The Status of Museum Collections

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leicester
Department Name: Faculty of Law

Abstract

The law relating to the museum sector is complex. This is due in part to the variety of governance structures; for example, amongst other possibilities, museums may exist as a company or charitable trust, or both, or may be under local authority control. Objects in the collection may be on loan, or they may be held on trust, or owned by a company, or by a local authority. Furthermore, whereas special legislation applies to national museums, different statutory sources need to be considered in relation to local authorities. Yet there is no book covering both law and museum ethics to help guide museums in relation to the management of their collections.

Museums strive to maintain public trust and confidence in a challenging financial climate and the need for information to assist them in arriving at informed judgments has never been stronger.

The results of this project will include, amongst other outputs, a book discussing how legal and ethical principles apply to museum collections, and a Report on the Legal Status of Museum Collections. The book will make a unique and scholarly contribution to the fields of law, museum studies and cultural studies.

The book will provide information and practical advice for museums. A number of public bodies in the museum and charity sector have expressed strong support for this work and I will consult these bodies, and others, as this work progresses. I will provide opportunities for professionals to raise issues which concern them, such as by participating in the Museums Association's annual conference and at other national and regional conferences and workshops. This level of consultation will ensure that the contents of my outputs remain relevant.

Museums currently have insufficient guidance on a number of topics. For example, many museums possess items which were collected in the past but where no record exists in relation to their acquisition. This is a problem which has created immense difficulties for museums. The book will address these pressing concerns, providing legal and ethical guidance for curators, managers and governing bodies. In this context, it will explore the possibilities for law reform, examining recommendations made by the Scottish Law Commission and considering the potential for a more limited legislative reform for all museums in the UK.

In a fast-changing world, museums are expected to develop new strategies to enhance public access to their collections. This research will therefore cover legal and ethical issues relating to art loans, providing guidance and discussing pitfalls. It will also provide impartial information relating to legal structures. For example, charitable status may offer independence, financial advantages, and better protection to the collection. The recent court decision involving the Wedgwood Museum Collection has highlighted the risks involved where a public collection is affected by a company insolvency. The decision demonstrates how important it is to disseminate information about the law to ensure that there is responsible decision making.

Although this project is ambitious in scope and addresses entirely underresearched areas, it is manageable because it builds upon my accumulated expertise. I acquired knowledge relating to deaccessioning and sale of objects from museum collections, together with experience of working with public sector bodies, during the course of a 50% AHRC Placement Fellowship. I have written on the law relating to acquisition of cultural items by museums in a book discussing strategic measures to combat the illicit trade in art and antiquities. Some matters, such as the law relating to insolvency and corporate governance, involve drawing on expertise gathered when I wrote a substantial book on the law of commercial fraud. However, the outputs from this new project will also involve a close examination of museum ethics and how these principles interact with the law.

Planned Impact

Various bodies in the museum sector, as well as the Charity Commission, were involved in the preparation of a 32 page booklet entitled Report on the Legal Status of Museums Collections in the United Kingdom. It was edited by Jeremy Warren at the Museums and Galleries Commission, and published in 1996. Although museums have relied upon this Report in the past, it is now out of date. The museum sector and public bodies need a new Report, which takes account of recent legislation and other changes in law and practice, and which has a wider scope to include not only company, charity and trust law but also linked issues relating to ownership and good governance. One output from this project will be a new Report on the Legal Status of Museum Collections. The Museums Association ("MA"), the Arts Council and the Collections Trust are keen to provide input as I progress. The Report can be made available for any museum to freely download, or any other interested person, from websites such as those run by the MA and the Collections Trust.

However, museums and public sector bodies need more than a brief summary of key elements of the law relating to museum collections. This project will therefore include the production of a book which explains how the law applies in particular situations. Using the electronic discussion forum on the MA's website, or taking advantage of regional meetings of the MA and other public bodies, or consulting individual museums, I can collect a series of hypothetical case studies to use in the book. As the royalties will be paid to the MA, museums will have an incentive for engaging in dialogue and contributing ideas. I hope that they will see the book as "their" book in the sense that they will have influenced its direction and content.

As ethical principles play such an important role in museum practice, the book will disentangle legal principles from ethical ones, subjecting them both to equal scrutiny, and discussing how both would apply in particular situations. As a consequence, the book and other outputs should have a provocative effect in stimulating debate in relation to law and museum ethics within the museum sector.

The wide-ranging nature of this project, covering many different areas of law and their relationship with ethical principles, means that I will be in a position to respond to new issues as they arise. For example, I am discussing with the MA whether we could have a Question and Answer session on legal and ethical issues surrounding collections at their annual conference. I could sit on a panel of experts and we can solicit questions in advance via Twitter as well as during the session. The wide and ambitious scope of the project provides a great impetus for running and participating in conferences, seminars and workshops. For example, I will be running a two day conference on Vulnerability and Cultural Heritage on 9 and 10 May 2013 with a specific focus upon strategic measures to combat heritage crime. The conference will draw a number of interested people together, including not only academics from abroad, but also representatives from the museum sector and charities such as English Heritage. I plan to run a conference and workshops in 2014, bringing museums, public sector bodies and academics together to discuss specific issues. These debates will be part of a process of enhancing knowledge and understanding of the principles and values which do or should guide museums in dealing with their collections.

This project will be helpful to international networks such as the International Council of Museums and the Network of European Museum Organisations as well as museums overseas, which often need to grapple with the same problems as their UK counterparts. This pioneering research will put the UK at the leading edge in museum practice. and may stimulate similar initiatives by academics overseas, thereby benefiting museums in other countries.

Publications

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Description I consider that museum professionals are faced with a dilemma. Although they are expected to act responsibly in caring for collections and in rationalising objects to ensure that collections have cultural value and are being properly engaged with, they are confronted by difficult legal problems. In particular, there are a large number of objects in collections, often referred to as "orphan objects" where museum staff do not know whether the museum owns these objects or merely possesses them on loan. There are also other objects (often referred to as "historic loans") which were lent many years ago and where the owner is unknown despite best efforts to discover them. In my opinion, UK museums need new legislation to deal with ownership issues:
1) Legislation which enables museums to become owners of objects in their collections which they have had in their possession for many years but where either ownership is unknown (due to lack of acquisition records) or where the loan was for an indeterminate period of time and the owner cannot be found.
2) Legislation which would restrict sales of objects from local authority collections to prevent irrational and reckless sales. I have suggested that local authorities should hold accessioned collections on charitable trusts.
Exploitation Route I have provided the museum sector with a lengthy pdf. booklet which is freely available and which provides detailed explanations on the law in relation to key points on which many people were uncertain. For example, one common problem for many museums has been the receipt of a claim for an object's return long after that object has been donated; typically, they receive a letter from a relative who alleges that the benefactor only gave the object on loan and that they want it returned now that the benefactor has died. I have been told by museum professionals that the booklet gives them confidence in dealing with such claims.
As promised in my application, my guidance is written in a style which museum professionals can understand. However, it does have copious footnotes because some of the areas covered are not well understood by solicitors. The booklet provides a bridge between museum professionals and solicitors and barristers.
I have answered many questions in my booklet and publications which have not been covered in any law book. I have been involved in numerous engagement activities, and also informally discussed problems with museum people, since receiving the AHRC Leadership Award. The booklet has become increasingly important in providing guidance regarding the status of collections where museums are facing closure. For example, I had a lengthy meeting with a councillor, a legal representative and museum professionals at Lancashire C.C. in August 2016 to discuss their planned closure of 5 museums. My pdf guidance on curatorially motivated disposals was referred to at various points. I am involved in a working group to provide guidance to governing bodies of museums facing closure. Members of the working group were told that my involvement and the booklet was seen as invaluable because Lancashire CC is trying to follow best practice in carrying out these closures.
My work as an AHRC Leadership Fellow has transformed people's lives making both museum professionals and public bodies more confident in dealing with legal issues. It has meant that the public bodies can identify more accurately where law reform is needed. The DCMS carried out a Museum Review towards the end of 2016 and my work has meant that bodies such as Arts Council England and the Museums Association are in a better position to call for new legislation to deal with objects where legal title is uncertain and new legislation in relation to the status of local authority collections.
I am currently carrying out engagements where I discuss law reform. After my last submission to ResearchFish in 2017, I drew up a document to provide feedback from a conference presentation which I carried out on 10 March 2017. It will be sent to various bodies: the DCMS, the Law Commission, the Scottish Law Commission, the Scottish equivalent of the DCMS, the Museums Association, the Arts Council and the Collections Trust. I have two more booked engagements where I will be carrying out this type of consultation but I envisage that far more will be carried out during the course of this year. This consultation involved an immense amount of hard work but it meant that the Government and the Law Commission could make properly informed decisions. On the basis of this evidence, the DCMS instructed the Law Commission to carry out this work and it now forms part of the Commission's 13th Programme. https://www.lawcom.gov.uk/project/13th-programme-of-law-reform/
At the moment, I pass relevant information to the Law Commission in relation to new developments affecting museum collections so that they are kept fully informed in advance of commencing law reform in this area. I have such an extensive expertise in this field now that I think it is appropriate to help any public body which needs that special expertise.
I also plan to continue publishing in the area of cultural property. I have two Ph.D. students who are carrying out research in relation to museum collections and disposals. One of these students is Jenny Durrant, who is an AHRC M3C student and who has already published in this area.. I have been responsible for two visiting Ph.D. students researching collections who have published articles thanking me for my support. I examined a Ph.D. student at the University of Aberystwyth in 2016 on cultural property (indigenous rights) and I will be acting as an examiner this year for a Ph.D. student at King's College London (acquisition of cultural property and due diligence procedures). I co-run the Art, Culture and Heritage stream at the Socio-Legal Studies Association's annual conference. I am expecting to receive and act as host for a Chinese academic in the autumn of 2018 who will be working in the area of museums and cultural heritage.
In summary, I intend to continue supporting and encouraging students and academics to carry out interdisciplinary research in relation to museum collections and the heritage sector. At the same time, I plan to consult and listen to public bodies in the museum sector in areas where I can be helpful.
Sectors Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

 
Description I produced a 57 page pdf document, which is freely available to download, providing guidance on curatorially motivated disposals in 2015. Other public bodies, such as the Collections Trust and the National Museum Directors' Council, drew people's attention to it. I revised and expanded the booklet in 2016 in response to changes in the law. The booklet is available on the Museums Association's website. I have explained the huge difficulties which the current law poses for museum professionals. I have argued in favour of law reform. 1) New legislation allowing accredited museums to acquire legal title to objects in their collections where ownership is uncertain. "Frozen in Time: Orphans and Uncollected Objects in Museum Collections" International Journal of Cultural Property (2017) 24, 1-28. 2) New legislation providing that local authority museum collections should be held on charitable trusts. My publications not only cover this issue but also provide a background context: 'The Sale of Items in Museum Collections' chapter 11 in N. Hopkins (ed), Modern Studies in Property Law, Volume 7 (2013, Oxford: Hart Publishing), 217-241; "Dealing with UK Museum Collections: Law, Ethics and the Public/Private Divide" International Journal of Cultural Property (2015) 22, 177-204. 3) Any review of the law relating to museum collections needs to be understood in the context of the law's relationship with museum ethics: 'The Museums Association's Code of Ethics 2015' (2016) XXI (2) Art Antiquity and Law 143 - 156. The Law Commission asked for copies of all of my academic publications, and the more practical pdf. booklet concerning curatorially motivated disposals, in order to enable them to take instructions from the DCMS to change the law. There is no other law academic writing in this field. One can truly say that the support of the funding bodies is transforming this area of law. Prompted by my submissions and conference presentations, the DCMS has discussed law reform with the Law Commission. It decided to support my proposals and consequently these are listed as forthcoming projects by the Law Commission. One of my proposals can be dealt with relatively quickly by the Law Commission: it was the subject of the AHRC Leadership Fellowship Award and it is concerned with ownership. However, the Law Commission may well spend considerably longer on the other proposal: there is more research which could be done (which would have been well outside the scope of my 50% Placement Fellowship) in relation to local government legislation. There is no special legislation governing museums and cultural objects and I suggested that there should be. These proposed changes in the law were discussed at a meeting of the All Party Parliamentary Group for Cultural Heritage at Westminster on 8 February 2017. There was time to discuss the first proposal in detail (relating to legal title) and there was unanimous support for the proposal. A member of the DCMS (Lisa Ollerhead) attended the meeting and I have kept in contact with her since. The Group expressed interest in the second proposal on local government collections. Since then, the Law Commission has announced that law reform of museum collections will be one of 14 projects which it will carry out over the next two or three years: this project is therefore listed in the Law Commission's Thirteenth Programme of Law Reform 2017 (Law Com, No 377). https://www.lawcom.gov.uk/project/13th-programme-of-law-reform/ I was part of a team engaged in drafting ethical and legal guidance on museum closures (published in May 2017 by the Museums Association and the Arts Council); this guidance will assist the governing bodies of museums facing closure.This further project was facilitated by my existing publications which were based upon research carried out as part of my AHRC Leadership Award (the Status of Museum Collections). I continue to consult the museum sector about the proposed changes in the law at conferences. I have always passed back my findings to the English and Scottish Law Commissions (Property Sections) and the DCMS. As part of my application for an AHRC Fellowship, I promised to be a "bridge builder." I am engaged in doing precisely this, liaising between different public bodies and ensuring that everyone is being kept informed. For example, I contacted the Charity Commission in relation to the proposal that local authority collections should enjoy charitable status.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description Citation by the English Law Commission regarding 'Social Investment by Charities.'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The Law Commission believe that the current state of the law relating to trustees' investment powers is unsatisfactory because the law lacks clarity. I supported those views, raising issues such as reputational risk [at 3.157], mission benefit [3.166], and arguing in favour of consultation to encourage reflection [at 3.202]. I was particularly concerned, drawing on my own experience as an AHRC Fellow, to argue that 'law governing trusts and companies concerned with financial benefit ought not automatically to apply to a charity which has a public purpose.' Amongst other citations, see also [3.27] and [3.126]. The Law Commission received comments from only four academics. My insights, which appear to have been valued, were garnered from my understanding of commerce and finance allied with my knowledge of working in the public sector for museums.
URL http://lawcommission.justice.gov.uk/docs/cp216_charities_social_investment_recommendations_responses...
 
Description Law reform proposals relating to museum collections accepted: Law Commission's Thirteenth Programme of Law Reform 2017 (Law Com, No 377)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://s3-eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/lawcom-prod-storage-11jsxou24uy7q/uploads/2017/12/13th-Programme-...
 
Description Mendoza Review, page 45: uncertain ownership of museum objects highlighted as a problem and need for law reform recognised
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/673935/The_Mendoza_Review_...
 
Description Participation in discussions of the All Party Parliamentary Group for Cultural Heritage at the Palace of Westminster
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact I have been attending the meetings of the All Party Parliamentary Group for Cultural Heritage since 2016. It was agreed on 8 February 2017, after detailed discussion, that the Government should bring forward legislation to enable accredited museums (and identified libraries and archives) to obtain legal title to orphan objects and uncollected loans. This new legislation would be based upon my research (AHRC Fellowship relating to the Status of Museum Collections) plus research carried out by the Scottish Law Commission. A representative from the DCMS was present and we discussed the proposal further at the end of the meeting. We also briefly discussed another proposal relating to the ethical and legal aspects of sales from museum collections (which was the subject of my ESRC/AHRC Placement Fellowship). I have proposed that local authority collections should be held on charitable trusts. It was agreed that this topic should be discussed in more detail later this year.
 
Description Curatorially motivated disposals and guidance on closures of museums 
Organisation Government of Wales
Department CyMAL: Museums Archives and Libraries Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am part of a team engaged in drafting ethical and legal guidance which will be published in May 2017 which will assist the governing bodies of museums facing closure. I am contributing my legal knowledge which was acquired in carrying out research as an AHRC Fellow in relation to the status of museum collections
Collaborator Contribution Although I have an excellent theoretical knowledge of museum ethics, my partners have a deeper practical knowledge because they have worked in the museum sector for many years.
Impact I discussed museum closure at the Museums Association's annual conference in Glasgow on 8 November 2016 and at a conference on 6 December 2016 and 10 March 2017 and will be discussing it further in forthcoming conferences in the next months. This work is multi-disciplinary to include Law and Museum Ethics and Practice.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Curatorially motivated disposals and guidance on closures of museums 
Organisation Heritage Lottery Fund
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Heather Broughton is a Committee Member for the Heritage Lottery Fund. Heather and I are part of a team engaged in drafting ethical and legal guidance which will be published in May 2017 which will assist the governing bodies of museums facing closure
Collaborator Contribution Although I have an excellent theoretical knowledge of museum ethics, my partners have a deeper practical knowledge because they have worked in the museum sector for many years.
Impact The guidance will be published in May 2017 and is expected to have a significant impact in the museum sector. The guidance is much needed. In the case of R (on the application of Hall) v Leicestershire CC (2015) EWHC 2985, the judge considered the legality of closing the Snibston Museum in Leicestershire and at paragraph 44 of his judgment he called for guidance stating that, "I would have welcomed and preferred examination of any available policy from the DCMS, the HLF, the Art Fund and the Museums Association, but I recognise that in the present case a decision is urgently required ..." I discussed museum closure at the Museums Association's annual conference in Glasgow on 8 November 2016 and at a conference on 6 December 2016 and 10 March 2017 and will be discussing it further in forthcoming conferences in the next months. This work is multi-disciplinary to include Law and Museum Ethics and Practice.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Curatorially motivated disposals and guidance on closures of museums 
Organisation Museums Galleries Scotland
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am part of a team engaged in drafting ethical and legal guidance which will be published in May 2017 which will assist the governing bodies of museums facing closure. I am contributing my legal knowledge which was acquired in carrying out research as an AHRC Fellow in relation to the status of museum collections
Collaborator Contribution Although I have an excellent theoretical knowledge of museum ethics, my partners have a deeper practical knowledge because they have worked in the museum sector for many years.
Impact I discussed museum closure at the Museums Association's annual conference in Glasgow on 8 November 2016 and at a conference on 6 December 2016 and 10 March 2017 and will be discussing it further in forthcoming conferences in the next months. This work is multi-disciplinary to include Law and Museum Ethics and Practice.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Curatorially motivated disposals: Charity Commission 
Organisation Charity Commission for England and Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution On 3 February 2015, I participated in a round table discussion organised by the Charity Commission to discuss their revised version of their guidance entitled The Essential Trustee; I submitted written comments beforehand and added further written comments after the workshop had taken place.
Collaborator Contribution The Charity Commission was very helpful in relation to sales from collections as I needed to discuss whether a sale of an object in a museum collection could be at less than market value in order to retain it with the public domain. When I received my AHRC Leadership Fellowship to work on curatorially motivated disposals, it was important to make sure that my pdf guidance on this type of disposal accurately reflected charity law and the Commission's views on certain matters. Some issues were uncertain (with no case law on the issue), such as the position of returning items of low cultural and financial value (e.g. medals) to donors. It has been valuable to discuss these issues with a representative of the Commission. The Charity Commission has been helpful in 2016/2017 when I worked as part of a team in drawing up guidance on museum closures. It is useful to have a contact to discuss guidance. Towards the end of 2017, I enquired whether the Commission intended to revise its special guidance relating to museums. I am told that the Government has directed the Commission to produce general guidance rather than specific guidance. However, I have an ongoing offer from the Commission to assist me if I wish to revise their sector specific guidance for museums. As far as I can tell, the general guidance published by the Commission is sufficient at the moment. However, the position would change if there is new legislation imposing charitable status upon local government run museums.
Impact The Charity Commission has made it clear that they appreciated having someone to represent the museum sector when they were revising their guidance on trusteeship. I understand that my comments were thought to be useful. Subsequently, a Charity Commission representative published a short article in the Museum Association's journal on the Commission's new guidance on trusteeship (and I put the writer in contact with the editor of the journal). This work is multi-disciplinary to include Law and Museum Ethics and Practice.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Curatorially motivated disposals: Collections Trust 
Organisation Collections Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution From 2014 onwards, I kept the Chief Executive Officer of the Collections Trust, informed of the progress of my guidance on curatorially motivated disposals from museum collections. The CEO discussed museum sector needs with me and he arranged for me to give a talk about my work at the Collections Trust annual meeting both in June 2012 and in June 2014 at OpenCulture. I received an e-mail of congratulations on my guidance. When the CEO moved elsewhere, I created links with his successor.
Collaborator Contribution I have received some feedback from the Collections Trust at various stages of this research project which I have found helpful. The Trust has provided links to my guidance.
Impact The publication online of Appendix 4 of the Disposal Toolkit (relating to Ethical and Legal Aspects of Sales from Museum Collections) and a lengthy booklet on the Status of Museum Collections (in the context of curatorially motivated disposals). This work is multi-disciplinary to include Law and Museum Ethics and Practice.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Curatorially motivated disposals: Metropolitan Police 
Organisation Metropolitan Police Service
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have only had one lengthy formal meeting with the Head of the Art and Antiques Unit of the Metropolitan Police, in 2014. I have had informal conversations with the Head of the Art and Antiques Unit and her colleagues subsequently at conferences. We keep in touch because of a mutual concern to deter the illicit trade in art and antiquities.
Collaborator Contribution I discussed my research on disposals. In particular, we discussed our concerns about disposals of objects which had originated from abroad, such as the Middle East. If the disposal of an object is by way of a transfer to another museum, there is usually no difficulty. However, if there is a proposal by a museum to sell an object it may become highly controversial, taking up the time of various public bodies (such as the Arts Council England and the Art and Antiques Unit of the Metropolitan Police). It is therefore important to formulate guidance in a way which encourages museums to reflect and to conduct themselves with care. I have discussed cultural property matters regularly with the Art and Antiques Unit in 2017/2018 not only because of my work on museum collections but also because of my broader interest in combating the illicit trade in art and antiquities.
Impact My pdf guidance booklet on curatorially motivated disposals, available to freely download from the Museums Association's website.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Curatorially motivated disposals: Museums Association 
Organisation Museums Association
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have produced a 57 page pdf guidance booklet on the legal and ethical aspects of curatorially motivated disposals to help museums in reviewing their collections and disposing of unwanted objects. I revised the guidance booklet in 2016 to take account of changes in the law; the Museums Association has published the booklet on its website so that museum professionals can freely download it and use it.
Collaborator Contribution The Museums Association has invited me to act as a speaker at various workshops to help me publicise my work to the whole of the museum sector. It has put my pdf guidance on curatorially motivated disposals on its website so that museums can freely download the guidance and use it. I am part of a team which includes Alistair Brown, Policy Officer at the Museums Association; we are engaged in drafting ethical and legal guidance which will be published in May 2017 which will assist the governing bodies of museums facing closure. This further project is based upon research already carried out as part of my AHRC Award (the Status of Museum Collections) and provides additional impact.
Impact I produced a 57 page pdf guidance booklet on the legal and ethical aspects of curatorially motivated disposals which was published in 2015 and made available to museum professionals on the Museums Association's website. This booklet was multi-disciplinary to include: Law, Museum Ethics. I have now revised the booklet to take account of changes in the law and, as a 59 page booklet, it was published on the Museums Association's website in 2016. I have produced an article which makes reference to working with the Museums Association and Arts Council: "Dealing with UK Museum Collections: Law, Ethics and the Public/Private Divide" International Journal of Cultural Property Issue 2-3 / August 2015, pp 177-204. This article was multi-disciplinary to include: Law, Museum Ethics. The Policy Officer, Alistair Brown, read my article entitled "The Museums Association's Code of Ethics 2015" (2016) XXI (2) Art Antiquity and Law 143 - 156 and made some comments; I modified the article slightly and thanked him in a footnote. This article was multi-disciplinary to include: Law, Museum Ethics. Alistair has also read my article (whilst it was awaiting publication in 2016) entitled "Frozen in Time: Orphans and Uncollected Objects in Museum Collections" International Journal of Cultural Property (2017) 24, 1-28. The article recommends that accredited museums should be able to acquire legal title to objects in their collections where the ownership is uncertain. We discussed the proposal for law reform in detail in 2016 before I contacted the Law Commission for England and Wales. This law proposal, if enacted, would save museums money and help to make them more sustainable. This research and collaboration was multi-disciplinary to include: Law, Museum Ethics.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Museum collections: Arts Council England 
Organisation Arts Council England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I discussed my work on Ethical and Legal Aspects of Sales from Museum Collections during my Placement Fellowship with Isabel Wilson from ACE. I have had several lengthy meetings at the London offices of Arts Council England with Scott Furlong, Director of Collections and Cultural Property, early on in my AHRC Leadership Fellowship, to discuss what needed to be included in the pdf guidance for the museum sector. We have kept in touch since then by e-mail, telephone and by conversations at conferences. I have supplied Scott Furlong and Isabel Wilson with a number of articles which I have written and which we have discussed. On the basis of these publications, we have discussed legislation in two areas in particular: (1) altering the status of local authority museum collections so that their status is charitable to ensure that any sales are well considered and acceptable to the sector. This recommendation is linked to my ESRC 50% Placement Fellowship (Ethical and Legal Aspects of Sales from Museum Collections) (2) enabling accredited museums to acquire legal title to objects in their collections where there is uncertainty over ownership (orphan collections, deposited objects, and uncollected loans). This recommendation is linked to my AHRC Award (the Status of Museum Collections). I am currently discussing both law proposals with the DCMS and the English and Scottish Law Commissions Isabel Wilson from ACE and I are part of a team engaged in drafting ethical and legal guidance which will be published in May 2017 which will assist the governing bodies of museums facing closure. This further project is based upon research carried out as part of my AHRC Award (the Status of Museum Collections). .
Collaborator Contribution I found it useful from the start to have someone to discuss what I was doing to check that I was prioritising the right issues. My understanding is that the Arts Council are very pleased with the work which I have carried out. Now that I am liaising with the DCMS on law reform, I have found the support of the Arts Council very helpful.
Impact I have produced a 57 page pdf guidance booklet on the legal and ethical aspects of curatorially motivated disposals. This booklet was multi-disciplinary to include: Law, Museum Ethics. This booklet was revised in 2016 to take account of changes in the law and was extended to 59 pages. It is freely available to download from the Museums Association's website. I produced a book chapter (The Sale of Items in Museum Collections' chapter 11 in N. Hopkins (ed), Modern Studies in Property Law, Volume 7 (2013, Oxford: Hart Publishing), 217-241) and an article ("Dealing with UK Museum Collections: Law, Ethics and the Public/Private Divide" International Journal of Cultural Property Issue 2-3 / August 2015, pp 177-204) which include discussion of local authority collections. I recommended that local authority collections should have charitable status. This issue was discussed by the All Party Parliamentary Group for Cultural Heritage on 8 February 2017 and it was agreed to discuss it further later this year. I provided Scott Furlong and Isabel Wilson of ACE with a draft of . "The Museums Association's Code of Ethics 2015" which was published in (2016) XXI (2) Art Antiquity and Law 143 - 156. Isabel made some comments (in relation to accreditation) and I adjusted my article accordingly. Scott and Isabel were also supplied with my article on "Frozen in Time: Orphans and Uncollected Objects in Museum Collections" International Journal of Cultural Property (2017) 24, 1-28 and it has formed the basis for discussion of law reform relating to acquisition of title. This issue was discussed by the All Party Parliamentary Group for Cultural Heritage on 8 February 2017 at Westminster and it was unanimously agreed that the law should be changed. I submitted proposals for law reform to the Law Commission for England and Wales and these proposals were accepted and now form part of the Commission's Thirteenth Programme of Law Reform 2017 (Law Com, No 377). https://www.lawcom.gov.uk/project/13th-programme-of-law-reform/ Since then, I have had informal discussions with the Arts Council about the particular problems posed by archaeological collections.
Start Year 2012
 
Description 'Unpacking Codes of Ethics' Socio-Legal Studies Association conference at Robert Gordon University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact I presented a paper entitled, 'Unpacking Codes of Ethics' at the Art, Culture and Heritage stream of the Socio-Legal Studies Association conference at Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 9-11 April 2014. The audience was primarily academics drawn from a number of different disciplines, such as archaeology. My presentation prompted debate about the role of ethical principles.

The paper gave me the opportunity to discuss the general thinking behind producing guidance on the legal and ethical status of collections for the benefit of the museum sector. It is of particular interest to academics in other countries, where there may be the same need for guidance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description "Commentary on the new Museums Association Code of Ethics (2015)" Institute of Art and Law. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Commentary on the new Museums Association Code of Ethics (2015)" Institute of Art and Law. Notre Dame University, London. 28 November 2015. This was an opportunity to talk to museum curators and others about the new Code of Ethics in the museum sector, which was ratified three weeks before this talk. I was asked to write an article about this (due for submission in April 2016). I have been asked to provide another presentation in June which is more closely focused upon disposals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description "Culture in Crisis" conference at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact In response to the destruction of cultural property by ISIS, this international conference "Culture in Crisis" was convened by the Victoria and Albert Museum in conjunction with Yale University, USA. 14 April 2015. I chaired a session at this conference. The whole conference was recorded. The conference led to the "London Declaration on Culture in Crisis"
http://www.vam.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/256614/London-declaration-on-Culture-in-Crisis.pdf
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description "Disposals from Museum Collections." Paul Mellon Centre, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact "Disposals from Museum Collections." Paul Mellon Centre, London. 13 November 2015. The audience consisted of postgraduate students and academics drawn mainly (but not exclusively) from York University. I was involved in putting York University academics in touch with York Museums Trust and it was a good opportunity to discuss the needs of this regional part of the museum sector and possible work which could be carried out.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description "Disposals from Museum Collections." Sussex Museum Group. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Disposals from Museum Collections." Sussex Museum Group. Fishbourne Roman Palace. 22 January 2016. This was a meeting of museum curators and other museum professionals. I discussed the legal (and ethical) aspects of disposals from collections. There were three other presenters from the museum sector who also discussed disposals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description "The Legal and Ethical Status of Museum Collections." Museum of London workshop. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "The Legal and Ethical Status of Museum Collections." Museum of London Development Skills plus training. 11 November 2015.
I published lengthy guidance on the legal and ethical issues surrounding curatorially motivated disposal from collections on the Museums Association's website in September 2015. This workshop was an opportunity to discuss this guidance with museum curators and it was well received. I have been invited to provide a follow up workshop on 16 March 2016. I have also been invited to take part in a presentation at the Museums and Heritage Show in London on 19 May 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Acquisitions and Disposals,' Bradford Industrial Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This lengthy presentation was entitled: 'Acquisitions and Disposals: the Ethics and the Law from the Local Authority Perspective.' It took place at Bradford Industrial Museum on 23 September. The audience consisted entirely on museum professionals drawn from the local authority sector in the north. My instructions were to orientate the presentation to the local authority sector. The audience seemed to find my explanations of law and ethics clear, which was reassuring.

There was active debate about curatorially motivated disposals because many local authority museums are involved in this process at the moment. This presentation was linked to the guidance which I am working on which is concerned with the legal and ethical status of museum collections (curatorially motivated disposals and provenance issues).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 'Collections and the Law' Museums Development North West 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a presentation on 'Collections and the Law' at a conference organised by Museums Development North West at the People's History Museum, University of Manchester. 30 April 2014. The presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards. The audience involved a mix of people: although it was primarily museum professionals in the north it also included, for example, museum consultants.

This presentation was made at a relatively early stage of the Fellowship and I was concerned that my explanations were clear and that I was not overlooking any ethical issues. It was clear from the subsequent discussion that that everyone enjoyed the talk. Part of the aim of consultation is to build a rapport with people so that they can e-mail me if they have any further queries. For example, I have received e-mails since to to discuss what is meant by 'permanent loan.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://museumdevelopmentnorthwest.wordpress.com/2014/03/18/up-coming-events/
 
Description 'Deaccessioning from Museums.' University of Warwick 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to present a paper on the following issue: 'The Legal Perspective Surrounding the Ethical Issues Regarding Deaccessioning from Museums.' The conference on Museums and Heritage: Communities and Ethics was held at the University of Warwick on 13 May 2014. My paper prompted discussion afterwards. The audience consisted of academics and museum staff.

I explained that my new draft guidance would also include acquisitions as well as disposals. A museum professional reported that the governing body of her museum contacted the local police when a family, whose father had died, had offered to donate his religious artefacts to the museum. The museum suspected that the artefacts had been smuggled into the country. She reported that the police were very heavy handed, visiting the family in a very public way, so that the visit drew attention to them. It was featured in the local paper. The way it was handled damaged the reputation of the museum unfortunately. I made a note to provide guidance to museums which would attempt to avoid this situation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/theatre_s/cp/research/researchthemes/heritage_and_museums/
 
Description 'Due Diligence: the Illicit Trade in Cultural Property' (University of Kent conference) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I presented a paper at an international academic conference, held at the University of Kent, concerning "Cultural Heritage in Danger: Illicit Trafficking, Armed Conflicts and Cultural Diplomacy" (9 June 2017). The conference was in response to the theft and destruction of property in areas of armed conflict.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 'Ethics of Museum Disposals' (Boodle Hatfield, solicitors) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This one day event was organised by the Institute of Art and Law and hosted by Boodle Hatfield solicitors on 16 October 2017. The main audience consisted of solicitors and barristers and the focus of my discussion was law and ethics in the context of museum collections and disposals of unwanted items.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 'Property Issues: Disposals from Museum Collections.' University of Geneva, Switzerland. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact I gave a paper entitled 'Property Issues: Disposals from Museum Collections' at the All Art and Cultural Heritage Law conference, University of Geneva, Switzerland. 13-14 June. The paper discussed how law and ethics applies to the status of museum collections with particularly reference to the public and private divide. The audience consisted primarily of Law academics drawn from around the world, but there were others as well, such as people who are employed to operate specialist private art loss electronic databases, and senior managers from auction houses such as Sotheby's.

My paper was one which contributed towards exploring what makes cultural property different from ordinary moveable property. One impact is that, in order to present a paper at this conference, I was required to undertake to submit a draft article for submission to a special conference edition of the International Journal of Cultural Property. I agreed to this requirement and I am about to submit my article to the committee.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.art-law.org/archives/papers.html
 
Description 'Reconsidering Due Diligence' (Cambridge University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented a workshop with others at the Cambridge International Symposium on Economic Crime, Cambridge University, on 7 September 2017. The theme of the Symposium was 'Preventing and Controlling Economic Crime in the Modern World.' It is a conference which attracts far more than a thousand delegates over the course of a week and includes lawyers, money laundering reporting officers, bankers, politicians, academics, etc. .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 'Returning Looted Art: Cambridge University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact I presented a paper on 'Returning Looted Art: Law Enforcement Agencies and Ethical Solutions' at a three day international conference on Looted Art and Restitution in the Twentieth Century, held at the University of Cambridge. 18-20 September. The audience consisted of academics drawn from various disciplines (such as art history, archaeology, museum studies, law, etc.) as well as professionals such as museum staff.

My paper was well received. This paper was an academic one but it is naturally linked to the guidance which I am working on for museum professionals which is concerned with the status of museum collections (acquisitions).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 'The Role of Museum Codes of Ethics in Combating Heritage Crime' University of Kent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact I presented a paper entitled 'The Role of Museum Codes of Ethics in Combating Heritage Crime' at the New Approaches to Heritage Ethics: Interdisciplinary Conversations on Heritage, Crime, Conflicts and Rights conference. It was held at the University of Kent. 23-24 June 2014. The audience was diverse. There were police officers, representatives from English heritage, UNESCO and auction houses, and academics drawn from a variety of disciplines. My presentation prompted questions and discussion afterwards about ethical principles.

I am preparing draft guidance to museums on the law and ethics which includes acquisitions to museum collections. People found it interesting to learn that museum ethics imposes higher demands upon museums than the law. Although I was well aware of the risks which reckless metal detecting posed to our heritage, I was pleased to learn more. Equally, it was very interesting to hear more about the role of enforcement agencies in different countries and their ability to confiscate objects which had been illicitly imported (as this is a particular risk for museums which purchase without carrying out sufficient due diligence).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 'The Significance of Public Trust' AHRC Network Group meeting 'Ethics, Museums and Archaeology' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact I gave a paper which interweaved law and ethics entitled 'The Significance of Public Trust' at an AHRC Network Group meeting 'Ethics, Museums and Archaeology' which was held at the Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford between 2-3 April. The audience was a mixture of academics drawn from different disciplines but there were also some museum professionals, not least from the Ashmolean Museum itself.

I was the only lawyer and I was asked questions on museum ethics. Ironically, a previous speaker was an expert on museum ethics and was asked questions on the law. I found the Network Group discussions fascinating because of the interplay between the disciplines, and the interaction between academics and practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://philevents.org/event/show/13506
 
Description 'Who Owns the Collections?' OpenCulture 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a presentation entitled 'Who Owns the Collections?' which was followed by discussion as part of a panel on Collections Development and Rationalisation. The conference was OpenCulture 2014, Collections Trust, held at The Kia Oval, London on 26 June. The audience consisted of museum professionals and museum consultants drawn from around the world. The focus of this session was on curatorially motivated disposal where there is little or no information about an object's provenance.

This was a particularly valuable session because of the discussion which followed. Up until this point, it had not occurred to me that museums would expect guidance on situations where an object had been deposited on loan and had not been collected at the end of the loan. As a consequence, I carried out the necessary research and then included this situation in my draft guidance for the museum sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description A presentation and discussion of money laundering, proceeds of crime and works of art at the Courtauld Institute. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I provided a presentation upon "Money laundering, proceeds of crime and art" at the Courtauld Institute on 27 September. The workshop was organised by the Institute of Art and Law. The audience primarily consisted of heritage professionals. The focus of the talk was upon the Museums Association's Code of Ethics, acquisitions and due diligence steps. The presentation included a discussion of the significance of due diligence steps in protecting museum professionals and others from criminal prosecution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description A presentation at a workshop on Art Crime at Queen Mary University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I gave a presentation on museum acquisitions, security and the illicit trade in art and antiquities at an AHRC Workshop on Art, Crime and Criminals. The workshop was held at Queen Mary University in London on 21 June. The audience consisted of academics drawn from different disciplines, lawyers, and practitioners from the heritage sector.
There was considerable discussion of the different criminal offences and their shortcomings. The subject was particularly topical because the Cultural Property (Armed Conflict) Bill was beginning its passage through Parliament.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description A talk at the AHRC Leadership Fellows meeting on "Interconnectivity" in Edinburgh on 11 March 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I gave a presentation on "Interconnectivity" at the AHRC Leadership Fellows meeting in Edinburgh on 11 March 2016. I was also part of another panel during the day making a presentation on unexpected challenges. I enjoyed presenting on "interconnectivity" because I saw it as an opportunity to discuss the concept of "Knowledge Exchange" to see whether my views differed from other AHRC Fellows.
I was particularly interested to find that not everyone agreed that Fellows needed to be impartial in debates with wider audiences. I had needed to be impartial in dealing with pressure/protest groups because I have been working with public bodies such as the Arts Council, who are exposed to the risk of a legal action if they are seen as being partisan.
I thought that the discussion helped to demonstrate the wide-ranging work being carried out by different Fellows and the difficulties in pinning down the concept of Knowledge Exchange with precision.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Charity Commission: roundtable discussion on draft guidance of The Essential Trustee. Birmingham. 5 February 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I have worked with the Charity Commission in providing guidance to the museum sector on disposing of items from their collections. I attended the workshop - at the special invitation of the Commission - to represent the museum sector's perspective. After the Charity Commission's new guidance on "The Essential Trustee" was published, I helped to arrange for a policymaker with the Charity Commission to publish an article on trusteeship in the Museum Journal. I have acted as a "bridge builder" between these public organisations to create new lines of communication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Co-presentation at the Society of Legal Scholars conference with a Scottish Law Commissioner 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Arts Council England has been concerned that there are thousands of objects in museum collections where there is no record of how they came to be acquired. I have written an article on this issue and I discussed it in a paper entitled "Property and possession and collections frozen in time" at the Society of Legal Scholars conference, University of York. 3 September 2015. My co-presenter was Andrew Steven, the Scottish Law Commissioner who had been tasked with dealing with this issue (amongst other issues) in draft legislation which is now being considered by the Scottish Parliament. Our presentation prompted a great deal of discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Collections: ethics, law and latest developments: Royal Leamington Spa and Art Gallery 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop was organised by a regional group of museums who had arranged for a series of speakers comprising representatives from the Collections Trust, heritage groups and myself. It was held on 7 November at the Royal Leamington Spa and Art Gallery, Royal Pump Rooms. Leamington Spa. It was an Accreditation Workshop. i.e. it was aimed at museum professionals who were working in museums which were working towards accreditation with the Arts Council England or who were maintaining that elevated status.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference at the invitation of the All Party Parliamentary Group Walk of Truth, hosted by Boris Johnson. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Conference at the invitation of the All Party Parliamentary Group Walk of Truth, hosted by the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson. City Hall, London. 30 November 2015. This meeting with politicians and experts was concerned with the UK response to destruction of cultural property and looting in the Middle East. I am invited to attend this event because I can assist in representing the museum sector, along with representatives from the Arts Council, the Museums Association and others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference presentation: Art Crime: Sketching Boundaries and Mapping Prevalence. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I presented a paper on "Analysing Art Crime" at a conference/workshop on Art Crime: Sketching Boundaries and Mapping Prevalence. Queen Mary Criminal Justice Centre, Queen Mary University of Law. 14 May 2015.
The museum sector wanted me to focus on covering a large number of areas of law (and museum ethics) relating to disposals from collections. Even so, there is a need for further guidance on acquisitions and therefore attending a workshop like this at which the police and art traders were also present, helps me to refine my ideas about what the museum sector need.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference presentation: Socio-Legal Studies Association (Warwick University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I presented a paper on "Looted cultural property: the role of enforcement agencies" at the Socio-Legal Studies Association. University of Warwick. 31 March -2 April. The value of this annual conference is that it has an inter-disciplinary and international audience. The presentation sparked questions and discussion which was helpful because I have subsequently been involved by special invitation in, for example, the Government's presentation of its response to the destruction of the cultural heritage by ISIS at Lancaster House .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cultural Protection Summit organised by the Government 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I attended the Cultural Protection Summit by personal invitation from John Whittingdale, the Secretary of State, and the Tobias Ellwood, Foreign Office Minister, to Lancaster House, London on 28 October 2015.
I was one of a select number of experts invited by the Government to discuss its plans to establish a Cultural Protection Fund to offer help and protection in relation to cultural property to vulnerable countries, such as Syria. I was invited, along with representatives of the Arts Council England, because I can act as a representative of the museum sector due to my leadership role.
This particular event was widely discussed in the press (and this is why I am suggesting that it reached more than 500 people).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Discussion between academics drawn from different disciplines and museum professionals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I was invited as a participant in "Curating Profusion" as part of the AHRC's 'Assembling Alternative Futures for Heritage' research programme. The event was held in York on 17 March 2016. The group consisted of museum professionals and academic drawn from a huge range of disciplines both from the UK and abroad. I was the only lawyer. The idea was to brainstorm and to think in ways which might be novel to us.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.york.ac.uk/sociology/research/current-research/macdonald-curating-profusion/
 
Description Discussion on the Museums Association's website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Museums Association and various contributors are concerned about the protection of valuable cultural objects currently held in museums run by local authorities. I wrote to explain that, prompted by my submission to the Law Commission, it would be considering law reform in this area. My contribution was one of a number and there is ongoing discussion. The Law Commissioners are interested in the discussion and have asked me to keep them informed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.museumsassociation.org/museums-journal/news/13022018-local-authority-museums-at-risk-as-...
 
Description Disposal Accreditation plus Training Workshop. Museum of London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a presentation on 'Disposals and Risk Management' at a Rationalisation and Disposal Accreditation plus Training Workshop held at the Museum of London, London on 1 July. The audience consisted entirely of museum professionals employed in museums in London and the south east. The presentation sparked discussion because all of the participants were in the process of disposing of objects from their collections.

The audience found the presentation interesting and are keen to see the guidelines on curatorially motivated disposals published in 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Disposals from Museum Collections: Notre Dame University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I gave an hour's presentation on Disposals from Museum Collections to a group of people (drawn from the museum sector and the legal profession) who were studying for a Diploma in Art Law. The event was organised by the Institute of Art and Law. The event was held at Notre Dame University in London on 6 January 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Esmée Fairbairn Collections Fund Network Day, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented a paper on 'Disposals: Ethics and the Law' at the Esmée Fairbairn Collections Fund Network Day, London, in 28 March. The event was organised by the Museums Association. The audience mainly consisted of museum professionals. There were a number of questions at the end of my presentation. People were particularly interested in the legal position where objects are simply left anonymously in the museum as would-be gifts.

I was asked to give talks subsequently by two of the people who attended and I duly did so: one at the People's Museum in Manchester and one at Bradford Industrial Museum (BIM). I have recorded these presentations as separate entries on ResearchFish because the audiences for these subsequent events were different and regional in character.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Franco-British Lawyers Association conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented a paper on "The Politics of Return." Franco-British Lawyers Association: The Art of Advising - Art Law in Practice. Notre Dame University, London. 9 October 2015. The paper was well received, prompting discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Law Commission consultation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact As an earlier engagement activity, I had responded 2014 to the Law Commission's consultation upon "Social Investment by Charities." (Consultation Paper No 216). My comments relating to the museum sector and social investment were cited by the Law Commission in its "Analysis of Responses" at [2.5], [3.7], [3.35], [3.126], [3.157], [3.166], [3.202].
In 2015, I responded to the Law Commission's Technical Issues in Charity Law (Consultation Paper No 220) as a representative of the museum sector
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Meeting with Museum Development North West. Manchester Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting with Museum Development North West (MDNW) on 5 February 2016 at Manchester Museum, to discuss the legal ramifications of the imminent closure of a number of museums in the north west of England. This is a matter of huge concern to the museum sector at the moment. The museum professionals decided to pass on my pdf guidance on curatorially motivated disposals to Lancashire County Council's legal department to help them with problems relating to disposing of their collections (in advance of closure of the museums themselves). We discussed what more work was needed help museums facing the threat of closure. We plan to establish a steering group to meet in April 2016 to discuss this further. MDNW also decided to seek Arts Council funding with a view to using my skills and expertise more extensively to provide new supplementary guidance in the context of closures of museums (and preservation of collections).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with with Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO at Chatham House. 1 July 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The discussion concerned "Culture on the Frontline: Protecting Cultural Heritage in Conflict Zones." This was a Roundtable discussion with Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO at Chatham House. 1 July 2015. Although the discussion was wide-ranging, one particular issue was at the forefront: the ratification of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict with Regulations for the Execution of the Convention 1954 and its two Protocols. Key representatives from every sector were present, including the military. This would be another example of a Leadership activity, where I was invited to participate as one of the country's experts on the protection of cultural property. This activity is relevant to my museum work because, when the Government ratifies the Convention, the museum sector will need to be informed of its implications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Member of an expert panel discussing. "Museum Closure" at the Museums Association's annual conference in Glasgow. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was one of three members of an expert panel discussing. "Museum Closure" at the Museums Association's annual conference. The conference was held in Glasgow on 8 November 2016. There was a discussion at the end and I received a number of questions at the end about law reform. Immediately after this session, a representative from the DCMS discussed law reform with me. The DCMS has carried out a museums review and she confirmed that the Government was keen to support the museum sector where a case had been made out for a change in the law. She said that she had noticed how much interest there was in my law reform proposals..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.museumsassociation.org/museums-journal/comment/01072016-the-policy-column
 
Description Museum codes and the ethics of acquisition (Queen Mary University London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I provided a two hour lecture and debate on Museum codes and the ethics of acquisition to LL.M. students on 13 February 2018 at the Centre for Commercial Law Studies at Queen Mary University London. I understand that the students are partly drawn from practice as either lawyers or museum professionals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Museum codes and the ethics of disposal (Queen Mary University London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I provided a two hour conversation about disposals from museum collections on 20 February 2018 at the Centre for Commercial Law Studies at Queen Mary University London). The generous amount of time enabled me to discuss different types of disposal, including sales from collections. It also gave me time to explain my proposals for law reform, which have been accepted as a project by the Law Commission and which form part of its 13th Programme. As some of the students work in museums part-time, this was an excellent opportunity to give them a wide-ranging overview of disposals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Museums Association's Museums Journal: comments 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was asked by the Museums Association to comment upon the fact that a museum had sold medals on Ebay for a small amount of money rather than returning them to the donor (who had been assured that the medals would join the permanent collection). These comments were published.
http://www.museumsassociation.org/museums-journal/news/11082015-museum-criticised-for-selling-donated-medals?utm_source=ma&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=12082015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Museums and the Law: Acquisitions & Disposals: People's History Museum, Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A regional group of museums, called Museums Development North West (MDNW) organised this event which focused on different legal and ethical problems involving museum collections. It was held at the People's History Museum in Manchester.on 9 November. Each presenter gave a short talk in the morning and then, after lunch, we formed a panel for a "Question and Answer" session. Another member of the panel was Alistair Brown, Policy Officer for the Museums Association. Sarah Brown represented the Collections Trust and could speak in particular about the accreditation process. A further representative was drawn from MDNW. The audience consisted exclusively of museum professionals drawn from national museums, university museums, local government museums and charitable museums.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at Christie's auction house 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This presentation was concerned with providing a comparative analysis of codes of ethics. The codes of ethics which have been adopted by the museum sector in the UK and abroad do not apply to dealers, who have developed their own ethical codes.
My presentation was entitled "Provenance and Due Diligence in a Global Context" and was part of a large conference called Creating Markets, Collecting Art. It was held at Christie's. London. 15 July.
The audience primarily consisted of art traders and auction house representatives but there were people from the museum and heritage sector as well.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at a Collection Advocacy Workshop. Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact My presentation concerned "Sales from local authority museum collections" at a Collection Advocacy Workshop at the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL, London. 16 July 2015. The workshop was organised by UCL in response to demands from members of two "action groups" who had worked to challenge local authority decisions to sell objects from their museums' collections. The action groups consisted of ordinary members of the public, who were concerned to challenge Northampton Borough Council's sale of the Sekhemka statue and Croydon Council's sale of ceramics. These action groups were keen to have an interdisciplinary workshop where the law and ethics and other matters could be discussed because they had felt that public bodies, such as the Arts Council, should have done more to prevent these sales. A representative from the Arts Council was present to provide that organisation's view and I was involved to help these people understand the law.
During 2014 and 2015, I had helped the Sekhemka action group by explaining legal terms to them so that they could understand the process. Even so, I was careful to remain impartial in the same way as the Arts Council and the Museums Association. It was important to remain neutral in a complex situation where local residents were in conflict with their local authority. In the end, Northampton Borough Council's museums were stripped of their accreditation by the Arts Council due to the sale of the Sekhemka statue: the sale was declared unethical and in breach of the Museums Association's Code of Ethics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at a conference entitled, "From the shore to the store: the ethics of UK fossil collecting and collections" at Bristol Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I provided a talk on collecting and disposals of fossils at a conference entitled, "From the shore to the store: the ethics of UK fossil collecting and collections." The conference was organised by the Geological Curators' Group and was held at the M Shed, Bristol Museum on 6 December 2016. It involved a discussion of whether fossils are cultural property, which is seen as a controversial issue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at the 10th International Conference on The Arts in Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I presented a paper on "Returning Looted Cultural Assets" at the 10th International Conference on The Arts in Society, The Work of Art in the Age of Networked Society, Imperial College London. 22-24 July 2015. The audience was a mix of academics, museum practitioners, and other professionals. The conference was international and there were relatively few English people present. My paper did provoke discussion about such matters as the position of museums as purchasers of stolen art, and whether enforcement agencies in this country and abroad should place more emphasis upon seizing and returning works of art and antiquities or whether their first priority should be to prosecute and imprison dealers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the 3rd International Symposium on Economic Crime, Cambridge University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was involved in a "Trafficking in Culture" workshop. 33rd International Symposium on Economic Crime. Cambridge University. 8 September 2015. The problems of combating heritage crime and the security needs of museums prompted a great deal of debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the Socio-Legal Studies Association annual international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact My paper was entitled "A New Museum Act?" and it was presented on 6 April 2017.
I discussed reform of the law relating to museum collections - and the form which the legislation would take - with academics in the UK and abroad. I co-convene an Art, Culture and Heritage stream at the Socio-Legal Studies Association and consequently the audience had expertise in heritage law.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation of a paper in the Art, Culture and Heritage stream of the Socio-Legal Studies Association annual conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Socio-Legal Studies Association has an annual conference for academics. I co-run the interdisciplinary "Art, Culture and Heritage stream" for academics drawn from law, archaeology and museum studies. On 6 April, 2016, I presented a paper on "The Illicit Trade in Antiquities: new dilemmas, new initiatives." I discussed the anticipated impact of the new Cultural Property (Armed Conflict) Bill (as it then was) and the extent to which a new offence relating to acquiring unlawfully exported cultural property from areas under occupation would pose problems for the museum sector. The discussion was placed in the more general context of risk assessment in relation to gifts and purchases by museums.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation of a paper on "Museum Disposals" for discussion at the Courtauld Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented a paper on "Museum Disposals" for discussion at the Courtauld Institute on 29 September. The workshop was organised by the Institute of Art and Law. As I had made a formal submission to the Law Commission in September regarding law reform, I included some discussion of how the law should change in making my presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation of a paper on ethical codes at the 4th Annual Queen Mary University of London and Renmin University's Conference on Criminal Justice 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I presented a paper on ethical codes and due diligence steps in the context of acquisitions by museums and dealers. The session at the conference was concerned with the "Regulation and the peculiar challenges of the art trade." It was the 4th Annual Queen Mary University of London and Renmin University's Conference on Criminal Justice and was held between 1-2 December 2016.
The audience included a large number of academics ("study participants") but also included practising lawyers, members of the Art and Antiques Unit of the Metropolitan Police, and heritage professionals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation of a paper on professional codes of ethics at a conference on "Risk Management in the Art and Antiquities Market." at K&L Gates LLP solicitors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I provided a talk regarding "Professional codes of ethics, combating the illicit trade in art and antiquities, and new regulatory challenges on the horizon.".The conference was entitled, "Risk Management in the Art and Antiquities Market." The conference was held at a firm of solicitors, K&L Gates LLP on 7 February 2017.
I was invited to present at this conference by an art historian who was working for K&L Gates LLP and who had heard me provide a presentation at Christie's auction house in July 2016.
The audience primarily consisted of solicitors and barristers and art dealers. However, there was a mixture of people and this included police from the Art and Antiques Unit of the Metropolitan Police and also heritage professionals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation of a paper on the new Code of Ethics at the Institute of Art and Law 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented a paper on "The Museums Association's Code of Ethics" at a conference organised by the Institute of Art and Law at Notre Dame University. London on 4 June. The audience primarily consisted on museum professionals and lawyers in practice.
I was particularly concerned to ensure that everyone understood that the new Code should be read in a holistic way. Consequently, in order to respond to an ethical problem, the audience would need to look at a number of different provisions in the new Code.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation on the law and ethics of disposal at the Museums and Heritage Show at Olympia in London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a presentation on "The law and ethics of disposal. What does the law have to say about your curatorial review?" at the Museums and Heritage Show, Olympia West, London. 19 May 2016. One person stood up and told me that she was a registrar and that my pdf. guidance on curatorially motivated diposals had transformed her working life. She told me that she, and other registrars, had been working partly through guess-work before. She wanted to thank me and the AHRC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to the UK Registrars Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a presentation on museum collections and the Law at the UK Registrars Group annual conference at the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, on 21 April.
The audience primarily consisted of registrars from national museums and other museums. But there were other participants. For example, apart from the formal presentation, I discussed law reform with Bendor Grosvenor, a well known art dealer who regularly appears on BBC programmes relating to works of art.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to the UK Registrars Group at the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to present a paper on "The Art of Acquisitions and the Devilish Nature of Disposals." The event was organised by the UK Registrars Group (a professional body of museum registrars). The event was held at the Whitworth Art Gallery in Manchester on 16 May.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentations on acquisitions and disposals from collections and closures of museums at a conference on "Museums and the Law" in Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I provided two presentations: one concerned acquisitions to museum collections and the other was concerned with disposals from collections and closures of museums. The conference was "Museums and the Law." It was organised by Museum Development North West (MDNW) and it was held at Chetham's Library, Manchester on 10 March.
The audience primarily consisted of people working in museums.
There was a significant change in my presentation on disposals and closures of museums. I am now explaining the proposed changes to the law in more detail to the audience and inviting them to provide me with feedback at the conference (or to e-mail me later). I e-mail a summary of this feedback to the English Law Commission, the Scottish Law Commission and the DCMS. I have also been in contact with the Scottish equivalent of our DCMS. .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://collectionstrust.org.uk/events/north-west/museums-and-the-law/
 
Description Provision of a talk, followed by discussion, on "Museum Disposals." at the offices of Clyde & Co, solicitors 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I provided a talk, followed by discussion, on "Museum Disposals." at the offices of a firm of solicitors in London called Clyde & Co. on 21 October. The event was organised by the Institute of Art and Law. The audience consisted primarily of lawyers but there were also museum and heritage professionals and academics.
I took the opportunity to discuss law reform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Provocation at a Code of Ethics Consultation Workshop at Leeds Art Gallery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact I provided a "provocation" at the Code of Ethics Consultation Workshop organised by the Museums Association at Leeds Art Gallery. 4 June 2015.
The Museums Association was involved in replacing its Code of Ethics of 2007, which applied to all museums in the UK. It was seen as outdated. The Workshop in Leeds was one of four workshops in which people working in the museums sector, along with museum consultants, were invited to attend to discuss the shape of the new Code of Ethics (which was eventually ratified in November 2015). I think that this is a good example of the "Leadership" aspect of my AHRC Fellowship: I was one of a few people trusted by the Museums Association to lead debate on issues relating to collections which would then lead to the new Code of Ethics of 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Publicity in the National Museum Directors' Council newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The National Museum Directors' Council (NMDC) is a highly influential body. It is pleasing that, in its newletter published online in November 2015, it noted the support of the AHRC in the publication of my pdf. guidance booklet on curatorially motivated disposals.
http://www.nationalmuseums.org.uk/news/newsletters/?item=105
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The Challenge of Safeguarding Manuscripts in Conflict Zones' event. Chatham House 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 'From the Balkan Wars to ISIS: The Challenge of Safeguarding Manuscripts in Conflict Zones' event. Chatham House. 6 October 2015. This event involved a discussion of strategies to combat the looting and destruction of manuscripts in Syria and other vulnerable countries. There was energetic discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Visit to Durham University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 30 postgraduate students attended a presentation on museum ethics and the law relating to acquisitions and disposals from museum collections
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Workshop at the Museum of London for museum professionals 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on "Rationalisation and Disposals" at the Museum of London on 16 March 2016. My booklet provides an overview on curatorially motivated disposals. However, workshops give me the opportunity not only to answers any questions which might arise from the booklet but also to focus on some areas in more detail.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016