Identifying activity areas in Neolithic sites through ethnographic analysis of phytoliths and geochemical residues

Lead Research Organisation: Bournemouth University
Department Name: Faculty of Science and Technology

Abstract

The Neolithic in southwest Asia (c 11,700-7800 cal BP) is a critical period in human history; it was during this time, that people made the transition from living in small hunter-gatherer groups, occupying temporary camps, to fully fledged agriculturalists living in large sedentary communities.

The reason why people made this transition is one of the great unanswered questions of our time. What is apparent, however, is that this development not only altered the way people interacted with their environment, but also the social structure within communities, ultimately leading to the development of complex societies.

Despite the importance of the Neolithic in southwest Asia, archaeological sites, particularly those from the earlier Pre-Pottery Periods (c 11,700-8250 cal BP), often prove difficult to interpret due to their ephemeral nature and the scarcity of biological remains.

In order to gain a greater understanding of such sites, we will develop and validate a method based on more durable forms of evidence that are often the result of human activities, i.e. phytoliths (bodies of silica that form in and around plant cells) and geochemical elements (traces of chemicals in soils, e.g. phosphorous, calcium and manganese). The aim is to determine if different areas have specific phytolith and geochemical signatures which can be used to recognise these same areas archaeologically.

This will be achieved through ethnographic research using two settlement types: Bedouin tent sites and abandoned mud and stone constructed villages. These have been chosen because they provide the best available analogies for the Neolithic sites which will be analysed as part of this project. The Bedouin tent sites will be the ethnographic analogy for the small scale, ephemeral, pastoralist, and seasonally occupied sites of Wadi el-Jilat and Azraq, while the abandoned villages near Shawbak on the Jordanian plateau and the village of Shammakh, north of Wadi Mousa will be the comparison for the more substantial, stone and mud brick constructed sites of Ain Ghazal, Beidha, and WF16.

Limited existing ethnographic research (conducted in other geographical regions) has focused either on phytoliths or geochemical elements but not both. They demonstrated that these methods are informative about the use of space within settlements. This project will be the first large scale ethnographic study to integrate these two types of analysis. It will also be the first to explore how much taphonomy (i.e. the processes assemblages go through from creation to analysis) affects the composition of phytolith and geochemical assemblages.

As Principal investigator, Jenkins will be supported in this research by a number of eminent and experienced researchers, namely:

Dr Carol Palmer (Director of the British Institute in Amman, Council for British Research in the Levant-CBRL), who will be a Project Partner. Palmer originally took the majority of the Bedouin camp samples, will assist with the ethnographic work and archaeological sampling and, as Amman Director of the CBRL, is in a unique position to arrange the fieldwork from within Jordan

Prof John Grattan (Pro Vice Chancellor, Aberystwyth University) who will conduct the geochemical analysis and subsequently act as an advisor

Dr Helen Smith, (Visiting Research Fellow, Bournemouth University) who carried out the Bedouin camp sampling with Palmer and will also advise on the ethnographic aspects of the project.

This represents a strong and experienced multi-disciplinary team with an established history of conducting research in Jordan (although not previously together). This project is a natural culmination of the participants' interests and expertise. Furthermore, as much costly fieldwork has already been undertaken, and, as Palmer and Grattan are giving their time on a non-stipendiary basis, this research offers the AHRC excellent value for money.

Planned Impact

We are committed to outreach and public engagement and, as a result, have teamed-up with two communication professionals:

Edwards, a professional broadcaster and journalist with more than 20 years experience. Her former employers include the BBC, Channel 4 and Channel 5. She spent 11 years as a producer for BBC Television News in London and has been teaching television journalism at Bournemouth University since 2008.

Marsh, an award-winning young filmmaker. His short film Noirville has screened at more than 20 international film festivals and won 3 awards.

This collaboration will expand the societal impact of our project and ensure that the following groups benefit from our research:

1) Society as a whole: Archaeology is concerned with improving our understanding of past human groups and societies. The work of archaeologists provides the knowledge, sites and artefacts that are the mainstay of organisations such as English Heritage, as well as contributing to collections within museums. This project enhances archaeological knowledge not only by increasing our understanding of the Neolithic of Jordan, but also, by extension, of many other geographical regions and time periods by the application of the combined phytolith and geochemical method by others. This will be facilitated by the following deliverables:

An Access database of the signature phytoliths and geochemical elements (D1.1)
A Google Picasa database of the modern Jordanian phytolith references (D1.2)

2) Cultural tourists to Wadi Faynan: We will produce a documentary for the Wadi Faynan museum which will enhance the tourist experience by demonstrating how the region fits into the greater Neolithic heritage of Jordan and how scientific archaeology can facilitate this knowledge. Due to the construction of an Eco-Lodge, Wadi Faynan now attracts approximately 10,220 visitors/year who will benefit from this video installation (D7.1).

3) Key Stage 2 aged children and above: We will initiate an outreach programme to increase cultural and environmental awareness in children aged 7 and above in the UK and Wadi Faynan. This will involve the production of an educational documentary featuring a family in the UK and two Bedouin families in Jordan. The film will look specifically at the rubbish the families generate, how this is disposed of, and feature footage of us conducting scientific analysis in order to demonstrate how rubbish can leave invisible, but environmentally harmful, microscopic traces in the soil for thousands of years (D7.2).

The team will consult with Mithen (Susan) who has worked as a primary school teacher for 28 years, visited Wadi Faynan and its school many times, and taught lessons there as a guest teacher. She will help develop the associated learning resources to accompany the documentary. Furthermore, the project has an agreed collaboration with St Luke's Primary School, Bournemouth and the Wadi Faynan School, Jordan who will utilise these resources in their teaching.

4) The Wadi Faynan Community: We believe that it is vital to involve the Wadi Faynan community in this project because without their participation and encouragement this research would not be possible. This project will benefit the Bedouin in the following ways:

The video installation for the Wadi Faynan museum (D7.1) will help enhance the tourist experience which is of value to the local Bedouin who derive much of their cash income from tourism.

Both documentaries enhance local self-esteem by demonstrating that Wadi Faynan is of world wide interest and importance and by showing that people in other countries are interested in Bedouin culture.

N.B. The databases and documentaries will be available via the project website and the ADS website. The documentaries will also be uploaded to: Youtube, Vimeo and, in the case of the documentary for children, the resource sharing website for teachers: www.primaryrescources.co.uk.
 
Title Jordan:Looking Forward into the Past 
Description A short film featuring our research in Jordan aimed at tourists to Jordan to increase their awareness of the Neolithic heritage of the country. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact This film was only completed and screened at Bournemouth University, Media School for the first time in October 2014 with final edits being completed in November 2014. As such it has not had time to gain any notable impacts. However, we will give copies of this film to: 1) the Ministry for Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan; 2) the Department of Antiquities of Jordan; 3) the Media Commission, Jordan; 4) the Baquee'a Tourism Cooperative for screening in their visitor centre, 5) the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature for screening at their Ecolodge in Wadi Faynan and 6) to Royal Jordanian Airlines for use as part of their in flight entertainment program. The Jordanian premier of the film took place at the opening of the Matan Eco Village in June 2015. The event was inaugurated by the Jordanian Minister for Tourism and Antiquities-Nayef Al Fayez. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAqEjlhYKXY
 
Title Undertaking Archaeology as a Subject 
Description A short film featuring our fieldwork in Jordan aimed to encourage school/college children to study Archaeology at degree level. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact This film was only completed and screened at Bournemouth University, Media School for the first time in October 2014 with final edits being completed in November 2014. As such it has not had time to gain any notable impacts. It will, however, be used extensively by Bournemouth University for Outreach work and specifically by Jenkins in her work as a STEM Ambassador. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXmklP5xXMg
 
Description We conducted a large scale combined analysis of phytoliths (bodies of silica that form in and around plant cells) and geochemical elements from ethnographic sites to determine if certain activity areas, for example middens, hearths, and floors, have particular phytolith and geochemical signatures that can help us recognise these same areas in archaeological sites . We used southwest Asian Neolithic sites (c 11,700-7800 years ago) as our case study. As part of this research we investigated how phytolith and geochemical assemblages are altered through time by taphonomy (i.e. the processes assemblages go through from creation to analysis which can alter their composition). Our research on the ethnographic sites showed positive results and demonstrated that phytoliths and geochemistry can be used to identify activity areas (Jenkins et al 2017). For example, the geochemistry allows us to identify hearths and other fire installations but the phytoliths allow us to identify what was used as fuel e.g. dung, wood, reeds etc. Analysis of samples from the Neolithic sites demonstrated that phytolith and elemental signatures were strongest for fire deposits and for categories linked to construction practices, particularly for the make-up of floors and features. Other categories such as middens showed more variation in their phytolith and elemental signatures which reflected their mixed nature. The influence of the natural source materials, available local vegetation and specific practices/constructions/alterations meant that for some categories inter-site differences between categories were found. Overall, however, the ethnographic results added greatly to our understanding of the patterns we recorded at the archaeological sites, and offered comparisons to use in our interpretations of the archaeological samples.
Exploitation Route The results of our phytolith and geochemical analysis can be used by others working on similar sites to help interpret how settlements were built and used. Our method, therefore, can be useful to archaeologists working outside the Neolithic of southwest Asia both temporally and geographically.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Education,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

 
Description Our work on the ethnographic village of Al Ma'tan, which has been conducted with the help and support of the Baquee'a Tourism Cooperative Society, has had a societal impact in Jordan through the promotion of the village as an Eco-village and tourist destination. This has been achieved through encouraging the cooperative to promote not just their natural heritage but also their cultural heritage and we intend to expand this by reconstructing one of the original houses; we are currently in the process of preparing a grant application in order to achieve this. The launch for our film-'Jordan: looking forward into the Past'- was premiered at the opening of the Matan Eco-village with full support and patronage from the Minister for Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan. This film is now played to tourists in the visitor centre at the Ma'tan Eco-village. http://jordantimes.com/news/local/fayez-inaugurates-matan-ecolodge-tafileh The other film we made Undertaking 'Archaeology as a Subject' has been a fantastic outreach tool for Jenkins in her work as a STEM Ambassador and is used in about five visits to A Level centres per year.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Construction,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description Corporate Sponsorship
Amount £700 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Jordanian Airline 
Sector Private
Country Jordan
Start 04/2014 
End 05/2014
 
Description Department of Archaeology, Anthropology and Forensic Science Research Funding
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Bournemouth University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 07/2017
 
Description Funding in kind for Film Launch in Tafileh, Jordan
Amount د.أ.‏ 700 (JOD)
Organisation Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities 
Sector Public
Country Jordan
Start 06/2015 
End 06/2015
 
Description Funding in kind for Film Launch in Tafileh, Jordan
Amount د.أ.‏ 200 (JOD)
Organisation Baquee'a Tourism Cooperative Society 
Sector Public
Country Jordan
Start 06/2015 
End 06/2015
 
Description Ph.D Studentship Funding
Amount £45,000 (GBP)
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2015
 
Description Small Research Grant
Amount £883 (GBP)
Organisation Bournemouth University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2014 
End 08/2014
 
Description Sponsored Seminar
Amount £30 (GBP)
Organisation Association for Environmental Archaeology 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Description Collaboration between Bournemouth University and Aberystwyth University 
Organisation Aberystwyth University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborating on this project has allowed Aberystwyth University, Geography and earth Sciences department to expand its research within Jordan which will expand its research profile.
Collaborator Contribution Aberystwyth University have provided expertise in the area of geochemistry which is essential for this project.
Impact Successful 2014 field season Film: Studying Archaeology as a Subject Film: Looking Forward into the Past-Multi-disciplinary (Ethnography, Media Studies, Archaeology, Geography, Geology, History, Tourism) Talk for Tourists at Wadi Faynan Ecolodge: the Copper Mines of Wadi Faynan
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration between Bournemouth University and the Council for British Research in the Levant (CBRL), Amman 
Organisation Council for British Research in the Levant (CBRL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Enhanced the reputation of the CBRL, Amman office by: 1) Increasing their research profile 2) Enabling greater interaction with local communities through ethnographic research and the production of a film to be used in tourist centres in Amman, Al Ma'tan Visitor Centre and the Wadi Faynan Eco Lodge 3) Increasing their research resources through the creation of a Jordanian phytolith reference collection
Collaborator Contribution The contribution made by the CBRL has been invaluable to the project. Dr Palmer's knowledge of Jordan and it's people made the the ethnographic aspects of this project possible. Dr Palmer speaks fluent Arabic and is well respected in both Wadi Faynan and Al Mat'an where the ethnographic work was conducted. The colaboration with the CBRL made the logistical planning for fieldwork in Jordan much easier, particularly in terms of obtaining the fieldwork permits and the specific permissions needed to import the Portbable-X-Ray Florescence machine and the filming equipment from the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities.. The CBRL laboratories and hostel also made a good base for field team members to stay and conduct sample analysis and packaging for export. Furthermore, it was reassuring to know that as project partners of the CBRL we were working with the support of the Jordanian security forces and the British Embassy in Amman, not a factor to be overlooked considering the current situaiton in many parts of the Middle East.
Impact 1) Successful three week field season in Jordan in April 2014 2) Film aimed at tourists to Jordan entitled: Jordan: Looking Forward into the Past 3) Film aimed at AS and A Level students: Studying Archaeology as a Subject 4) Conference posters: • Developing International Geoarchaeology (DIG 2013): "Exploring the Taphonomy of Past Daily Activities: A Geochemical and Phytolith Analysis of Bedouin Camp Sites and Neolithic Structures in Jordan" Daniella Vos, Emma Jenkins, Carol Palmer, Andrew Garrard, Helen Smith and Tim Darvill • British Association of Near Eastern Archaeology (BANEA 2014):"Using the Present to Study the Past: Reaching a Better Understanding of the Neolithic through Phytolith and Geochemical Analysis of Ethnographic Sites in Jordan" Daniella Vos, Emma Jenkins, Carol Palmer, Andrew Garrard and Helen Smith • International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (ICAANE 2014): "Phytolith and Geochemical Preservation in Bedouin Camps at Wadi Faynan, Jordan" Daniella Vos
Start Year 2014
 
Description A talkat the British Institute in Amman, Council for British Research in the Levant 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk was given by Dr Carol Palmer at the British Institute in Amman entitled: Villages on the Edge: Whither Rural Heritage of Jordan? This was an event held jointly by the Council for British Research in the Levant (CBRL) and the French Institute of the Near East (IFPO). This would have had a mixed audience comprised of the general public, academics, members of NGOs, students from various parts of the world. This talk had a significant impact with much debate and discussion for future directions with regards to sustainable heritage solutions in Jordan. This talk was reported on in the Jordan Times
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/british-scholar-explores-forgotten-rural-heritage-jordan%E2%80...
 
Description AEA Conference presentation-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A conference presentation was given at the 2014 Association for Environmental Archaeology entitled: A new integrated approach to understanding household activity areas using phytolith and geochemical signatures from ethnographic and archaeological sites in Jordan. Jenkins, E., Palmer, C., Allcock, S., and Elliott, S.

This increased the profile of our project particularly to those interested in Environmental Archaeology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/INEA-AEA-Nov2014-conference-abstract.p...
 
Description AEA Sponsored Talk 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A talk was delivered within Bournemouth University as part of the Archaeology Seminar Series. This increased awareness of the project within our institution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Archaeology Talk on Wadi Faynan 16 to South Wessex Archaeological Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation on one of the sites included in the INEA project was pressnted to a local Archaeological group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Archaeology outreach visit which included showing the short film "Undertaking Archaeology as a Subject" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We conducted an Archaeology/Anthropology workshop to encourage students to study the subjects at undergraduate level. This included showing our short film-Undertaking Archaeology as a Subject- which was made as part of our fieldwork in Jordan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXmklP5xXMg
 
Description Archaeology outreach visit which included showing the short film "Undertaking Archaeology as a Subject" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Four students from this college have applied to study Archaeology at undergraduate level after attending our workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXmklP5xXMg
 
Description BANEA Conference Poster Presentation-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A poster was presented at the British Association of Near eastern Archaeology Conference 2014 entitled: Using the present to study the past: reaching a better understanding of the neolithic through phytolith and geochemical analysis of ethnographic sites in Jordan. Vos, D., Jenkins, E., Palmer, C., Garrard, J., and Smith, H.

This increased awarness of our project to other academics working in the Near East
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BANEA Conference Presentation-2015-Allcock 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A presentation was given at the 2015 British Association for Near Eastern Archaeology Conference, London entitled: Ethno-geochemical studies of activity related chemistry patterns and their application in neolithic site interpretation: Allcock, S., Elliott, S., Jenkins, E., Palmer, C., and Grattan, J.

This increased awareness of our research among other academics interested in Near Eastern Archaeology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/INEA-BANEA-Jan2015-conference-abstract...
 
Description BANEA Conference Presentation-2015-Palmer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A conference presentation was given at the 2015 British Association for Near Eastern Archaeology Conference, London, entitled: Rural settlement, house forms and oral histories in southern Jordan: Palmer, C., Jenkins, E., Allcock, S., Elliott, S., Maricevic, D., Bqa'in, F. and Grattan, J.

This increased awareness of our research among other academics interested in Near Eastern Archaeology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/INEA-BANEA-Jan2015-conference-abstract...
 
Description BANEA Conference Presentation-2015-Vos 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A presentation was given at the 2015 British Association for Near Eastern Archaeology Conference, London entitled: Studying Phytolith and Geochemical Soil Signatures in Bedouin Campsites at Wadi Faynan, Jordan. • Vos, D., Jenkins, E., Palmer, C. and Smith, H.

This increased awareness of our research among other academics interested in Near Eastern Archaeology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BANEA Conference Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A talk was given at the 2019 British Association of Near Eastern Archaeology conference entitled:

Understanding construction and activity areas at Neolithic sites through combined ethnographic, phytolith and geochemical investigation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference Session at BANEA 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The INEA Project ran a session at the 2015 conference for the British Association for Near Eastern Archaeology entitled: Combining Ethnoarchaeology with Scientific Approaches
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference presentation Society of American Archaeology 82nd Meeting Vancouver, BC Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A paper was given in a session for the Society of American Archaeology 82nd Meeting in Vancouver which has a wide-ranging audience. The details of the presentation are as follows: Using geochemistry, phytoliths and ethnographic analogy to interpret Neolithic settlements in southwest Asia
Emma Jenkins, Carol Palmer, Sarah Elliott, Samantha Allcock, and John Grattan
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EAA Conference-2015-Allcock 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A poster was presented at the European Association of Archaeologists, Glasgow, 2015 entitled: Understanding neolithic Activity Areas in Jordan through combined Ethnographic, Phytolith and Geochemical analysis. Allcock, A., Jenkins, E., Elliott, S., Palmer, C. and Grattan, J.

This increased awareness of our research among other archaeologists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description EAA Conference-2015-Vos 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A presentation was given at the conference for the European Association of Archaeologists 2015 Glasgow, entitled: A Tale of Two methods: Applying Phytolith and Geochemical Analysis to Study the Use of Space at Ethnographic and Neolithic Ephemeral Sites in Jordan. Vos, D., Jenkins, E., Palmer, C., and Smith, H.

This increased awareness of our research among other archaeologists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Film Screening of: Looking Forward into the Past, at the Wadi Faynan, Eco-Lodge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The film highlighting the importance of the Neolithic heritage of the region was screened at the eco-lodge for tourists and the for the local Bedouin, many of whom are tourist guides and are appreciative of any extra information about the archaeology of the region that they can include in their talks to tourists. The film also high-lights the importance of the Bedouin traditions and gives local people a sense of pride in their own culture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAqEjlhYKXY
 
Description ICHAJ Conference Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk presented at the 14th International Conference on the History and Archaeology of Jordan entitled: Understanding construction and activity areas at
Neolithic sites through combined ethnographic,phytolith and geochemical investigation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Jordanian Film Launch of: Looking Forward into the Past, under the patronage of the Minister of Tourism and Antiquities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Jordanian Film Launch of-Jordan:Looking Forward into the Past- was scheduled to coincide with the Opening Ceremony of the Ma'tan Hotel and Ecological Camp for Tourism where much of our fieldwork and filming took place. The event was jointly hosted by the Council for British Research in the Levant, the Al-Baqee'a Cooperative Society and the Ministry for Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan. The event was of great significance both locally to the people of Tafilah but also nationally with the Ministry laying on a coach to transport interested parties from Amman to Tafileh.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3P1EDBKYag
 
Description PCCT Conference-2015-Palmer, Petra 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A conference presentation was given at the 1st Petra International Conference on Cultural Tourism, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Jordan entitled: New Research on the Old Village of Al-Ma'tan: Futures for the recent past. Palmer, C., Jenkins, E., Allcock, S., Elliott, S., Maricevic, D. and Grattan, J.

This talk highlighted the importance of our work at the ethnographic village of Al Ma'tan from a cultural heritage perspective in collaboration with the Baquee'a Tourism Cooperative Society. The village has now been opened up as a visitor centre with accommodation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/INEA-PCCT-May2015-conference-abstract....
 
Description Poster presentation at the 2014 International Congress of the Ancient Near East, Basel, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A poster was presented entitled: Phytolith and Geochemical Preservation at Bedouin Camps at Wadi Faynan by Daniella Vos

This increased awareness of our research among fellow academics working in the Near East
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Daniella-Vos-ICAANE-poster.pdf
 
Description Poster presented at the Council for British Research in the Levant conference entitled: The Past in the Present of the Middle East (London)-Jenkins 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact We presented a poster at the Council for British Research in the Levant 2016 conference 'The Past in the Present' of the Middle East. The audience for this event was a mix of academics and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SAA Conference-2015-San Francisco, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A conference presentation was given at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA), San Francisco entitled: An Integrated phytolith and geochemical approach to understanding activity areas and the choice of building materials in Neolithic sites using ethnographic analysis. Jenkins, E.L., Palmer, C., Grattan, J., Allcock, S. and Elliott, S.

This increased awareness of our research among archaeologists from around the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description SESAME Conference-Elliott, Amman, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A conference presentation was given at the 12th Synchroton-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) entitled: A synthesis of a range of analytical techniques used in archaeological projects in Jordan, Iraq, Iran and Turkey: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, portable X-ray fluorescence, environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, IR spectroscopy and synchrotron based IR microscopy. Elliott, S., Matthews, W., Palmer, C., Jenkins, E., Almond, M., Anderson, E., Lisa-Marie, S., Allcock, S. and Grattan, J.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description School visit (Isle of Wight College) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact vvv

vvvvv
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description School visit (Swindon College) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact vvvvv
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description School visit about studying Archaeology and Anthropology at undergraduate level where we showed the film-Undertaking Archaeology as a Subject 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This workshop built a relationship between the local Ringwood Steiner School and Bournemouth University where we now help the school with Archaeology and Forensic Science practicals. As a result of this activity one student has applied to study Archaeology and Anthropology at undergraduate level.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXmklP5xXMg
 
Description Talk For Tourists at Wadi Faynan Ecolodge: the Neolithic Occupation of Wadi Faynan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 40 international tourists to Wadi Faynan who were staying at the Eco-lodge attended this talk which was given by Dr Emma Jenkins. They were very interested to learn about the Neolithic occupation of the area The talk also provided important information for the tour guides and the Powerpoint presentation was given to the Eco-lodge for their own future use.

Many of the tourists requested visits to the sites covered during the talk from their tour guides.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk at the Association for Environmental Archaeology conference (Rome)-Vos 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The talk was entitled: Combining phytolith analysis and geochemistry to study ephemeral sites in dynamic environments' and had the following co-authors: Daniella Vos, Emma Jenkins, Andrew Garrard and Carol Palmer. It was presented at the Association for Environmental Archaeology Conference which comprises academics and professional practitioners. It succeeded in heightening awareness of our research and publcising the methods that we have been devleoping.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk at the British Academy (London)-Jenkins 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A Talk was given entitled: Traces of life: using geochemistry, phytoliths and ethnographic analogy. This was held at the British Academy and was a mixture of the general public and academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at the British Institute in Amman, CBRL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sarah Elliott delivered a talk entitled: Human, animal and environmental interactions: Interpreting Neolithic farming communities through scientific ethnoarchaeology as part of the Science and Archaeology lecture series. Approximately 40 people attended which included academics and the general public. The talk was reported in the Jordan Times here:http://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/study-modern-society-can-answer-archaeological-questions-scholar-says
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://soundcloud.com/cbrl_sound/human-animal-and-environmental-interactions)
 
Description Talk at the International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (Vienna)-Vos 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A paper presented at the 10th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (Vienna). The paper was entitled: Exploring methods for site characterisation in ephemeral Neolithic and ethnographic sites in Jordan'. The co-authors were: Daniella Vos, Emma Jenkins, Andrew Garrard, Carol Palmer and Helen Smith. Feedback was excellent with many questions asked and a lot of discussion after the talk particularly around the methods used.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk by Sarah Elliott at the Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This talk was delivered at the Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus and increased awareness on among academics and the general public about the research we have been undertaking in Jordan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk for Tourists at Wadi Faynan Ecolodge: the Copper Mines of Wadi Faynan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 40 tourists attended the talk which provided important information from an expert on the topic (Prof John Grattan) about the past mining activities that have taken place in Wadi Faynan and how the affects of this activity can still be seen in the landscape today.

This led to a large number of questions on the topic and fueled the audience's interest in the mining activities that had taken place in the past in Wadi Faynan. It also provided important information to the tour guides who then incorporated some of this into their own tours and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk for Tourists at the Wadi Faynan Ecolodge: the Ethnography of Wadi Faynan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 40 tourists attended a talk about the ethnography of the Wadi Faynan region by an expert on this topic (Dr Carol Palmer).

This talk promoted discussion among the tourists and the local hotel staff and tour guides. This led to an increase in the awareness of the local people on how important their culture and history is on a Global scale.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk-University of Sheffield, Department of Archaeology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk entitled: Enviro-Ethnoarchaeology and Archaeology: Scientific approaches in archaeology utilising an ethnoarchaeological approach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description We presented a poster at the 13th International Conference in the History and Archaeology of Jordan (Amman)-Palmer 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A poster was presented at the 13th International Conference in the History and Archaeology of Jordan (Amman). The audience for this event was a mix of academics, policymakers and the general public. Much interest was shown in our research and how it relates to cultural heritage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016