Fashion and Translation: Britain, Japan, China, Korea

Lead Research Organisation: Royal College of Art
Department Name: School of Humanities

Abstract

This project will form a new network to examine the role of clothing fashions as a powerful and pervasive cultural intermediary between Britain, Japan, China and Korea. Fashion crosses and confounds geographical boundaries in a myriad of ways, and yet notions of Britishness, Chineseness and Japaneseness remain central to the dynamics of fashionable dress as cultural expression. This year, Tokyo Fashion Week hosted the first Japanese Tweed Run, a bicycling event that celebrates nostalgic notions of British eccentricity through the motif of traditional tweed. Meanwhile, in Britain, the prime-time television drama Doctor Who has drawn harsh criticism for dressing its hero in an acrylic-mix fake Harris tweed jacket manufactured in China. Fashion design often uses the 'exotic' as a reliable source of novelty and luxury, but an item of fashionable clothing can be designed in one hemisphere, manufactured in another, and retailed globally while maintaining a brand identity attached to nation. British high-street chain Marks and Spencer and the Japanese label Uniqlo have multiple stores in China. Both of these brands have also recently been joined on London's Oxford Street by Chinese store Bosideng who are set to create the first tangible presence of Chinese high street fashion in Britain. In China, the influence of Korean fashion is also increasing and threatens to displace the position of Japan as a style leader in some fashion sectors. Internet shopping and fashion blogging further calls into question the significance of national borders, while promoting highly distinct European and East Asian identities.
The last decade has also seen a sea change in fashion studies. Western forms of fashion within non-western contexts are being reconsidered to produce new readings of fashion as a far less geographically contingent vehicle for individuality, cosmopolitanism, ethnicity, and global networks of money, goods and ideas. East Asian fashion is recognised as 'speaking' to British consumers as European fashion has 'spoken' to East Asia. The network that we are proposing draws on UK and internationally based academics, artists, museum curators and fashion industry professionals who will work together to produce a new understanding of transnational fashion exchange as an agent of cultural translation.
In three themed workshops, the network will forge new relations between fashion academics, fashion professionals, artists and museum collection managers, in creative interdisciplinary dialogues that connect concepts of fashion, brand identity and actual fashion garments. The critical focus and network membership across the national boundaries of Britain, Japan, China and Korea will increase understanding of fashion translations from non-UK perspectives and create long-lasting knowledge exchanges at an international level, with gains for industry and commerce as well as fashion studies. The benefits will include knowledge and skills exchange across disciplinary and national boundaries to improve understanding and rejuvenate the conceptualisation and practice of fashion across the international academic community, third sector and private sector. We will further develop and disseminate new directions in fashion studies by authoring a special issue of a leading peer-reviewed journal and will develop a website that makes our activities and findings accessible to students, the fashion industry and the wider public. We will also lay the foundations for a substantial larger project. Our reference points of Britain, Japan, China and Korea will serve as starting points from which to set a future research agenda on global transnational fashion exchange.

Planned Impact

This network will benefit the third sector (fashion museums and institutions), the commercial private sector (fashion industry), and the wider public. Its effects will increase understanding across national, cultural and disciplinary boundaries, counter cultural stereotypes of East and West, enhance the creative and cultural economy, and augment business opportunity. Dynamic workshop exchanges between academics, museum and fashion professionals will maximise the communication of skill sets and knowledge, and showcase the unique resources of particular stakeholders within the network. For example, increased knowledge of the holdings of fashion collections contributes to the scope of future research and provides an invaluable resource for artists and the fashion industry. Critical academics engagements with cross-cultural fashion exchange increases understanding of cultural dynamics and social responsibility within the fashion industry and fashion business, while industry practitioners expose academic and museum practitioners to economic and merchandising factors that are crucial in understanding fashion today. Artists and designers pose challenging questions and provide provocative responses to issues of fashion and cultural identity. Academics also provide detailed historical contexts and theoretical frameworks for fashion which museum professionals can use to better situate their collections.

Fashion collection specialists will form an important part of this transnational network. Curators whose research and collections are informed by cultural exchange between East Asia and Britain and within East Asia have already agreed to be network participants and speakers. These include: Tamami Suoh and Akiko Fukai (Kyoto Costume Institute), Anna Jackson and Pauline Lemoigne (Victoria and Albert Museum) and Alexandra Palmer (Royal Ontario Museum). The work of these curators informs the display and interpretation of fashion in important public museums, contributing to increased public awareness of inter-cultural issues in fashion. Curators also shape the collecting policies of these key institutions, with regard to contemporary East Asian fashion and inter-cultural exchange in fashion garments. This embeds the social impact of the network's thematic focus still further, supports future study in this area for fashion designers, and increases future opportunities for public exhibitions.

The industry-based members of our network will also extend our impact into the private sector. The 2012 Autumn/Winter collection of Dries van Noten is a recent high profile haute couture example of how fashion designers use museum textile collections to innovate. Van Noten's study of Chinese, Japanese and Korean garments at the Victoria and Albert Museum fed directly into the production of a new collection that has had wide fashion and popular media coverage. Commitments to our network have already received from: Ted Young-Ing, former Senior Designer at Gucci and art director and founder of the Tweed Run that exploits Britishness with cultural and fashion events in Japan and Britain; Christine Tsui, a fashion merchandiser in mainland China, who is researching contemporary Chinese fashion and seeks to set up an archive of East Asian fashion designers for the use of academic and industry researchers; and Pernille Rudlin who, as European representative for Japan Intercultural Consulting, works with Japanese fashion companies such as ASICS and Uniqlo to facilitate European/East Asian business interactions though greater inter-cultural understanding. Workshop speakers such as these, and other fashion industry professionals who have registered their interest in participation in our network, will provide another means by which the network's activities will enhance the research capacity, knowledge and skills of businesses, and contribute towards wealth creation as well as public awareness and understanding of the societal issues of cultural exchange.
 
Description This Network project has fully met its aims to make an original contribution to fashion studies, stimulate and disseminate understanding of transnational fashion across disciplinary and national boundaries, and shape an innovative new research agenda. An important aim of our Network was to generate a major follow-on project by testing potential research questions and methodological avenues for further work, and laying the groundwork for significant future outputs.

Through putting into place a dynamic range of engagements between a variety of international stakeholders (the fashion industry, fashion curators and academics) this Network found significant benefits in directly accessing fashion collections; these brought multi-disciplinary positions into common dialogue and connected historical artefacts and contemporary practice. Furthermore, our three workshops brought together an international range of expertise to reveal important gaps in existing scholarship and collections of East Asian fashion that need to be addressed. This has indicated a strong direction for a follow-on research project rooted in material histories of transnational fashion. The tensions between nation-state based studies and economic agendas on the one hand, and the global networks of fashion training and practice on the other, also presented a second pressing area for future investigation.

Through our strategically themed workshop events, we have successfully identified key staff and collaborators for the future project. We have also identified key themes, aims and objectives that build on the Network's reference points of Japan, China, Korea and Britain to re-centre fashion studies on East Asia. The Network has laid the foundations of a new project proposal to explore how cultural flows of fashion within East Asia and between East Asia and other parts of the world provide new models for understanding global history and contemporary fashion cultures. Particular areas of focus that emerged directly from the Network's activities include methodological problems in transnational studies, fashion education, fashion collections, and East Asian colonial and postcolonial frameworks and nationalist agendas. These subjects will provide the basis for the new project's objectives.
Exploitation Route Our findings will be of significant value for scholars engaged with questions of fashion theory and global histories, and for museums in their collecting and management of transnational fashion.
Sectors Creative Economy,Education,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

 
Description During the lifetime of the Network, we saw our activities impact on museum display and collection management through the greater understanding of objects that, due to their transnational status, had often been neglected within fashion collections. The Network events also enabled fashion journalists and designers to re-evaluate the cross-cultural meaning of their work and understand it within a longer historical trajectory. For example, the Network brought into dialogue UK-based print journalist Cat Glover, Japan-based blogger Samuel Thomas, and UK/Germany-based fashion creative director Ted Young-Ing, and enabled them to exchange historical knowledge and language skills and reflect on the cultural implications of British/Japanese cultural translations within their work. Our Network events also played an active role in developing a major new exhibition entitled Kimono Fashion (Victoria and Albert Museum, 14 March-5 July 2020). This exhibition will form part of a series of public-facing outputs envisaged for the new research project that arises directly out of this Network. This will enable members of the public as well as industry professionals to engage with the new knowledge of fashion, East Asian identities and global flow that the Network has begun to investigate and that the future project will continue to generate.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Creative Economy,Education,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Decolonising Fashion History
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The PI used the findings of the Network Project to plan and lead the postgraduate course Decolonizing Fashion History, part of the V&A/RCA MA History of Design, January-March 2018. The Decolonising Fashion History course enabled 30 postgraduate students to connect current debates around decolonising institutions and curricula with the study of fashion history. The twin aims were to model decolonized practices for professional design historians and communicate this agenda to practitioners and the public. The course led to an interactive public event, that provided a forum for interdisciplinary post-graduate discussion across art, design and the humanities with participants from across London educational institutions and museums, and a 'Decolonising the Library' project and display that trained design history postgraduates to recognise the Eurocentricism of the majority of current fashion history publications and ways to communicate this to a wider public.
 
Description Decolonising Fashion History
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The PI used the findings of the Network Project to revise and lead the postgraduate course Decolonizing Fashion History, as part of the V&A/RCA MA History of Design, January-March 2019. The Decolonising Fashion History course enabled 15 postgraduate students from across Europe, North America, Australasia and East Asia to connect current debates around decolonising institutions and curricula with the study of fashion history to challenge Eurocentricity. A significant number of these students come from, and plan to return to, professions within the fashion industry. The twin aims were to model decolonized practices for professional design historians and communicate this agenda to fashion practitioners, curators and the public. The course supported transformational thinking about how fashion is studied through attention to geographies and identities. It led to the making of series of three podcasts in which the students shared how their thinking had changed and how Eurocentrism can be recognised and understood in fashion cultures. These Podcast discussions will be published when the course ends on UnMaking Things blog to communicate this to a wider public.
URL http://unmakingthings.rca.ac.uk/2018/
 
Description Victoria and Albert Museum Fashion Gallery redevelopment roundtable
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Western Fashion and Global Cultures/Global Fashion Bodies
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact In 2014 and 2015, the PI designed and led the postgraduate course: Western Fashion and Global Cultures, using the work of members of Network as case studies, and facilities of Network partners (eg. Clothworker's Centre). The teaching was modelled on the object-led approaches developed during the Network workshops and involved participants from China who were part of the Network. Students who took part in these courses are now museum curators, working in industry or undertaking PhD level studies.
 
Description Fashion and Translation Workshops 
Organisation Bunka Gakuen University
Department Graduate School
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The PI collaborated with the CI at University of Northumbria to hold three themed workshops and object handling sessions. These were: workshop 1: Royal College of Art, Clothworkers and the Victoria and Albert Museum, April 2014; workshop 2: University of Northumbria and Discovery Museum Newcastle, July 2014; workshop 3: Bunka Gakuen University, Tokyo, February 2015. The PI and the CI led the programming and moderation of all events, providing subject expertise and a vision for the Network. We developed contacts with experts, professionals and postgraduate students across a range of sectors (academic, museum, business, design, journalism/mediation) and chaired all meetings and workshops. We put into place a creative variety of formats for our events from 'cafe conversations', dress history collection visits and filmed interviews, to more formal academic papers and presentations, which enabled a valuable range of exchanges to take place involving all workshop participants. At Bunka Gakuen University, the Network members also responded to presentations by students from MA Global Fashion, providing international and multidisciplinary expert feedback for their work. Across the three workshops, the PI, CI and a core Network team [Yunah Lee (academic), Anna Jackson (curator), Helen Persson (curator)] shared knowledge, prompted new thinking and promoted new working relationships with 42 other Network members who came from across Great Britain, Italy, North America, Japan, Korea, and China. During the object handling sessions, the expertise that we assembled contributed to new knowledge and interpretation of fashion collections in Britain, for example Professor Liu Yu, Donghua University, was able to advise on nineteenth century Chinese dress held by the Victoria and Albert Museum. This was, however, most poignantly the case at the handling session that we organised at the Discovery Museum Newcastle, where the lack of local authority funding does not allow for a dedicated fashion curator. By bringing experts, designers, fashion historians and curators into the collections in discussion with Museum volunteers, we enabled Tyne and Wear Museums to increase knowledge of the objects in their stores.
Collaborator Contribution The Victoria and Albert Museum provided space (gratis) for two Network meetings and one Network workshop session which were also attended by their Head of Research and Research Grants Manager who provided valuable input into the planning of a future joint project. The Clothworkers Centre for the Study and Conservation of Textiles and Fashion provided a seminar room and a curator with appropriate subject specialism (gratis) for the first Network handling session. The Museum also released staff to attend our events. Tyne and Wear Archives and Museums allowed us access to their textile stores (gratis) and provided space for Network members to examine and discuss a selection of garments. The University of Northumbria provided (gratis) two seminar rooms for our use over two days to host our second workshop, together with AV support. Northumbria also paid the air fare of Professor Yoko Takagi, Programme Director and Professor of Global Fashion in the Graduate Department of Bunka Gakuen University, to enable her to participate in the second workshop and plan for workshop 3 and for future projects. This third workshop occurred in partnership with the research group Scientific Research on Transboundary Contemporary Japanese Fashion, funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This research group, headed by Professor Takagi and located at Bunka Gakuen University, greatly increased the Network's East Asian contacts and audience for our outputs, and fostered additional research activities such as visits to weaving and dyeing workshops. Bunka Gakuen supported our Tokyo Network workshop with the provision (gratis) of university accommodation, meeting rooms, collections, visits, local guides, and a translator, and this released funds that were used to send a core group of Network members to Kyoto for further fashion collection research and networking.
Impact Project Website (www.fashionandtranslation.com; Special issue of International Journal of Fashion Studies (multidisciplinary: History of Design, Sociology, Anthropology; Fashion Journalism); Symposium paper (Fashion and Translation: Some 'Chinese' Things); Workshop paper by P. Francks accepted for publication; Book proposal (Radical Fashion: Dress Reform and Social Changes in Modern Asia, edited by K. Pyun and A. Wong, drawing from the Network as a resource and soliciting individual chapters from eight Network members).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Fashion and Translation Workshops 
Organisation Northumbria University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The PI collaborated with the CI at University of Northumbria to hold three themed workshops and object handling sessions. These were: workshop 1: Royal College of Art, Clothworkers and the Victoria and Albert Museum, April 2014; workshop 2: University of Northumbria and Discovery Museum Newcastle, July 2014; workshop 3: Bunka Gakuen University, Tokyo, February 2015. The PI and the CI led the programming and moderation of all events, providing subject expertise and a vision for the Network. We developed contacts with experts, professionals and postgraduate students across a range of sectors (academic, museum, business, design, journalism/mediation) and chaired all meetings and workshops. We put into place a creative variety of formats for our events from 'cafe conversations', dress history collection visits and filmed interviews, to more formal academic papers and presentations, which enabled a valuable range of exchanges to take place involving all workshop participants. At Bunka Gakuen University, the Network members also responded to presentations by students from MA Global Fashion, providing international and multidisciplinary expert feedback for their work. Across the three workshops, the PI, CI and a core Network team [Yunah Lee (academic), Anna Jackson (curator), Helen Persson (curator)] shared knowledge, prompted new thinking and promoted new working relationships with 42 other Network members who came from across Great Britain, Italy, North America, Japan, Korea, and China. During the object handling sessions, the expertise that we assembled contributed to new knowledge and interpretation of fashion collections in Britain, for example Professor Liu Yu, Donghua University, was able to advise on nineteenth century Chinese dress held by the Victoria and Albert Museum. This was, however, most poignantly the case at the handling session that we organised at the Discovery Museum Newcastle, where the lack of local authority funding does not allow for a dedicated fashion curator. By bringing experts, designers, fashion historians and curators into the collections in discussion with Museum volunteers, we enabled Tyne and Wear Museums to increase knowledge of the objects in their stores.
Collaborator Contribution The Victoria and Albert Museum provided space (gratis) for two Network meetings and one Network workshop session which were also attended by their Head of Research and Research Grants Manager who provided valuable input into the planning of a future joint project. The Clothworkers Centre for the Study and Conservation of Textiles and Fashion provided a seminar room and a curator with appropriate subject specialism (gratis) for the first Network handling session. The Museum also released staff to attend our events. Tyne and Wear Archives and Museums allowed us access to their textile stores (gratis) and provided space for Network members to examine and discuss a selection of garments. The University of Northumbria provided (gratis) two seminar rooms for our use over two days to host our second workshop, together with AV support. Northumbria also paid the air fare of Professor Yoko Takagi, Programme Director and Professor of Global Fashion in the Graduate Department of Bunka Gakuen University, to enable her to participate in the second workshop and plan for workshop 3 and for future projects. This third workshop occurred in partnership with the research group Scientific Research on Transboundary Contemporary Japanese Fashion, funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This research group, headed by Professor Takagi and located at Bunka Gakuen University, greatly increased the Network's East Asian contacts and audience for our outputs, and fostered additional research activities such as visits to weaving and dyeing workshops. Bunka Gakuen supported our Tokyo Network workshop with the provision (gratis) of university accommodation, meeting rooms, collections, visits, local guides, and a translator, and this released funds that were used to send a core group of Network members to Kyoto for further fashion collection research and networking.
Impact Project Website (www.fashionandtranslation.com; Special issue of International Journal of Fashion Studies (multidisciplinary: History of Design, Sociology, Anthropology; Fashion Journalism); Symposium paper (Fashion and Translation: Some 'Chinese' Things); Workshop paper by P. Francks accepted for publication; Book proposal (Radical Fashion: Dress Reform and Social Changes in Modern Asia, edited by K. Pyun and A. Wong, drawing from the Network as a resource and soliciting individual chapters from eight Network members).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Fashion and Translation Workshops 
Organisation Tyne and Wear Archives and Museums
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The PI collaborated with the CI at University of Northumbria to hold three themed workshops and object handling sessions. These were: workshop 1: Royal College of Art, Clothworkers and the Victoria and Albert Museum, April 2014; workshop 2: University of Northumbria and Discovery Museum Newcastle, July 2014; workshop 3: Bunka Gakuen University, Tokyo, February 2015. The PI and the CI led the programming and moderation of all events, providing subject expertise and a vision for the Network. We developed contacts with experts, professionals and postgraduate students across a range of sectors (academic, museum, business, design, journalism/mediation) and chaired all meetings and workshops. We put into place a creative variety of formats for our events from 'cafe conversations', dress history collection visits and filmed interviews, to more formal academic papers and presentations, which enabled a valuable range of exchanges to take place involving all workshop participants. At Bunka Gakuen University, the Network members also responded to presentations by students from MA Global Fashion, providing international and multidisciplinary expert feedback for their work. Across the three workshops, the PI, CI and a core Network team [Yunah Lee (academic), Anna Jackson (curator), Helen Persson (curator)] shared knowledge, prompted new thinking and promoted new working relationships with 42 other Network members who came from across Great Britain, Italy, North America, Japan, Korea, and China. During the object handling sessions, the expertise that we assembled contributed to new knowledge and interpretation of fashion collections in Britain, for example Professor Liu Yu, Donghua University, was able to advise on nineteenth century Chinese dress held by the Victoria and Albert Museum. This was, however, most poignantly the case at the handling session that we organised at the Discovery Museum Newcastle, where the lack of local authority funding does not allow for a dedicated fashion curator. By bringing experts, designers, fashion historians and curators into the collections in discussion with Museum volunteers, we enabled Tyne and Wear Museums to increase knowledge of the objects in their stores.
Collaborator Contribution The Victoria and Albert Museum provided space (gratis) for two Network meetings and one Network workshop session which were also attended by their Head of Research and Research Grants Manager who provided valuable input into the planning of a future joint project. The Clothworkers Centre for the Study and Conservation of Textiles and Fashion provided a seminar room and a curator with appropriate subject specialism (gratis) for the first Network handling session. The Museum also released staff to attend our events. Tyne and Wear Archives and Museums allowed us access to their textile stores (gratis) and provided space for Network members to examine and discuss a selection of garments. The University of Northumbria provided (gratis) two seminar rooms for our use over two days to host our second workshop, together with AV support. Northumbria also paid the air fare of Professor Yoko Takagi, Programme Director and Professor of Global Fashion in the Graduate Department of Bunka Gakuen University, to enable her to participate in the second workshop and plan for workshop 3 and for future projects. This third workshop occurred in partnership with the research group Scientific Research on Transboundary Contemporary Japanese Fashion, funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This research group, headed by Professor Takagi and located at Bunka Gakuen University, greatly increased the Network's East Asian contacts and audience for our outputs, and fostered additional research activities such as visits to weaving and dyeing workshops. Bunka Gakuen supported our Tokyo Network workshop with the provision (gratis) of university accommodation, meeting rooms, collections, visits, local guides, and a translator, and this released funds that were used to send a core group of Network members to Kyoto for further fashion collection research and networking.
Impact Project Website (www.fashionandtranslation.com; Special issue of International Journal of Fashion Studies (multidisciplinary: History of Design, Sociology, Anthropology; Fashion Journalism); Symposium paper (Fashion and Translation: Some 'Chinese' Things); Workshop paper by P. Francks accepted for publication; Book proposal (Radical Fashion: Dress Reform and Social Changes in Modern Asia, edited by K. Pyun and A. Wong, drawing from the Network as a resource and soliciting individual chapters from eight Network members).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Fashion and Translation Workshops 
Organisation Victoria and Albert Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The PI collaborated with the CI at University of Northumbria to hold three themed workshops and object handling sessions. These were: workshop 1: Royal College of Art, Clothworkers and the Victoria and Albert Museum, April 2014; workshop 2: University of Northumbria and Discovery Museum Newcastle, July 2014; workshop 3: Bunka Gakuen University, Tokyo, February 2015. The PI and the CI led the programming and moderation of all events, providing subject expertise and a vision for the Network. We developed contacts with experts, professionals and postgraduate students across a range of sectors (academic, museum, business, design, journalism/mediation) and chaired all meetings and workshops. We put into place a creative variety of formats for our events from 'cafe conversations', dress history collection visits and filmed interviews, to more formal academic papers and presentations, which enabled a valuable range of exchanges to take place involving all workshop participants. At Bunka Gakuen University, the Network members also responded to presentations by students from MA Global Fashion, providing international and multidisciplinary expert feedback for their work. Across the three workshops, the PI, CI and a core Network team [Yunah Lee (academic), Anna Jackson (curator), Helen Persson (curator)] shared knowledge, prompted new thinking and promoted new working relationships with 42 other Network members who came from across Great Britain, Italy, North America, Japan, Korea, and China. During the object handling sessions, the expertise that we assembled contributed to new knowledge and interpretation of fashion collections in Britain, for example Professor Liu Yu, Donghua University, was able to advise on nineteenth century Chinese dress held by the Victoria and Albert Museum. This was, however, most poignantly the case at the handling session that we organised at the Discovery Museum Newcastle, where the lack of local authority funding does not allow for a dedicated fashion curator. By bringing experts, designers, fashion historians and curators into the collections in discussion with Museum volunteers, we enabled Tyne and Wear Museums to increase knowledge of the objects in their stores.
Collaborator Contribution The Victoria and Albert Museum provided space (gratis) for two Network meetings and one Network workshop session which were also attended by their Head of Research and Research Grants Manager who provided valuable input into the planning of a future joint project. The Clothworkers Centre for the Study and Conservation of Textiles and Fashion provided a seminar room and a curator with appropriate subject specialism (gratis) for the first Network handling session. The Museum also released staff to attend our events. Tyne and Wear Archives and Museums allowed us access to their textile stores (gratis) and provided space for Network members to examine and discuss a selection of garments. The University of Northumbria provided (gratis) two seminar rooms for our use over two days to host our second workshop, together with AV support. Northumbria also paid the air fare of Professor Yoko Takagi, Programme Director and Professor of Global Fashion in the Graduate Department of Bunka Gakuen University, to enable her to participate in the second workshop and plan for workshop 3 and for future projects. This third workshop occurred in partnership with the research group Scientific Research on Transboundary Contemporary Japanese Fashion, funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This research group, headed by Professor Takagi and located at Bunka Gakuen University, greatly increased the Network's East Asian contacts and audience for our outputs, and fostered additional research activities such as visits to weaving and dyeing workshops. Bunka Gakuen supported our Tokyo Network workshop with the provision (gratis) of university accommodation, meeting rooms, collections, visits, local guides, and a translator, and this released funds that were used to send a core group of Network members to Kyoto for further fashion collection research and networking.
Impact Project Website (www.fashionandtranslation.com; Special issue of International Journal of Fashion Studies (multidisciplinary: History of Design, Sociology, Anthropology; Fashion Journalism); Symposium paper (Fashion and Translation: Some 'Chinese' Things); Workshop paper by P. Francks accepted for publication; Book proposal (Radical Fashion: Dress Reform and Social Changes in Modern Asia, edited by K. Pyun and A. Wong, drawing from the Network as a resource and soliciting individual chapters from eight Network members).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Presentation at ICOM Costume Committee meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Dr Alexandra Palmer, senior curator of fashion and costume at the Royal Ontario Museum and Network member, gave a presentation for the Costume Committee of the International Council of Museums, at a global networking meeting in London for museum professionals and scholars specialising in fashion and textiles. Palmer's presentation, entitled 'Telling Tales: Correction and New Directions', which was developed by her participation in the third Fashion and Translation Network workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://network.icom.museum/costume/L/10/
 
Description Public debate (Battle of Ideas) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Findings from the project were used by the PI in a keynote panel debate 'Cultural Appropriation: Compliment or theft' for Battle of Ideas Festival, Barbican Centre, London, 2017. Examples from East Asian fashion and concepts of transnational fashion sparked discussion and audience questions. The festival organiser's feedback reported audience changed opinions and increased awareness after the Cultural Appropriation debate, for example an 18 year old attendee said that she changed her mind several times throughout the debate and had spent all of the next day telling people about the perspectives she heard.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.battleofideas.org.uk/session/cultural-appropriation-compliment-insult/
 
Description Victoria and Albert Museum event presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The PI and CI gave joint presentation about the Network event we held at the Clothworker's Centre for the Study and Conservation of Textiles and Fashion, as part of the symposium A Year at Clothworkers, organised by the Victorian and Albert Museum which attracts general as well as specialist audiences. Giving the presentation and being present for the day enabled us to explain the aims and outcomes of the network to an audience composed of interested members of the general public as well as students, designers, curators and academics. The success of the event was evidenced by feedback such as: 'opportunity of engaging with HE', 'chance to immerse myself in textile research' and 'keen to be as involved as possible in future events and research'. We raised awareness of the key research questions and methodologies of the network, and answered specific questions on the new knowledge in fashion history that the Network produced. The lead curator of a major exhibition Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear (V&A 2016-2017) subsequently contacted the PI about a garment that had been featured in the paper. She then included this garment in the exhibition, increasing public awareness of the cultural significance of transnational fashion histories and the existence of interactions between East Asian and European fashion systems.

As a direct result of our paper, the lead curator of a future exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum contacted me about a garment (1920s chinoiserie lounging pyjamas) brought to light by Network activities. She will now include this hitherto under-researched garment on the list of objects for the exhibition. This will increase public awareness of the cultural significance of transnational fashion histories and the existence of interactions between East Asian and European fashion systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.vam.ac.uk/whatson/event/3381/a-year-at-clothworkers-4825/
 
Description Workshop at Bunka Gakuen University, Tokyo, and handling session at Bunka Gakuen Costume Gallery 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop of invited Network members and postgraduate students enabled an in-depth knowledge exchange across disciplines (design history, sociology, art, fashion design) and sectors (fashion journalism, museum curation). The range of activities over four days enabled significant interactions on the theme of fashion and material East Asian identities. New ideas and partnerships arose between Network members and postgraduate students and were captured in additional discussion of a follow-on project that continued to be explored and honed through a third set of activities. The Tokyo location extended the geographical reach of the Network and enabled Network members to dialogue with the JSPS Transboundary Contemporary Japanese Fashion Project, further developing cross-disciplinary/sector understanding of East Asian fashion histories, scholarship, education and practices. At Bunka Gakuen University, the Network members also responded to presentations by students from MA Global Fashion, providing international and multidisciplinary expert feedback for their work. This knowledge exchange was reciprocated by the students who provided a guided tour of up and coming fashion design centres in Tokyo. A collection visit at Bunka Gakuen Costume Gallery resulted in an invitation for Network members to contribute to a planned exhibition on Japonisme and exoticism at the Gallery.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Workshop at Royal College of Art and Victoria and Albert Museum, and handling session at Clothworkers Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop of invited Network members and postgraduate students enabled an in-depth knowledge exchange across disciplines (fashion theory, design history, art history, economics, curation, art, design). A range of activities exploring new research in the histories of fashion and cultural exchange between Britain, Japan, China and Korea created two days of discussion and the opportunity to handle items held in the collection of the Clothworker's Centre for the Study of Textiles and Fashion. New ideas and partnerships between Network members arose and were captured in additional discussion of a follow-on project.

After the workshop, the paper that economic historian Dr Penelope Francks presented on Japanese fashion and economics was developed as a journal article that has since been accepted for publication in the journal Fashion Theory. Observations made on garments examined during the handling session at Clothworkers were noted by curators and are feeding into future research at the Victoria and Albert Museum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Workshop at University of Northumbria and handling session at Discovery Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop of invited Network members and postgraduate students enabled an in-depth knowledge exchange across disciplines (design history, anthropology, art, fashion training) and sectors (museum curation, fashion creative direction, fashion design, fashion journalism, business consultancy). A range of activities over two days enabled significant knowledge exchange on the theme of high street fashion and transnational identities in Britain, Japan, China and Korea. New research ideas and partnerships between members arose and were captured during additional discussions in a follow-on project arising out of the Fashion and Translation Network. The location of the workshop in Newcastle enabled the involvement of academics and industry professionals based in Northern England and Scotland and allowed the international participants access to archival resources outside of London.

Feedback forms showed that the multi-disciplinary and multi-format emphasis of the workshop led to increased insight, for example 'the café conversations was useful in broadening discussions between the different people who attended (industry, academic, museum folk)', and other comments that the mix of people with industry, academic or museum backgrounds was very insightful. At the Discovery Museum, the comments of Network curators on object identification, design historians on object contextua
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014