Marie Duval presents Ally Sloper: the female cartoonist and popular theatre in London 1869-85.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Chester
Department Name: Art and Design

Abstract

Early Career researcher Dr Simon Grennan, with established scholars Dr Roger Sabin and Dr Julian Waite, will undertake and disseminate new research that will bring to public attention and deliver a rigorous academic context for understanding the re-invention of the English comic strip by Marie Duval in London, between 1869-85. They will produce an international Touring Exhibition, an open-access Online Database, an Academic Publication and 3 Journal Papers, in partnership with The Guildhall Library, Tate Britain and Illustrative Festival, Berlin.
The production of 19th century English comics in humour periodicals was an exclusively male activity, with one exception. Marie Duval was a popular stage actress whose husband, Charles Ross, edited Judy, a satirical London periodical. Between 1869-1885, Duval drew over 100 comic strip pages for Judy that radically developed a character created by Ross named Ally Sloper, a work-shy ne'er-do-well Londoner. Duval's access to the publishing business allowed her to pioneer the development of a drawn story-world through regular serialisation, creating new reader expectations of both form and content, so that readers used her strips in a new way.
She also acted in popular plays, famously subverting gender expectations in the role of 'leading man'. Duval worked in the genre of melodrama, the dominant theatre practice of the 19th century. Her narrative drawing shows the influence of this practice, in both the form of the strips and the mechanisms for reader comprehension.
The Sloper strips utilise depictive techniques that contradict those of a trained illustrator. She had no training, and the visible speed and vigour of facture of Duval's drawings became another comedic device, communicating the exciting, disposable and even daring character of Sloper's world of physical comedy.
As a result of the depictive techniques that she employed and the milieu in which they were read, the world that her strips create is unlike any other English drawn narrative in the 19th century. Duval recreated the comics medium in English on the basis of the new ways that readers made use of them.
There have been no attempts to study or present Duval's activity as a draughtswoman/female actor in the male environment of periodical publishing, relative to her development of the new comics medium. Neither has there been any study of the techniques, contexts and reception of 19th century melodrama compared to Duval's drawings, nor analysis of the range of impacts upon readers of different narrative drawing styles in humour periodicals in this period of new cross-media fertilisation.
Our research method will adopt a mixture of empirical and theoretical approaches to knowledge production, looking beyond empirical data to understand social structures, both recognising and departing from theories about underlying structures, seeking to reveal the historical contingency of previously accepted knowledge and practices.
Outputs will comprise a) a new open access Online Database (an image catalogue raisonné) of Duval's Sloper strips hosted by the University of Chester, b) a public Touring Exhibition displayed at Tate Britain and Illustrative Berlin, c) an Academic Publication and d) interim outputs comprising three peer-reviewed Journal Articles in British, French and American journals.
Experienced research project leader and established scholar Professor Deborah Wynne will mentor Dr Grennan.

Planned Impact

a) Interim outputs (Journal Articles) will provide academics in three fields (cultural history, word/image and performance) with access to original research data and emerging analysis, marketed by the journals and events via their established routes for dissemination.
b) The open access Online Database, titled 'Marie Duval presents Ally Sloper' will be launched and promoted via established online gateways available to scholars, in the fields of word/image, performance, 19th century history and social studies. The website will be reviewed by University of Chester every three years.
c) The public Touring Exhibition, titled 'Marie Duval's revolution in English comics', will be displayed at Tate Britain and Illustrative Festival Berlin and will be promoted via the institutions' established marketing mechanisms.
d) The academic publication 'Marie Duval: narrative drawing and melodrama in 19th century London' will be launched and marketed to libraries and scholars internationally via the publisher's established commercial mechanisms.
Types of impact will include locating, evidencing and providing a critical framework for analysing Duval's contribution to the history of early comic strips, thereby providing the means for scholars to develop the current pedagogy of media history, performance, social history and gender. This will enable them to include Duval in curriculums at all levels of study and will provide future scholars with a changed analytical landscape in which to go forward, particularly in terms of theorising gender and popular culture in the 19th century.
The reach and ambition of future activities of members of the research Team will also be impacted, including their future contributions to curriculum development and teaching, through the process public engagement and partnership working across disciplines and sectors.
In particular, the Touring Exhibition will generate increased public awareness of Marie Duval in the context of the history of word/image, performance and 19th century London history, contributing to a change in current public perceptions of the comics medium. Raised awareness and changed perceptions impact on people's everyday lives by providing opportunities to think differently and make creative connections which were previously difficult or impossible.
More fundamentally, the research will bring about a change in the academic orthodoxy of comics, which continues to propose that a) prior to the First World War, the medium was created and developed entirely by men and b) in the United States, that the medium emerged in English sui generis with the appearance of Outcault's The Yellow Kid in 1894. This sea change will underpin future theorising of the medium relative to gender, technical innovation and the emergence of contemporary popular leisure cultures.

Publications

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Grennan Simon (2018) Drawing in Drag by Marie Duval

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Grennan Simon (2018) Marie Duval

 
Description 1. The project to date has recovered more than 10 x the number of drawings by Marie Duval previously thought to exist. This increase in the number of known works does not replicate the types of work also previously thought to exist, but shows much greater diversity in Duval's total work, changing the emphasis of her activities relative to media and social histories of the period (1869 - 1885).
2. The project has clearly related the work of Duval to the cultural milieu of the theatre in London in the 1860s, 70s and 80s.
3. The project has exceeded its objectives in established an outline biography for Duval and her immediate family.
Exploitation Route The much greater diversity in Duval's total work (compared with previous known works) changes the emphasis of her activities relative to media and social histories of the period (1869 - 1885). The project will be used to extend and modify current historical and theoretical accounts of media, gender and broader visual culture (ie theatre) in the period.
Sectors Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://www.marieduval.org
 
Description (Forthcoming 2016 - 2017): 1. Contributing to public knowledge of media and social history by: a) public impact exhibitions and talks ( x 3, London, Berlin) b) public impact online image database c) public impact 'popular' publication (Paris, London) d) public impact: media features (international)
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Title The Marie Duval Archive online 
Description A free online, public access image database of the work of 19thc cartoonist and actress Marie Duval. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact 1. The online resource launches on 31 March 2016 2. Pre-public launch, the archive contributed to the curation of the public exhibition 'Comix Creatrix' at the House of Illustration, London. 3. Items included in the archive appeared in the above exhibition (Feb - May 2016) 
URL http://www.marieduval.org
 
Description British Library 
Organisation The British Library
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution New identification of drawings attributed to Marie Duval in the British Library collections.
Collaborator Contribution Conservation and photography of new identified drawings attributed to Marie Duval in the British Library collections.
Impact 1. open access online archive www.marieduval.org 2. Touring exhibition (2 venues, Berlin and London achieved at October 2016) 3. Conference papers (Paris, London,. Chester) 4. Academic publication (2018) 5. Public access publication (2018)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Guildhall Library, City of London 
Organisation Guildhall Library
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution 1. Locating, itemising and cataloguing a new corpus (drawings by Marie Duval) 2. Curating and producing a new public exhibition of the work of Marie Duval (exhibition dates Nov 2016 - March 2017) 3. Designing and producing a new online visual archive (image database) for hosting by the Library 4. Creating two public impact events for the Library 5. Digitising 700 images for inclusion in the City of London public online image database 6. Curating and publicising two public impact events
Collaborator Contribution 1. Access to materials in the Library collections, for digitisation 2. Conservation of materials in the Library collections, for digitisation 3. Hosting a new public online visual archive 4. Licensing material to the University of Chester 5. Hosting a public exhibition (2106 - 2017) 6. Hosting and publicising two public impact events
Impact 1. Public online visual archive (image database) of the work of Marie Duval 2. Two public impact exhibitions (Library and Berlin, 2016 - 2017) 3. Two public impact events 4. Three academic impact events (peer-reviewed conference papers) 5. One public impact publication (forthcoming) 6. Three academic impact publications (one monograph book, two journal papers, forthcoming)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Illustrative Festival Berlin 
Organisation Illsutrative Festival Berlin
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution 1. Public online visual archive (image database) of the work of Marie Duval 2. Public impact exhibition 2016 - 2017 3. One public impact event
Collaborator Contribution 1. Public impact exhibition 2016 - 2017 2. One public impact event
Impact 1. Public impact exhibition 2016 - 2017 2. One public impact event
Start Year 2014
 
Description London Library 
Organisation London Library
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution 1. Locating, itemising and cataloguing a new corpus (drawings by Marie Duval) 2. Curating and producing a new public exhibition of the work of Marie Duval (exhibition dates Nov 2016 - March 2017) 3. Designing and producing a new online visual archive (image database) 4. Digitising images for inclusion in the London Library public online image database 5. Curating and publicising two public impact events
Collaborator Contribution 1. Access to materials in the Library collections, for digitisation 2. Conservation of materials in the Library collections, for digitisation
Impact 1. Public online visual archive (image database) of the work of Marie Duval 2. Two public impact exhibitions (Library and Berlin, 2016 - 2017) 3. Two public impact events 4. Three academic impact events (peer-reviewed conference papers) 5. One public impact publication (forthcoming) 6. Three academic impact publications (one monograph book, two journal papers, forthcoming)
Start Year 2014
 
Description 'Comix Creatrix' Public Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public talk about the work of Marie Duval as part of the engagement programme for 'Comix Creatrix' exhibition at House of Illustration, London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.houseofillustration.org.uk/whats-on/current-future-events/comix-creatrix-100-women-making...
 
Description Conference Paper, University of Chester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Grennan, S, Sabin, R. and J. Waite (2015) Depiction as comedy and truth: women's dress in Marie Duval's drawings for 'Judy, or the London Serio-Comic Journal', 1869 - 1885. Dressing/Undressing the Victorians Conference, University of Chester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Grennan, S, Sabin, R. (2015) Being at home abroad: Londoners 'ong continong' (on the continent) in the 19th-century comics of Marie Duval. 6th Graphic Novel and Comics Conference and 9th Bande Desinee Society Conference, Paris.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference, TaPRA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Waite, J. (2015) Acting from a Sloperian Point of View: A Consideration of the Relationship Between Victorian Acting and Drawing. Theatre and Performance Research Association Conference, University of Worcester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Creating The Marie Duval Archive: digital archiving and the comics canon. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited participation of Dr Grennan and Professor Sabin to discuss the creation of The Marie Duval Archive, in a public/academic round table "The memory of comics in and out of the institution" with an audience of around 100 international delegates, at the academic conference "Comics and Memory", a Nordic Network for Comics Research conference, Ghent 19 and 20 April 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://comicsandmemory.wordpress.com/program/
 
Description Exhibition at Guildhall Library London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public exhibition "Marie Duval: Laughter in the first age of Leisure" exhibited at Guildhall Library, September 2016 - March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.marieduval.org
 
Description Exhibition at Illustrative Festival Berlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public exhibition "Marie Duval: Laughter in the first age of Leisure" exhibited at Illustrative Festival Berlin in September 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.marieduval.org
 
Description Feature in Atlas Obscura media 02/02/17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature in Atlas Obscura online magazine by Lauren Young "Marie Duval: the pioneering nineteenth-century cartoonist that history forgot" 02/02/2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/marie-duval-the-pioneering-19th-century-cartoonist-that-history...
 
Description Feature in Chester Chronicle media 02/10/16 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature in Chester Chronicle newspaper "University of Chester announces its programme of literature festival events" 02/10/2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Feature in Chester University Forum Magazine media 05/16 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Feature in Chester University Forum magazine "Marie Duval Archive is launched" 05/2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Feature in Chester University Forum media 12/14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Feature in Chester University Forum magazine "Major arts research award to highlight forgotten female genius" 12/14
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Feature in Digital Spy media 29/10/14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature in Digital Spy online magazine by Hugh Armitage "Study reveals the true creative force behind UK comic hero Ally Sloper" 29/10/2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Feature in Illustration Magazine media 03/17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature in Illustration Magazine by Grennan, Sabin and Waite "Laughs from Life" 03/2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Feature in Times Higher Education 07/04/16 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Feature in Time Higher Education by Matthew Reisz "Are you having a laugh: Marie Duval's cartoons offer digital delight" 07/04/16
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Feature in Times Literary Supplement media 08/04/16 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Feature in Times Literary Supplement by Michael Caines "Rediscovering Marie Duval" 06/04/2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Items in 'Comix Creatrix' exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Visitors to the public exhibition 'Comix Creatrix' at House of Illustration, London, experienced works by Marie Duval donated from the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.houseofillustration.org.uk/whats-on/current-future-events/comix-creatrix-100-women-making...
 
Description Listing in Arts Info media 03/16 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Listing in Arts Info online magazine by Cecil Thuller "Ces femmes qui savant jouer du crayon" 03/16
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Media Review of the book The Inking Woman in online journal Broken Frontier, 09 March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media Review of the book The Inking Woman in online journal Broken Frontier, 09 March 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.brokenfrontier.com/inking-woman-nicola-streeten-cath-tate-edieop-karrie-fransman-hannah-b...
 
Description Media coverage of the publication of the book 'Marie Duval' in newspaper The Chester Chronicle 015/02/2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of the publication of the book 'Marie Duval' in newspaper The Chester Chronicle 015/02/2018. Title: Book will showcase artist's work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Media review of the book Marie Duval in online journal Down the Tubes on 06/02/2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Review of the book Marie Duval in online journal Down the Tubes 06/02/2018. http://downthetubes.net/?p=42480. Title: Sneak Peek and Review. Marie Duval,a new book spotlighting a pioneering female cartoonist. Characteristic quotation: A superb studyCombining fascinating insight with honesty and appraisal, we're treated to an extraordinary journey into the world of late Victorian humour a positively glorious visual account [a] wonderful book.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://downthetubes.net/?p=42480
 
Description Review of the book The Inking Woman in online journal Down the Tubes 19/02/2018. https://downthetubes.net/?p=42716. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Review of the book The Inking Woman in online journal Down the Tubes 19/02/2018. https://downthetubes.net/?p=42716. Title: Myriad Editions set to celebrate women cartoonists and comic creators in Britain with The Inking Woman.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://downthetubes.net/?p=42716
 
Description The Beat media coverage 28.10.14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature in The Beat online magazine by Heidi MacDonald "Looking at Marie Duval, Victorian Cartoonist" 28/10/2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The Guardian media coverage 27/10/14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature in The Guardian newspaper by Jonathan Jones. "Top Hats Off to Marie Duval" 27/10/2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014