Stepping stones to the Neolithic? Islands, maritime connectivity and the 'western seaways' of Britain, 5000-3500 BC

Lead Research Organisation: University of Reading
Department Name: Archaeology

Abstract

Research context

The Neolithic is the term used for the period in our past when the shift from hunting and gathering wild animals and plants to a farming lifestyle occurred. This change happened at different times and in different ways throughout the world, beginning around 10,000 BC in the Middle East and around 4,000 BC in Britain and Ireland. The process by which the Neolithic arrived in Britain and Ireland is currently a hotly debated topic. Some scholars argue that colonists moved wholesale from the continent (bringing farming, pottery, etc. with them from France and/or Belgium), but others have suggested that the indigenous population of Britain gradually adopted the farming lifestyle on their own terms (possibly as a result of a broad shift in their worldview). What is agreed is that some contact between Britain, Ireland and the European mainland must have occurred in the centuries around 4000 BC for the change to happen at all, and that this most likely happened across the 'western seaways' - an arc of sea extending approximately from the Channel Islands in the south, through the Isles of Scilly, the Isle of Man and the Hebrides, around to Orkney in the north.


Aims and objectives

The Stepping Stones project places the islands around Britain firmly at the centre of this key contemporary archaeological debate. This project contends that a detailed understanding of Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic activity within this important zone of contact has the potential to make a crucial contribution to our understanding of the processes of transition, both within the western seaways and on either side. Our central research questions are:

- When did the Neolithic arrive on each island group within the western seaways?

- What is the earliest Neolithic evidence on each island group? Does the presence of 'foreign' artefacts suggest the arrival of colonists from the Continent?

- What was the sea like during this period, and how did any changes affect seafaring practices?

In order to answer these questions, we will:

- Create a new database of all known Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic sites (and associated radiocarbon dates) within the western seaways zone

- Excavate one site on each of three different island groups, to find new evidence where very little is currently known

- Carry out a major programme of radiocarbon dating to date the arrival of the Neolithic on each island group

- Undertake a new programme of oceanographic modelling, in order to establish where the sea actually was, and what sailing across it would have been like, between 5000 and 3500 BC


Applications and benefits

We feel that it is vital for the project to benefit both the academic community and the wider public.

We will publish our academic results via a series of journal papers, and will also hold an international conference about prehistoric connections between Britain, Ireland and the Continent (leading to an edited book on the same theme). We will also disseminate our findings to public sector bodies in order to ensure that they are able to use them when drafting policy documents designed to safeguard coastal sites in future.

In order to ensure that the wider public are able to find out as much as possible about the project, we will hold a number of outreach events to coincide with our excavations (open days, public lectures, museum displays, etc.). We will also develop a series of educational web resources linked directly to the project's research. These will include:

- A website, setting out the project's results in accessible language

- A 'western seaways' navigation game, designed to give children (and others) a fun angle on prehistoric seafaring

- A Google Earth 'plugin', enabling users to visualise changing sea levels in the past, providing an important deep-time context for modern and

Planned Impact

English Heritage's draft Research Strategy for Prehistory states that 'prehistory is poorly understood among the British public in comparison to other historical periods', highlighting the All-Party Parliamentary Archaeology Group's 2003 report which severely criticised the 'neglect' of prehistory within the UK's school curricula. In response to these issues, EH's strategy highlights the need for 'displays, web resources, community projects and other outreach initiatives to do with prehistory ... in order to engage new audiences and provide teachers with what they need'. Our first three pathways to impact will provide a set of resources designed to benefit the wider public in exactly these ways.

The project's most immediate impact will occur during the course of our excavations, in which we will involve a broad cross-section of the local community. For each site, we will hold one open day and one public lecture. Given the main target audience of the project website, we will also work closely with local primary schools. In hosting these events, we will be engaging the general public in aspects of their island's cultural heritage, and so contributing to their knowledge and quality of life. We will also invite members of local amateur archaeology societies to take part in our excavations, providing them with an opportunity to develop archaeological skills and experience, and to share their ideas and expertise with us.

In conjunction with our project partner museums, we will produce a display to run concurrent with each excavation. These will help visitors to appreciate the importance of each island group in terms of the big questions being asked. In drawing on a 'live' excavation and research project, these displays will bring a fresh, contemporary feel to each museum. Overall, this will lead to financial benefits for the museum and the local area plus cultural and social benefits for visitors. The project will also involve the analysis and publication of artefact collections previously recovered from each site; this will add considerable value to these existing museum resources.

Alongside these island-specific impact strategies, we will also develop a series of innovative and engaging, but firmly educational web resources. Their main target audience will be primary school age children, but the content will also be relevant to the wider public. Again, the structure of this element will be tiered, with the local scale of each island group being made clearly relevant to bigger issues (e.g. sea level change over time). These will provide schools with a new teaching resource, and the general public with an accessible learning experience.

The project also has significant potential to impact upon government and public sector policy. 'Research framework' documents are currently being written for the Isles of Scilly, Scotland, and the 'maritime and marine historic environment' in England. Both DG and FS have been asked to contribute to the former, FS is a co-author and project director of the latter. Our research will be conducted in relation to the research aims outlined in these documents, but given the present paucity of Early Neolithic settlement evidence, it is likely that our findings will change them significantly for the future as well. In addition, because all three of the sites to be excavated are under direct threat from coastal erosion, our findings will have significant policy and scheduling implications for how sites in sensitive coastal environments such as these are managed in future. Research into the impact of coastal erosion was identified as one of six 'critical priorities' within EH's Strategy. Importantly, our palaeoenvironmental work will provide time series data that can be used to assess rates of coastal change and erosion over the Holocene. These data, and the outputs from both our modelling and GIS w

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
AH/I021841/1 30/06/2011 13/01/2014 £160,727
AH/I021841/2 Transfer AH/I021841/1 13/01/2014 11/04/2015 £49,379
 
Description The Neolithic is the period when the shift from hunting and gathering wild animals/plants to a farming lifestyle occurred. This change happened at different times throughout the world, beginning around 4000 BC in Britain and Ireland. The process by which the Neolithic arrived is currently a hotly debated topic. Some scholars argue that colonists moved wholesale from the continent, but others suggest that the indigenous population adopted a farming lifestyle on their own terms. What is agreed is that some contact between Britain, Ireland and the European mainland must have occurred in the centuries around 4000 BC for the change to occur at all, and that this most likely happened across the 'western seaways' - an arc of sea extending from the Channel Islands in the south, through the Isles of Scilly, the Isle of Man and the Hebrides, around to Orkney in the north.

The Stepping Stones project placed these island groups firmly at the centre of the debate, arguing that a detailed understanding of Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic activity within this important contact zone had the potential to make a crucial contribution to our understanding of the processes of transition, both within the western seaways and on either side.

Our main research goals were to:

- Excavate one site on each of three different island groups, to find new evidence

- Undertake a programme of oceanographic modelling, to establish where the sea actually was, and what sailing across it would have been like 5000-3000 BC

- Create a database of all well-dated Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic sites within the western seaways zone and carry out a programme of radiocarbon dating to date the arrival of the Neolithic on each island group

This project succeeded in meeting all of its objectives, having an impact on regional and national academic and heritage management agendas.

All three of our excavations produced very exciting results, including the earliest extensively excavated Neolithic settlement on the Channel Islands and the longest continuous sequence of Neolithic archaeology from the Outer Hebrides. Perhaps our most significant single finding was a large collection of Mesolithic (immediately pre-Neolithic) flint tools in Scilly: these were not like types found in southern England, but rather those normally associated with northern France and Belgium. This suggests, very surprisingly, that there must have been Mesolithic maritime links down the entire length of the Channel, revealing that people were more mobile and travelled longer distances across the sea than archaeologists have previously realised.

Our oceanographic modelling also provided some very important results - suggesting for example that Jersey was connected to France for up to 4000 years longer than Guernsey, and that the Isles of Scilly were actually one island until the Iron Age. Our extensive radiocarbon dating programme (incorporating over 300 dates) has transformed our appreciation of the chronology of the Earliest Neolithic within the western seaways zone.
Exploitation Route The Stepping Stones project has undeniably raised the profile of prehistoric archaeology on all five island groups. We anticipate that, as a result, more research projects will be undertaken there in future; one example includes our own work in 2016 on Neolithic islet sites on the Isle of Lewis, Outer Hebrides. The project as a whole successfully highlighted the potential that these island groups offer; further work is required in order to make them directly comparable with the mainlands either side.

Our dating programme highlighted the potential that a future dating project focused on tombs would have. In addition, our recovery of continental European microliths on Scilly has raised wide interest in a project (potentially both museums and fieldwork-based) looking for comparable assemblages along the south coast of England. Our sea level models will represent the 'gold standard' for archaeological mapping for the foreseeable future; these will be used for heritage management purposes and research.

Finally, we feel strongly that the project has demonstrated the tremendous potential that projects which integrate 'hard' archaeological science (modelling) with humanities-based questions. We hope that others will be inspired to undertake comparable integrated projects in future.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://www.reading.ac.uk/archaeology/research/neolithicsteppingstones/_/Home.html
 
Description The project had four stated primary pathways to impact: 1. Public participation in excavations (and associated events) Our excavations were spread over three different islands/island groups around Britain (Guernsey, Channel Islands; St Martin's, Isles of Scilly; South Uist, Outer Hebrides). We had very successful public participation in all three, in terms of (1) local people helping out on our excavations, (2) local people, tourists and school groups visiting our sites on open days, and (3) local people and tourists coming along to our related museum talks. All of these groups reported a changed understanding of the region's prehistoric past following their visits. We also achieved substantial media coverage within each island group and beyond. As well as increasing people's sense of belonging to, or interest in, the local areas concerned, we were able to enskill and train a number of local amateur archaeologists who helped out on our excavations. In total, our public engagement numbers were as follows: - Museum display visitors: 5700 (4200 Guernsey; 1300 Scilly; 200 [estimated] Uist) - Open Day visitors: 450 - Museum lecture attendees: 185 - Local people participating in our excavations: 14 - Press coverage: 14 newspaper/website, 8 radio, 2 TV In addition to these island-specific events, we have also given a total of 12 talks at conferences or other events aimed at the general public around Britain (in addition to 9 that were aimed at a primarily academic audience, but would also have involved members of the public). 2. New museum displays Each of our three project partner local museums housed Stepping Stones project exhibitions during our excavation periods and beyond. In the case of Guernsey and Scilly, these were seen by thousands of visitors. In drawing on a 'live' excavation and current research project, these displays brought a contemporary feel to each museum. Overall, this led to financial benefits for the museums and their local areas, plus cultural and social benefits for visitors. In the longer term, our project has also enhanced the collections within these museums by (a) analysing and publishing artefact collections recovered previously from each site, and (b) providing new information about the archaeology of the region, adding understanding and thus value to the existing collections. 3. Innovative web-based learning resources The project website was an active method of communication to all audiences from the start. Here we conveyed the results of our excavations to all interested parties, and provided access both to our 'western seaways' navigation game and to our chronologically animated Google Earth overlays, enabling users to visualise changing sea levels in the past. All three elements were designed to engage the wider public in relation to key elements of our research, providing innovative, accessible ways into our findings. In addition to the website, our project twitter feed currently has 780 followers, and the project youtube channel has had a total of 3554 views. Outputs from the project were also incorporated into week 3 of the free online course Shipwrecks and Submerged Worlds. In three runs this course has had over 20,000 participants. Specifically students on the course actively engaged with the work on sea-level change and reflected on what this meant in terms of their understanding of global, regional and local (pre)history. The inclusion of this content saw a deliberate attempt to move online learners from passive to active learning, with the associated content attracting detailed comments from participants. Website: http://www.reading.ac.uk/archaeology/research/neolithicsteppingstones/_/Home.html Twitter: https://twitter.com/neolithic_steps Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/user/Neolithicsteps Futurelearn: https://www.futurelearn.com/Shipwrecks 4. Creation of new knowledge to inform government/public sector policy As a direct consequence of our work in the Isles of Scilly, both PI Garrow and CI Sturt were invited to contribute to the 'Isles of Scilly Historic Environment Research Framework' (Johns 2012). This document was commissioned by English Heritage, with contributions from the Isles of Scilly AONB Unit, the Council of the Isles of Scilly and the Duchy of Cornwall. The document's main aim was the provision of a structure in which to make decisions about future historic environment research and heritage management. In addition, the sea-level 'time slice' maps we produced (downloadable as kmz files that can easily be integrated into GIS mapping projects) have already been used by a wide range of heritage management professionals as well as academics, enabling them to plot sites in relation to the prehistoric coastline more accurately than ever before. Specifically, the models have been: incorporated into the new Strategic Environmental Assessments commissioned by Department of Energy and Climate Change (delivered by the British Geological Survey), referenced as a major data source within Historic England's research into how we quantify and value submerged prehistoric archaeology (HE projects 6918 'Determining Potential' and 'The social context of submerged prehistory') and assessment of coastal heritage assets (Rapid Coastal Zone Assessments of Dorset, North Devon and Cornwall). Additionally, the sea-level outputs from this research have also been used within Environmental Impact Assessment processes for major capital infrastructure projects at Hinkley Point, Sizewell and for the London Array offshore wind farm.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Islands of Stone: Neolithic Crannogs in the Outer Hebrides
Amount £761,802 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/S010157/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 12/2022
 
Description Islands of stone: excavating the earliest 'crannogs' in Scotland
Amount £9,988 (GBP)
Funding ID SG162537 
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 10/2018
 
Description Islands of stone: excavating the earliest crannogs
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation Society of Antiquaries of London 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 10/2018
 
Description Society of Antiquaries of London research grant
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation Society of Antiquaries of London 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 08/2016
 
Title Palaeogeography models 
Description Changing palaeogeography of NW Europe over the last 10,000 years at 500 year intervals 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It has featured in International Press coverage and has attracted citations in journals across a wide range of disciplines 
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440313001982
 
Title Stepping Stones project archive - site records, sea level models, radiocarbon dates database 
Description This archive relates to the 'Stepping Stones to the Neolithic' project. It includes archive material from three different sites (L'Erée (LER) Guernsey, An Doirlinn (AND) South Uist and Old Quay (OLQ) St Martin's, Isles of Scilly); a scanned paper archive, scanned plans, photographs, GIS shapefiles of excavated areas and features, post excavation finds catalogues and context lists, and specialist (pottery and lithics) data. In addition, radiocarbon data and associated OxCal modelling script and sea-level model outputs for the UK are included. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Research data made available publicly 
URL http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/stepping_ahrc_2012/
 
Title Stepping Stones radiocarbon database 
Description Database of all radiocarbon dated Mesolithic and Neolithic sites (and dates) in the Channel Islands, Isles of Scilly, Isle of Man, Outer Hebrides and Orkney 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Unknown at present 
URL http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/stepping_ahrc_2012/overview.cfm
 
Title Google Earth sea level maps 
Description Overlays of our palaeogeographic models which are compatible with Google Earth. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact Public use 
URL http://www.reading.ac.uk/archaeology/research/neolithicsteppingstones/_/Sea.html
 
Title Google Earth seafaring game 
Description Game whereby people can explore Neolithic seafaring in Google Earth 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Public use 
URL http://www.reading.ac.uk/archaeology/research/neolithicsteppingstones/_/Game.html
 
Description 10 minute interview on Radio Scilly (27.10.15) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 10 minute interview on Radio Scilly about the Old Quay microliths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description An Doirlinn site open day (14.7.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open day for the public on site at An Doirlinn excavations. Attended by 50-70 people.

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Article in Dutch national newspaper NRC Weekend (22.6.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact article in Dutch national newspaper NRC Weekend about our sea level models: 'De Nordzee, de Nordzee'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Article in The Cornishman (6.10.14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 6 October 2014 - article about our Old Quay excavations in The Cornishman

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.cornishman.co.uk/Significant-Neolithic-pottery-site/story-23025515-detail/story.html
 
Description Article in The Cornishman newspaper (19.9.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Thursday 19th September 2013 - article in The Cornishman newspaper summarising the results of the project.

Unknown.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Article in The Guernsey Press (3.9.11) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article about the project: "L'Eree dig probes the Neolithic technology gap". The Guernsey Press has a daily circulation of more than 16,000, and is read by 38,000 people every day, more than 80% of the island's adult population.

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Article in The Independent (23.9.11) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article about the project: "Ancestors' lifestyle change probed by archaeologists"

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/ancestors-lifestyle-change-probed-by-archaeolo...
 
Description Article in the Island News and Advertiser (1.4.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article announcing the project in the Island News and Advertiser [Outer Hebrides]: "Hunt for earliest Hebridean settlers". Circulation unknown.

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Article in the Island News and Advertiser (1.8.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article summarising the results of the project in the Island News & Advertiser [Outer Hebrides]: "Going potty at An Doirlinn". Circulation unknown.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Article in the Stornoway Gazette (19.7.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article summarising the results of the project in the Island News & Advertiser [Outer Hebrides]: "Looking for Neolithic answers in South Uist". Circulation c. 11,000.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Article in the Stornoway Gazette (19.7.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article summarising the results of the project in the Island News & Advertiser [Outer Hebrides]: "Looking for Neolithic answers in South Uist". Circulation c. 11,000.

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Article on 'Scilly Today' website (27.10.15) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact article on Scilly Today website about the Old Quay microliths:
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.scillytoday.com/2015/08/27/st-martins-discovery-is-rewriting-the-history-books/
 
Description Article on front page of AHRC website (16.2.15) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article on front page of AHRC website, "Neolithic Stepping Stones, An AHRC project has revealed how Neolithic settlers travelled across Britain's western seaways".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/research/readwatchlisten/features/neolithicsteppingstones/
 
Description Bradford University archaeology research seminar (26.11.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at research seminar and discussion afterwards.

Audience interested to hear the results of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Cambridge University Archaeological Field club research seminar (1.2.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk about the project at Cambridge University

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Cardiff University research seminar (3.11.11) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk about the project at Cardiff University

N/A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Interview on BBC Radio Guernsey (31.8.11) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 3 minute radio interview about the project on BBC Radio Guernsey (Jim Cathcart morning show). BBC Radio Guernsey has 22,000 listeners per week.

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Interview on BBC Solent drive time 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio interview about the project on BBC Solent drive time

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description L'Erée site open day (11.9.11) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open day for the public on site at L'Erée excavations. Attended by 150-200 people

N/A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Open day at Old Quay, St Martin's (13.9.14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Saturday 13th September 2014, 11am-4pm - open day at Old Quay, St Martin's. Attended by around 80 people. It was great to be able to show the people of St Martin's what we had found this year, and to provide day trippers to the island with yet another exciting thing to see on St Martin's. Local people were very interested to know what we'd found in a field which they thought they knew...

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Open day at Old Quay, St Martin's (21.9.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sunday 21st September 2013, 11am-4pm - open day at Old Quay, St Martin's. This event turned out to be really well-attended, with 80-100 visitors.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Poster display at Guernsey Museum (27.8.11 to 17.9.11) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Poster display in the foyer of Guernsey Museum explaining the project and our excavations at L'Erée. Visitor figures for the museum: 2639 in August and 1626 in September.

Changed understandings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Poster display at Museum nan Eilean, Benbecula (1.6.12 to 31.8.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Poster display at the Museum nan Eilean explaining the project and our excavations at An Doirlinn. Visitor figures unknown.

Museum curator reported that "The exhibition along with the public talk given by the team in the museum raised the profile of the project locally and also increased interest in the archaeology of the Outer Hebrides in general".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Poster display at the Frossard Theatre, Guernsey Museum (2.9.11) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about the project at Guernsey Museum

Possibly attracted visitors to exhibition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Poster display in the Isles of Scilly Museum (August-September 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact August-September 2013 - poster display in the Isles of Scilly Museum explaining the project

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Research seminar at the University of Oxford, Institute of Archaeology (23.10.15) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at the University of Oxford, Institute of Archaeology research seminar: 'Stepping stones to the Neolithic? Islands, maritime connectivity and the 'western seaways' of Britain, 5000-3500 BC'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description TV report on the project on BBC Alba news (10.7.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2 min report (with interview) about our excavations at An Doirlinn on BBC Alba news (the BBC's Gaelic channel). Average audience 500,000.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SJ4vpYazQU&list=UU0J2KMn1VDU8mMC82OCRuzw
 
Description TV report on the project on STV (16.7.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2 min report on STV about the 'Frankenstein mummies from Cladh Hallan' also included a piece on our excavations at An Doirlinn and an interview with Fraser Sturt.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk and site tour at Old Quay (19.9.14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Friday 19th September 2014 - talk and site tour at Old Quay, St Martin's, for those attending the Walk Scilly 2014 event. They seemed fascinated by what we'd found, and very pleased to hear such hot off the press news.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk at Archaeology in Cornwall 2014 conference (15.11.14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Future event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.cornisharchaeology.org.uk/index_htm_files/Archaeology%20in%20Cornwall%202014%20programme%...
 
Description Talk at Kildonan Museum, South Uist (9.7.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about the project at Kildonan Museum. Attended by c. 50 people. Great interest shown.

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk at Museum nan Eilean, Benbecula (4.7.12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about the project at Museum nan Eilean. Attended by c. 40 people.

"The exhibition along with the public talk given by the team in the museum raised the profile of the project locally and also increased interest in the archaeology of the Outer Hebrides in general. The changes in sea level projections were especially interesting as this is a topic very close to the hearts of many islanders. Seeing the mapping of the changes to our coastline cemented other findings and other local discussions about coastal erosion"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk at Prehistoric Society Europa conference, Cardiff University (30.5.14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to large conference audience, lots of questions and discussion afterwards.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.prehistoricsociety.org/files/EUROPA_2014_flier.pdf
 
Description Talk at St Martin's Island Hall (23.9.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Monday 23rd September 2013, 6pm - talk by project directors Duncan Garrow and Fraser Sturt at the brand new St Martin's Island Hall about the 'Stepping Stones to the Neolithic project' and our excavations at Old Quay. It was great to see so many people from the island there (with perhaps 50 people in attendance), to be able to give everyone who came a bit more of an idea about the 'big picture' questions our project is hoping to answer, and to field many excellent questions.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk at the 'Landscapes and Monumentality in Neolithic Britain' day school, University of Oxford (8.2.15) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk at the 'Landscapes and Monumentality in Neolithic Britain' day school, University of Oxford: 'Understanding seascapes, contextualising monumentality'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at the 'Yesterday Today: Bronze Age connections in a modern world' conference, Dover (19.10.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Saturday 19th October 2013 - talk at the 'Yesterday Today: Bronze Age connections in a modern world' conference, Dover: '5000-500 BC: the changing seascapes of the southern north sea and manche/channel region'.

Audience very engaged and interested to hear about the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk at the Council for British Archaeology (South-East) Conference (14.11.15) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk at the CBA South-East Conference ('Life in the Mesolithic and new perspectives on the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition'): 'Stepping Stones to the Neolithic: Seafaring, Connectivity and the Mesolithic/Neolithic Transition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cbasouth-east.org/events/cbase-annual-conference/
 
Description Talk at the Isles of Scilly Museum (10.9.14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wednesday 10th September 2014, 5pm - talk by project directors Duncan Garrow and Fraser Sturt at the Isles of Scilly Museum, St Mary's about 'Old Quay, St Martin's and Mesolithic seafaring in NW Europe'.

Changed understanding/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk at the Isles of Scilly Museum (11.9.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wednesday 11th September 2013, 5pm - talk by project directors Duncan Garrow and Fraser Sturt at the Isles of Scilly Museum, St Mary's about the 'Stepping Stones to the Neolithic project' and our excavations at Old Quay, St Martin's.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk at the Prehistoric Society day school (9.3.16) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk at the Prehistoric Society day school on 'The Land, the Sea and the Sky': Islands in prehistory: linking land, sea and sky.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.prehistoricsociety.org/events/event/london_day_school_the_land_the_sea_and_the_sky/
 
Description Talk to Leicestershire fieldworkers, Jewry Wall museum, Leicester (20.11.14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Future activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Three 15-minute interviews about our excavations on Radio Scilly (6, 13, 27 Sept 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Friday 6th, 13th and 27th September 2013 - three 15-minute interviews about our excavations and the Stepping Stones project on the Toby Tobin-Duggan show, Radio Scilly.

Changed understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Two interviews on Radio Scilly (15.9.14 and 8.10.14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Monday 15th September and Wed 8th October 2014 - two interviews about our excavations and the Stepping Stones project on Radio Scilly, following on from regular communications in 2013.

It is difficult to say, but I would imagine that the audience were very interested in the local archaeology going on.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description University of Reading research seminar (1.2.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk about the project at the University of Reading, given by Fraser Sturt.

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description University of Reading research seminar (2.2.15) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Stepping stones to the Neolithic? Islands, maritime connectivity and the 'western seaways' of Britain, 5000-3500 BC'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Visit on site from St Martin's base Five Islands School (24.9.13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Tuesday 24th September 2013 - visit on site from the 12 pupils and 2 teachers of the St Martin's base of the Five Islands School. It was great to show everyone around the site, and we were very grateful for all of the help we received (washing a lot of finds!).

Changed understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013