Heirs to the Throne in the Constitutional Monarchies of Nineteenth-Century Europe (1815-1914)

Lead Research Organisation: University of St Andrews
Department Name: History

Abstract

The constitutional monarchies of nineteenth-century Europe were a remarkable success story. In 1914 France, Portugal and Switzerland were the only republics in a continent of monarchies. Although the model 'Constitutional Monarchy' manifested itself differently in each nation, the concept had clearly established itself as a European norm. This had happened against the background of a dramatically changing environment: revolutions; growing literacy; an expanding public sphere sustained by a variety of media; political parties appealing to larger electorates; changes in Europe's social, economic, intellectual and technological life; imperial expansion and globalization. It points to the strength, suppleness and resourcefulness of monarchical systems that they flourished throughout this century of transformation.

This research project will focus on the roles played by those waiting to come into the glittering inheritance of a European crown. It will pursue a comparative analysis of the heirs to the continent's thrones and offer new findings on the workings of the monarchical system. Because of the biological realities of hereditary rule, heirs to the throne were a crucial component. While they were anticipating the end of the current reign, crown princes such as Frederick William of Prussia, 'Bertie' Prince of Wales or Archduke Rudolf of Austria embodied both dynastic continuity and the inevitability of change. Depending on the specific political, cultural and constitutional contexts as well as on the individuals involved, they could consolidate or undermine the status quo, play momentous or insignificant roles, embody change or stasis.

Notwithstanding this variety, heirs to the throne offer fascinating insights into the European norm. An investigation of the contribution they made to the functioning, malfunctioning, transformations and rigidities of the systems whose future pivoted on them helps us better to understand the politics and political cultures of monarchical Europe as well as the institutions and individuals that sustained the crowns.

The project will build on the existing body of research tackling dimensions of nineteenth-century monarchy in the fields of media history, cultural history and transnational history. Rather than proceed biographically, the project will address thematic questions across several constitutional monarchies (Britain, France, Italy, Spain, the German states and Austria):

- Did heirs to the throne stabilise monarchical systems by supporting the political status quo or by acting as a vehicle of hope for future change? Or were they corrosive of the current reign by crystallizing internal opposition?
- What was the international role of heirs to the throne (e.g. through dynastic marriages, attendance at functions, travel, public diplomacy etc.)?
- Did heirs to the throne function as intermediaries between the sovereign/governmental authority and the people? In what ways did they interact with different publics, parties, parliaments and the media? How important were new styles of princely comportment (embourgeoisement, folksiness) and the creation of a celebrity public image through various media?
- What use was made of their public profile for the transmission of political messages?
- Were heirs to the throne perceived as embodying generational change?
- Were heirs to the throne engaged in generating 'soft power' and did networks (such as counter-courts or coteries) play a role here?
- Can their roles be placed into Bagehot's categories of 'dignified' and 'efficient'?

The project aims to explore the role of flexibility, resourcefulness, media acumen and societal integration in the success of nineteenth-century monarchies. It will invite a reconsideration of interpretations which emphasize their allegedly pre-modern, feudal, manipulative or oppressive elements and help to explain the continuing popularity of monarchical structures across many contemporary European societies.

Planned Impact

The proposed research tackles a historical topic that is not only important but also colourful, accessible and attractive. It will place a cast of remarkable characters - such as Queen Victoria's notorious son 'Bertie', Germany's much-loved Crown Prince Frederick William or the tragic Archduke Rudolf of Austria - into an analytical and systemic context. This will generate new findings about the ways in which Europe's crown princes dealt with the status quo and the different publics surrounding them, how much the various European countries differed in this respect and what role heirs played in the successes and failures of these monarchies. These issues can be communicated effectively and appropriately to a wider general audience.

Beyond the group of academic beneficiaries already identified the project's findings will be of interest to:
- members of the public with an interest in History and especially the history of Europe's monarchical past,
- students of History at school and undergraduate level,
- teachers of History at primary and secondary levels,
- individuals and firms working in journalism, the media and other parts of the creative industries planning to produce material on any of the issues addressed by the project,
- museums, exhibitions and visitor attractions.

These groups of users will benefit from the proposed research by gaining a fuller understanding of the historical origins of European states and societies, of the ways in which hierarchical systems have adapted to changing circumstances and of the mechanisms used to build approval and communicate consensus. The outputs generated by the proposed projects (published texts and online material) will inform a broad historical awareness, learning and teaching at school, the commissioning and production of media content and the design of other locations of Knowledge Transfer (exhibitions, museums etc.).

Constitutional hereditary monarchies are not merely a phenomenon of the past, though. They continue to exist as important cultural, political and social formations in numerous European countries (United Kingdom, Low Countries, Scandinavia, Monaco, Liechtenstein). The roles played by heirs to the throne, their relationship with the public and their contribution to the stability and future success of the monarchical system therefore retain a direct relevance. The proposed research will thus have significant cultural and political impact because it identifies ways in which monarchical systems interacted with their societies, how heirs to the throne communicated and generated loyalty and affection, how they provided leadership and role models, how they manoeuvred amongst different forms of media and how they responded to change.

In the light of the continuing topical relevance of its findings on royal heirs - esp. in connection with issues such as the role of the media, public images, soft power, networks and coteries, generational representation and the heirs' 'efficient' discharge of public duties - the project is likely to have impact on another circle of beneficiaries. It will influence:
- policy makers responsible for issues such school and university curricula, cultural policies and constitutional questions as well as
- those working in the media and public intellectuals commenting on issues in connection with the monarchy across present-day Europe. The topical issue of the Prince of Wales's public and discreet involvement in questions such as town planning, architectural merit, complementary medicine is a case in point.
 
Description The research for this project is still being finalised at the moment. Both PhD projects successfully completed and the degrees have been awarded. One of them has since been published as a monograph (R. Meyer Forsting, Palgrave, 2018); the other is currently being prepared for publication. The PI has published one monograph based on the project (Palgrave, 2017), while another major book by the PI summarising the key results for a wider readership is due for publication on 1 April 2019. The book by the postdoc researcher in under contract and forthcoming. Morevoer, there have been a number of milestones (above all, two international conferences resulting in two edited volumes and more than 30 essays published open access and online) which offer a strong interim summary of our findings:

(1) Royal heirs played a central role in effecting and communicating a process of monarchical adaption and modernisation (and, ultimatley, survival) in 19th-century Europe.
(2) Their functions and roles can be analysed as a manifestation of the permanently changing nature of this institution.
(3) They were prominently engaged in arenas at the centre of wider modernisation processes (education, political markets, generation of multi-layered identities, communication with wider audiences).
(4) They helped monarchical systems to develop a portfolio of "soft powers" and further drove that process - thus effecting a change in the role and perception of constitutional monarchies.
(5) They did, however, remain caught up in the "synchronicity of the asynchronous" that characterised key formations within the political culture of 19th-century Europe. While this may well have impacted dramatically on their personal lives, it may well have contributed to maintaining the hybrid mystique of late-modern monarchy and thus to its survival.
(6) Our studies of the monarchical experience in a variety of European nations/states (Britain, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Prussia, Austria, Württemberg, Saxony, Bavaria, Denmark, Baden) have indicated a high level of convergence and transnational/trans-dynastic communication leading to the adoption of broadly similar techniques and symbolic idioms.
Exploitation Route We aim to provide our findings in a variety of formats in order to enable a wide range of users to access them comfortably. We hope that our material will enrich the engagement with historical and cultural issues undertaken by teachers, individuals working in the media, museums and galleries, the heritage industry and also by the general public. As we have sought and continue to seek to engage with the academic community (through conferences and papers as well as publications) we also hope to contribute to a better understanding of the topics of our work amongst fellow researchers.
Sectors Education,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://heirstothethrone-project.net/
 
Description Centrally through our website/social media [facebook, twitter] (monthly essays and interactive time-line) but also through the PI's contribution to a radio feature (Bavarian Radio [BR]) the project has disseminated its findings to wider audiences with an interest in the political culture of 19th-century Europe and especially the history of monarchy. We have also recently started a process of making some of our content available in an audio-format (as downloadable podcasts, accessible form our website, advertised through facebook & twitter) to reach a wider range of end-users. This process is ongoing.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description German History Society; Conference Award
Amount £290 (GBP)
Organisation German History Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Germany
Start 08/2013 
End 09/2013
 
Description Honorary Fellowship, Historisches Kolleg, Munich (free accommodation in central Munich and travel expenses; the value given below is my estimate)
Amount € 1,500 (EUR)
Organisation History College 
Sector Academic/University
Country Germany
Start 01/2014 
End 02/2014
 
Description Royal Historical Society - Student Travel Bursary (for M. C. Marchi)
Amount £250 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Historical Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 04/2015
 
Description Royal Historical Society, Conference Award
Amount £200 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Historical Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 09/2013
 
Description Royal Historical Society; Conference Award
Amount £200 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Historical Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 09/2015
 
Description Russell Trust Award (for R. Meyer Forsting)
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Organisation Russell Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 08/2015
 
Description School of History, Research Fund
Amount £400 (GBP)
Organisation University of St Andrews 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 06/2014
 
Description A visiting researcher from Madrid (Carmina Lopez Sanchez) joined my group at St Andrews for several months; she took part in our meetings, presented papers and contributed to our outputs. 
Organisation Charles III University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We hosted the visit, made the university's resources (library, IT) available to the visitor, integrated her into our research group and gave her guidance on her work as well as on English-language publishing.
Collaborator Contribution Ms Lopez Sanchez participated in our meetings, gave two papers, contributed a paper to our 1st international conference, wrote a number of pieces for our website and contributed a chapter to an edited volume produced by the project.
Impact Research Guide: "The Spanish Monarchy in the 9th Century" (http://heirstothethrone-project.net/?page_id=826) "Alfonso XII - Prince of Asturias" (http://heirstothethrone-project.net/?page_id=826) "The Succession of an Unbirn King: Constitutional Politics in Spain after the Death of Alfonso XII", in: FL Müller & H. Mehrkens (eds), Sons and Heirs (Basinstoke, 2015), 147-159.
Start Year 2013
 
Description visiting researcher (Prof. R. Sanchez, University Complutense, Madrid), Feb.-July 2018 
Organisation Complutense University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Prof. Sanchez's attention was drawn to the work of the research group and she successfully applied for a Spanish government grant to spend six months in St Andrews to continue her own research on the modernisation of the Spanish monarchy in the 19th century here. I extended a formal invitation to Prof. Sanchez and am hosting her as her mentor during her time in the UK. Prof. Sanchez will give papers during her time here and work on her current book.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Sanchez already supported one of the project's research student during his archival trips in Spain and will conitnue to advise students active in this area. She will also give a research paper on her current work whilst at St Andrews.
Impact none yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description "Europe's Royal Heirs and the future of the Monarchy in the 19th Century" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I was inivited to give a paper on my research by the Hisatory Department of the Unversity of Bonn (Germany). The talk was given on 14 June 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Masterclass" (presentation plus Q&A) given to staff, grad students and undergrad students at the Munk Centre for Globas Affairs (Toronto) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a paper to a research seminar convened at Toronto's "Munk Centre for Global Affairs". About 25 staff and students attended. There was a lengthy Q&A session afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description "Winning their Trust and Affection": Royal Heirs and the Uses of Soft Power in 19th-Century Europe (University of St Andrews) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The talk sparked questions and contributed to wider debate on the uses of soft power by nineteenth century monarchies.

After my talk I was able to discuss my research extensively with experts in the field. Furthermore the paper will form part of a published volume.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://heirstothethrone-project.net/?page_id=1176
 
Description ASMI (Association for the Study of Modern Italy) Annual Conference (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The annual Association for the Study of Modern Italy conference was held at the Italian Cultural Institute in London and was a two day conference focused on the history of education. My paper was part of a panel about the nationalising effects of education and was entitled: 'Education Royalty: the Making of Italian Princes, 1860-1900.' It sparked numerous questions and fuelled a very engaging discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.asmi.org.uk/conferences/
 
Description ASMI Postgraduate Summer School (Edinburgh) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A group of about 25 postgraduates and professors attended my paper, which was then followed by numerous questions and a lengthy discussion.

I received positive feedback regarding my work and am currently developing my paper into a longer article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description ASMI Postgraduate Summer School (University of Reading) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Their youth and grace will conquer those people more than reason or discourse could do": Italy's First Royal Wedding, 1868.

The paper was well received and discussed.



There seemed to be widespread interest in the topic nd it sparked many questions which allowed me to broaden my own understanding of the topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://asmi.org.uk/documents/uploads/ASMI_PGSS_2015_Programme.pdf
 
Description Academic Conference: The Price of Peace. Modernising the Ancien Régime? Europe 1815-1848. (Paris) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact More than 50 people attended the event at various times. The outcome will be a forthcoming publication of an article based on the paper given at the conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference Die preußisch-welfische Hochzeit 1913, Wolfenbuettel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 90 people attended, discussion and questions afterwards.

Article on the topic of my talk will be published in a conference volume in 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference presentation on thwarted dynastic hopes in France and Germany (York) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact I gave a talk (togther with my postdoc Dr H. Mehrkens) at conference on Royal Loss, York University

Requests for further collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Die Erziehung eines konstitutionellen Monarchen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Paper given at the Humbold university in Berlin. The purpose was to inform about our project as well as my individual research and its findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Early Modern and Modern History Postgraduate Forum (St Andrews) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation of the various steps of postgraduate work, from applying to a PhD to the final stages of writing up. I was invited to advise and inform first year PhD Master's students on how to make the most of the first year, along with giving tips and showing them useful research tools.

The presentation allowed numerous questions to be asked and academic preoccupations to be dealt with in a friendly environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Fifth Annual Meeting of the Nineteenth Century Hispanism International Network (Munich) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk was received favourably and led to suggestions from fellow researchers and interesting questions on the paper.

I was asked after my talk to look at giving further talks at Seminars at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://heirstothethrone-project.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Munich-Hispanistasxix-Programme-April...
 
Description Historical Perspectives Seminar (University of Glasgow) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a paper at the Historical Perspective seminar series in Glasgow entitled 'Constructing Italian-ness in Naples, 1868-1870.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Historikertag Göttingen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 85 historians and students of history attended this talk; lively discussion and Q/A afterwards.

People asked for further information about how to apply for our forthcoming conference in 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.historikertag.de/Goettingen2014/
 
Description Institute of Historical Research, Modern Italian History Seminar Series (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of the annual Modern Italy seminar series I gave a paper , 'The Savoia and the South: Cultural Reinvention in Post-Risorgimento Italy', in the session titled 'Conceptualising the Italian South.' Since the audience was made up of experts the discussion following my paper was very enagaging and useful.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.history.ac.uk/events/seminars/138
 
Description International conference (St Andrews) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The project team organised a two-day conference focused on key aspects of our work. About 40 researchers, pg students and members of the public attended.

Further collaboration; edited conference volume; eventually establishment of a new publication series ("Studies in Modern Monarchy"; hosted by Palgrave/Macmillan)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://heirstothethrone-project.net/?page_id=295
 
Description Paper on royal heirs in smaller German monarchies (Research Seminar, St Andrews) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

colleagues have engaged in discussions with me afterwards, interest in the role of constitution in securing the independence of small states
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public lecture on 19th-century Royal Heirs (Munich) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact about 60 membes of the public attended a lecture I gave at the Historisches Kolleg in Munich; my talk was followed by about 30 mins of Q and A

I was approached by a publisher about the book that would result from my research and have since received an offer of a contract.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public lecture on 19th-century royal heirs (Dresden) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a talk to PG students at Dresden University; Q and A session afterwards.

Requests for further collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public lecture on 19th-century royal heirs (Potsdam) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact About 25 PG students at Potsdam University attended my talk; followed by Q&A

REquests for further collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Royal and National Education: A Laboratory for Italianità 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a paper at the Late Modern History Seminar Series at the University of St Andrews
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SIS Postgraduate Colloquium (University of St Andrews) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact My talk, titled "Inventing the Contemporary: Umberto and Margherita, Italy's heirs to the throne," was followed by numerous questions and a discussion regarding Italian identity.

The questions asked allowed me to expand my own understanding of my work and prompted me to analyse various issues that I had not yet tackled.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://italianstudies.org.uk/postgraduates/colloquium/
 
Description Seminar taught: Experience Aberdeen, University Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Seminar taught on the relationship between monarchy and the media in the early 20th century, based on research done during the project. 25 international visitors from various schools attended (prospective students for AY 2018/19). Students shared in the discussion that they had not thought about instruments and themes of royal representation before and that monarchical history was an interesting (not widely known) topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminars taught: International Visiting Groups (September and November 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Two seminars taught on the relationship between monarchy and the media in the early 20th century, based on research done during the project. 25 international visitors from Sweden and Norway attended (prospective students for AY 2018/19). Students shared in the discussion that they had not thought about instruments and themes of royal representation before and that monarchical history was an interesting (not widely known) topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Symposium on 'The Configuration of the Spanish Public Sphere' (Warwick University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk led to questions afterwards and discussions on the role of the military in nineteenth century Spain.

After the talk I was approached by the organisers about the possibility of contributing to a future contribution and invited to give a talk at a Seminar series at Warwick.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconfigurationofthespanishpublicsphere.wordpress.com/
 
Description Talk at the International Conference: Denmark, Scandinavia and Europe 1814-1848: Monarchies, Emotions, and Nations (1-4 November 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 40 participants attended my talk For Glory, Dynasty and Nation: Soldier Princes in Prussia and France (1830-1848) and engaged in discussion afterwards. Invitation to contribute a chapter to the planned proceedings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at the International Conference: The Modern Invention of Dynasty: A Global Intellectual History, 1500-2000 (21-23 September 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 40 students, academic colleagues and members of the public sphere attended my talk 'In Dynastic No-Man's Land: Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Habsburg and the Throne of Mexico' which sparked a lively discussion afterwards and interest in further collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at the International Conference: The Price of Peace: Modernising the Ancien Régime? Europe 1815-1848 (August 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint talk with Richard Meyer-Forsting, St Andrews University, on 'Heroic Heirs. Monarchical Succession and the Role of the Military in Restoration Spain and France' received a lively discussion and the invitation to contribute a chapter to the conference proceedings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk: Annual Lecture Series of the History Society, Aberdeen University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 15 Senior Honours students attended this talk, which kicked off the annual lecture series of the History Society. The talk sparked a lively discussion afterwards, with several students pointing out that the topic was an inspiration for future research (on MLitt / PhD level).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Teaching First-Year Undergraduates (Module MO1008: Themes in Late Modern History) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I taught a 12 week module for first year undergraduates (tutorials were made up of groups of 6 students) spanning from nation-building to the Vietnam war.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Undergraduate History Workshops (St Andrews) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Each workshop was attended by over 15 undergraduates. Positive feedback meant that in the coming years these workshops will be supported financially by the University.

Undergraduates reported they felt more confident in the areas discussed (working with sources, exams).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Winning their Trust and Affection Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper Title: Selling the Monarchy: Building a Royal Market in Post-Risorgimento Italy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Workshop "The 19th Century as a Monarchical Century", Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact good working atmosphere and discussions with our group of students

German National Scholarship Foundation ("Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes") asked if we would be interested in teaching further courses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.studienstiftung.de/auslandstreffen.html
 
Description Workshop Geboren, um zu herrschen, Tübingen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Ca. 100 people attending, lively discussion.

Article in conference volume (to be published in 2014).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description presentation at international workshop (Aarhus Institute of Advanced Study) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I contributed to an international workshop on "Visibility of the Ruler and the Ethno-National Mindset" organised at the University of Aarhus (Denmark) Centre for Advanced Study. I led the discussion of my paper (on 19th-century German heirs to the throne) and acted as lesd discussant for a paper on the modern press. About 18 other scholars attended. There were two days of discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://networks.h-net.org/node/5293/discussions/141081/cfp-ruler-visibility-modernity-and-ethnonati...
 
Description presentation at research colloquium in Berlin (Humboldt University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact About 30 people attended my presentation on the future of monarchy in Imperial Germany. The audience was mainly PG students of History at the Humboldt University, but there were also a few professional colleagues (university teaching staff and researchers) and a few members of the public. After my 60-minute presentation there was about half an hour of Q&A on the arguments I had presented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.hsozkult.de/event/id/termine-32104
 
Description project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have designed, created and are maintaineing a project website.

Wide international awareness of our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://heirstothethrone-project.net/
 
Description talk to lay organisation (Longniddry and District Probus Club) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact I was inivited to give a paper (plus Q&A) to a meeting of the Longniddry & District Probus Club. About 45 members attended (and also the German Consul-General in Edinburgh). There were about 10 questions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018