Border region in terms of crown power and its demands.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Border Society: States, Governance and People, c. 1150?c. 1300 conference 
Organisation Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Conference held in Lancaster University attended by 89 delegates, co-sponsored by the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, Friends of Cumbria Archives, and the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne. The conference focused on how the English and Scottish monarchies asserted their respective authority in ?Middle Britain?, the different styles of royal rule, and the varying experiences of local communities within the Border region in terms of crown power and its demands.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Border Society: States, Governance and People, c. 1150?c. 1300 conference 
Organisation Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Conference held in Lancaster University attended by 89 delegates, co-sponsored by the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, Friends of Cumbria Archives, and the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne. The conference focused on how the English and Scottish monarchies asserted their respective authority in ?Middle Britain?, the different styles of royal rule, and the varying experiences of local communities within the Border region in terms of crown power and its demands.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Scottish Association of Teachers of History 
Organisation Scottish Association of Teachers of History
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-organisation of conference including presentation of People of Medieval Scotland database
Start Year 2013
 
Description "Academic says William Wallace was rebellion 'co-leader'" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Academic says William Wallace was rebellion 'co-leader'": History News Network (via BBC) (14 September 2011)

See Above
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description "Academic says William Wallace was rebellion 'co-leader'" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Academic says William Wallace was rebellion 'co-leader'": BBC News website (14 September 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Braveheart legend KO" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Braveheart legend KO" The Scottish Sun (15 September 2011)

Reached mass audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Braveheart or was Wallace an accidental hero?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Braveheart or was Wallace an accidental hero?" Scottish Daily Mail (Victoria Allen, 15 September 2011)

Reached mass audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Glasgow University Academic Reveals the True Story Behind William Wallace's Rising Against the English": 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press Release, University of Glasgow (14 September 2011) stimulated media reports

newspapers and other media outlets carried stories on this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Knight to remember: Wallace only co-led uprising, says historian" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Knight to remember: Wallace only co-led uprising, says historian" Metro Scotland (Stephen Deal, 15 September 2011)

Reached mass audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Leader: Wallace must stay a standalone hero" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Leader: Wallace must stay a standalone hero": Scotsman.com (15 September 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "The knight who helped Braveheart" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "The knight who helped Braveheart" Independent (Jonathan Brown, 15 September 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Wallace made hero by ally's betrayal" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Wallace made hero by ally's betrayal" Scottish Daily Express (Rod Mills, 15 September 2011)

Exposure to mass readership
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Wallace may have become Scottish hero 'by accident'" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Wallace may have become Scottish hero 'by accident'" Press and Journal (15 September 2011)

Reached mass audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Wallace was 'co-leader' in uprising" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Wallace was 'co-leader' in uprising": Motherwell Times (14 September 2011)

Reached wideaudience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "Wallace was 'co-leader' in uprising" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Wallace was 'co-leader' in uprising": UK Press Association (14 September 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description "William Wallace was 'co-leader' in rebellion against English" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "William Wallace was 'co-leader' in rebellion against English": STV News website (Graham Fraser, 14 September 2011)

See Above
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description "William Wallace was merely an accidental Braveheart says expert" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "William Wallace was merely an accidental Braveheart says expert": The Scotsman (Frank Urquhart, 15 September 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'A new Scottish chronicle for 1285-1327' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper at Symposium: New work on sources for the Wars of Independence (University of Glasgow, 31 August 2011)

Stimulated discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'A new approach to medieval national origins: the example of Scotland' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar paper at Université du Luxembourg attended by PGs and staff

Stimulated discussion of comparative perspectives
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'A new approach to the origins of Scotland' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture to Centre for Irish and Scottish Studies, University of Otago oversubscribed by the public so that it had to be held in a bigger lecture room

Enthusiastic interest in Scottish History
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'A new approach to the origins of Scotland' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture in St Mungo's Museum, Glasgow

Blue badge tour guides said they had particularly benefited from it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description 'Did Wallace aspire to be king of Scotland?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'Did Wallace aspire to be king of Scotland?', Past Horizons: Adventures in Archaeology (18 May 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'Did William Wallace Aspire to be King of Scotland?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release resulting in newspaper and other media reports

Stimulated media activity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'Edward I and the Fealty and Homage of the Scots' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture at key event in exhibition of the Wallace Letters

Key lecture delivered before parliamentary debate on 24 August to mark a free exhibition 'Special Delivery: The William Wallace Letters' in the Scottish Parliament from Friday 10 August to Saturday 8 September 2012 mounted by the National Records of Scotland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description 'Exploring contexts for the creation of 'national history': the case of Scotland' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper in symposium on medieval national histories at Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Bergen

Stimulated interest and discussion, particularly of comparative contexts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'New Light Shed on Execution of William Wallace' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'New Light Shed on Execution of William Wallace', Herald, 17 May 2011, p. 9

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'New information on the beginning and end of Wallace's career' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk to students of Williamwood High School

Stimulated interest and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'New information on the beginning and end of Wallace's career' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk to students of Ayr Academy

Stimulated interest and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'Ragman Roll people: preliminary observations' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper at Symposium: New work on sources for the Wars of Independence (University of Glasgow, 31 August 2011)

Stimulated interest and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'Rethinking Scottish origins' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper to John Lydon seminar in Medieval History, Trinity College Dublin

See Above
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description 'Rethinking Scottish origins' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture to NUI Maynooth History Department attended by PGs and staff

Stimulated discussion, particularly of potential comparative perspectives
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'Revisiting William Wallace and the Declaration of Arbroath' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture to Kilmarnock History Society

See Above
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description 'Revisiting William Wallace and the Declaration of Arbroath' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture to Historical Association (West of Scotland branch), Glasgow

Enthusiastic interest and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'Revisiting William Wallace and the Declaration of Arbroath' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture to Dunblane Historical Society

Stimulated enthusiastic interest and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'The production of the Ragman Roll' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper at Symposium: New work on sources for the Wars of Independence (University of Glasgow, 31 August 2011)

Stimulated interest and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'Wallace Had "Aspirations to be King"' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'Wallace Had "Aspirations to be King"', Metro, 17 May 2011, p. 13

Reached mass audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'Why William Wallace Met Such a Brutal End' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'Why William Wallace Met Such a Brutal End', Evening Times, 17 May 2011, p. 7

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'William Wallace "Wanted to be King of Scotland"' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'William Wallace "Wanted to be King of Scotland"', BBC News website (16 May 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 'William Wallace Hung, Drawn and Quartered after "Misunderstanding"' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'William Wallace Hung, Drawn and Quartered after "Misunderstanding"', Scotsman, 17 May 2011, p. 20

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Interview in 'Braveheart: the true story' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on programme on Channel 5

See Above
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Interview on Newsdrive 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Mhairi Stuart (3 mins 58 secs), Newsdrive, BBC Radio Scotland (16 May 2011)

Reached mass audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Interview with Gary Robertson on Good Morning Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Gary Robertson (4 min 58 sec) on Good Morning Scotland, BBC Radio Scotland (14 September 2011)

Reached mass audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Launch of People of Medieval Scotland database by Mike Russell MSP, Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Launch of People of Medieval Scotland database by Mike Russell MSP, Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Lecture on William Wallace as Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture at NTS Bannockburn Centre by Dauvit Broun in Nov 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description New information on William Wallace's rising and execution, and on Edward I's conquest of Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lunchtime lecture at The National Archives

See Above
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Paper by Dauvit Broun, 'Scotland and Britain: a Medieval Perspective', Reframing the Union conference ('Unionism before the Union' Panel), Magdalene College Cambridge 14 September 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Paper at symposium organised by Public/political pressure group (These Islands) and Academic policy group (Cambridge Geopolitics Centre)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Paper by Dauvit Broun, 'The Chronicle of Melrose as an 'active' manuscript', University of Edinburgh Scottish History Seminar 4 October 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper at Research seminar in University of Edinburgh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Paper by Dauvit Broun, 'The use of medieval cartulary manuscripts for research', RSE Workshop 'Researching and curating active manuscripts: Scotland's medieval cartularies' Workshop 1, 23 April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop involving staff from NLS and NRS, led by Joanna Tucker (Univ. of Glasgow)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Paper by Matthew Hammond , 'An introduction to prosopographical databases', University of Catania at Ragusa, Sicily, Strutture didattica speciale di lingue et letterature straniere, seminar series, 25 Oct. 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar paper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Paper by Matthew Hammond , 'McFamilies: surnames and identity in medieval Scotland', Conference of Scottish Medievalists, A. A. M. Duncan Memorial Lecture, Cumbernauld, 6 Jan. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited lecture at conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Paper by Matthew Hammond , 'The Scottish Queens of Norway, evidence and contexts', Royal Women in Scandinavia, 1250-1350 conference, University of Catania at Ragusa, Sicily, 25 Oct. 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited paper at international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Paper by Matthew Hammond Paper by Matthew Hammond , 'Beyond the mutation familiale: a synthesis', University of York, Department of History research seminars, 20 Feb. 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar paper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Scottish Learning Fair presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at SLF

Enthusiastic response
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Battle of Bannockburn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture given at Lyon College (Batesville, Arkansas)

Stimulated interest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Use of website (www.poms.ac.uk) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact www.poms.ac.uk google analytics 18 Feb 2016
Overall
Users: Sessions: Pageviews
69,378 115,231 703,159
There are users in every country in Europe (except Macedonia); Australasia; the Middle East; North, Central and South America (except Paraguay); Asia (except Burma, North Korea, Mongolia, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan); plus 17 countries in Africa and 3 countries in the Caribbean.

By country
In top 10 of sessions, but ordered by number of users
Users Sessions
Scotland: 18,305 (26.4%) 18,305
USA: 16,870 (24%) 22,773
England: 16,100 (23.2%) 16,100
Canada: 4,248 (6.1%) 6,103
Australia: 3,598 (5.2%) 5,338
New Zealand: 1,019 (1.5%) 1,356
Germany: 876 (1.3%) 1,082
France: 729 (1.1%) 1,244
Rep. of Ireland: 443 (0.6%) 717
Japan: 206 (0.3%) 765
Poland: 154 (0.2%) 1,338

By city (all those with 1% or above users or sessions)
Ordered by number of users
Users: Sessions:
Glasgow 6,246 (9%) 13,877 (12%)
London 4,861 (7%) 8,953 (7.8%)
Edinburgh 4,816 (7%) 9,805 (8.5%)
Aberdeen 1,231 (1.8%) 2,286 (2%)
Sydney 952 (1.4%) 1,358 (1.2%)
Melbourne 939 (1.4%) 1,450 (1.3%)
Dundee 748 (1.1%) 1,610 (1.4%)
Brisbane 711 (1%) 1,277 (1.1%)
Inverness 604 (0.9%) 1,343 (1.2%)
York 217 (0.3%) 3,077 (2.7%)
Szczecin 18 (0.03%) 1,116 (1%)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL https://analytics.google.com/analytics/web/?authuser=1#report/visitors-overview/a24308089w47462059p4...
 
Description Visits to schools in Paisley, Larbert and East Renfrewshire (Williamwood) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Interest in application of database for Higher and Advanced Higher History

Enthusiastic response
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013
 
Description Wallace 'not sole leader of revolt against English' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wallace 'not sole leader of revolt against English': Herald Scotland (Brian Donnelly, 15 September 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description William Wallace ally 'was real rebel leader' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "William Wallace ally 'was real rebel leader'": The Times Scotland (by subscription, 15 September 2011)

Reached wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/schools/ 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Site for materials generated by the project and/or written by project team members relevant to teachers and students of Scottish Higher Paper 2 option on Wars of Independence

Welcomed at SATH conference where it was launched
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk/schools/