The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: Galen's On Simple Drugs and the Recovery of Lost Texts through Sophisticated Imaging Techniques.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Arts Languages and Cultures

Abstract

The Graeco-Arabic translation movement has been well studied, but Syriac, the vital connection between these two languages, is often ignored. This is partly the result of a lack of surviving Syriac texts. One such text, a sixth-century translation of Galen's On Simple Drugs by Sergius of Resh 'Ayna, exists in the undertext of an eleventh-century liturgical work, known as the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. This palimpsest potentially contains the whole of Sergius' translation, but it has remained for the most part unreadable. Now, using pioneering philological and imaging techniques, Professor Peter E. Pormann and Drs Siam Bhayro and Bill Sellers (in collaboration with other colleagues) have begun to decipher the undertext, and have determined that the palimpsest contains parts - if not all - of books 2, 4, 6, 8, and 9 of On Simple Drugs. This is an important discovery, with great research potential, since until now, the only known surviving Syriac translations of Galen were books 6-8 of On Simple Drugs, contained in a manuscript in the British Library. Furthermore, the Syriac Galen Palimpsest could also contain entirely new text, hitherto unknown, which will only come to light through systematic study of this document. Galen was the dominant medical writer in antiquity, and his system prevailed in Europe until the early modern period. The role of Syriac in the preservation and transmission of Galenic traditions has been discussed, but the true extent of its significance has not been properly ascertained, on account of the Syriac sources remaining largely unpublished. We are proposing to produce the first transcription, translation and analysis of this manuscript, which, initial studies suggest, may be the most significant Syriac medical manuscript thus far discovered. In order to do this, we will develop imaging tools that will allow us to obtain optimum readings of the undertext. These tools will be made available under a Creative Commons license, meaning that any individual or institution wishing to work on other palimpsests will be able to do so at no cost. It is believed that shedding light on this critical stage in medical history will also draw attention to the multiculturalism and inter-faith discourse that made the transmission and improvement of such texts possible.

Planned Impact

We have identified three main areas of impact, all of which encompass academic and non-academic groups.

1) Based on the excitement generated by the imaging of the Archimedes Palimpsest (1999-2008), we predict that the Syriac Galen Palimpsest, which appears to contain several of the lost books of Sergius of Resh 'Ayna, and possibly some of the lost translations of Joseph the Priest, will similarly stimulate the imagination of the public. We will ensure that the Syriac Galen Palimpsest receives adequate coverage, publicising it by holding an exhibition at The John Rylands Library, and garnering media attention (an area in which Pormann has considerable experience).

2) The project, by highlighting the contribution of Syriac-speaking Christians to the Greek-Arabic-Latin transmission process (and, therefore, to western medical tradition), will also draw attention to the plight of Christians in the Middle East. The same tools used to enhance public awareness of the project (e.g. exhibitions, media appearances) will also be used to enhance public awareness of the vibrancy of this culture, and of its contribution both to Arabic and, consequently, to western medical tradition. The Syriac Galen Palimpsest encapsulates the plight of this culture: literally erased and almost lost to us forever, it is a metaphor for a society that is threatened with extinction, and it will serve to stimulate public engagement with a very important issue.

3) Libraries, institutions and individuals will be able to use the imaging tools developed as part of the project to improve the legibility of other documents, regardless of their level of technical expertise. It is hoped that this will lead to further study in this and in other areas, as long-held but under-utilised materials are brought into the light. The tools will be developed under a Creative Commons license, meaning that anyone will be able to use them.

Publications

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Afif N (2018) Analyzing Images, Editing Texts: The Manchester Project in Manuscript Studies: A Journal of the Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies

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Afif N (2018) The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: A Tale of Two Texts in Manuscript Studies: A Journal of the Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies

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Afif N. (2016) The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: Research Methods and Latest Discoveries in Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Bulletin

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Afif N. (2019) On Digamma and the Armenian Earth in Le Muséon

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Kessel G. (2018) Sinai Syriac Manuscripts in Exile in Sinaiticus: the Bulletin of the Saint Catherine Foundation

 
Description The readability of the undertext in the Syriac Galen Palimpsest has been considerably improved by the application of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), also known as Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) to the sets of 8-bit and 16-bit multispectral images. The new software GalenQt was launched in April 2018 and since then it has being used successfully for identification and transcription of the undertext. The Syriac Galen Palimpsest has now been fully identified. The codicological structure of the original manuscript has been revealed and reconstructed. The principles and the methodology of the critical edition of Galen's On Simple Drugs in Syriac translation have been worked out, the preparation of the edition is in progress.
Exploitation Route QalenQt software provides a novelty tool for manipulating extensive sets of multi-spectral images and easier application of supervised (PCA) and unsupervised (LDA) methods of image processing. Developed in the course of the project under GPLv3 license, the software can be run on different platforms and used to solve a number of dimension reduction problems in humanities as well as computer science, engineering, economy, etc. The methodology of the codicological analysis in application specifically to palimpsests can be used by scholars working on multi-layered texts in order to reconstruct the structure of original manuscripts. The computational lexical tools which include the creation of bilingual corpora, lemmatisation and part-of-speech tagging can be employed by individuals and institutions in future projects of a similar nature.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://github.com/wol101/GalenQt
 
Description GREgORI Project 
Organisation Catholic University of Louvain
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Creation of a bilingual Graeco-Syriac corpus for Books 6-8 of Galen's On Simple Drugs with the possibility of cross-search between texts; preparation and alignment of Greek and Syriac texts.
Collaborator Contribution Lemmatisation and morphological analysis of Books books 1 (ch. 1-10), and 6-8 and chapters of the Greek text of Galen's On Simple Drugs.
Impact The fully lemmatised Greek concordance to books 1 (ch. 1-10), and 6-8 of Galen's On Simple Drugs has been created and made freely available online, . The collaboration has multi-disciplinary nature, it involves the methods of philology and digital humanities.
Start Year 2017
 
Description SRS-XRF imaging 
Organisation Stanford University
Department SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Manchester team initiated an interdisciplinary collaboration with the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in order to perform rapid-scan X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging of a number of folios in the Syriac Galen Palimpsest that did not provide enough information for identification or transcription. We produced a structured list of high priority folios according to the undertext readability, its place within Galen's treatise (e.g. beginning/end of book/chapter) and the nature of damage.
Collaborator Contribution Throughout the imaging sessions in March 2018, January 2019 and March 2019, the SSRL produced sets of XRF elemental maps subsequently converted to TIFFs and integrated with other data and metadata for scholarly analysis. The new SRS-XRF imaging systems at SSRL recorded the full XRF spectrum from all elements at each readout. In addition to iron which expectably gave the strongest signal from the erased iron gall ink, other elements including Hg and Zn provided a larger contrast due to the composition of the red ink used for rubrics in the undertext. The SGP underwent initial assessment by conservators, was disbound and the folios were prepared and mounted for SRS-XRF imaging. The experiments were performed at beamlines 6-2 and 10-2, although the latter proved to be less useful than the former in the case of SGP.
Impact The interdisciplinary collaboration will result in a number of publications authored by both Manchester and Stanford team members. The X-ray fluorescence imaging proved its potential to reveal erased texts not obtainable through the application of other imaging techniques (including multi-spectral imaging). The sets of XRF elemental maps converted in TIFFs were subsequently customised using the new software, GalenQt, created as part of the project. The application of the DH tools allowed scholars to identify and partially transcribe folios previously considered unreadable. As a result, the palimpsest has been fully identified and the new important materials have been provided for the proposed critical edition of Galens On Simple Drugs in Syriac.
Start Year 2018
 
Title Canonical Variate Analysis Software for Dimensionality Reduction with Application to Image Processing 
Description The software reads a number of multispectral images - 8 bit files - located in ImageJ software directory , applies the Canonical Variates Analysis algorithm and produces a number of enhanced colour images by using the produced 8 bit grayscale images by the Canonical Variates Analysis algorithm. The software is using the GSL GNU and OpenCV libraries and it was written for MAC OS X - Yosemite but with minor modifications should run on any platforms. The Canonical Variates Analysis algorithm is implemented in C running under MAC OS X - Yosemite and it can be used for any other dimensionality reduction problem existent in computer science, engineering, economy, etc. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The software enables CVA processing in less than one minute and eases adjusting the images and enhancing particular areas in order to aid further identifications and transcriptions of the undertext in the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. 
URL https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.154129
 
Title GalenQt 
Description GalenQt is a software tool for organising and displaying multispectral image sets. It provides an interface for choosing images, training sets, and applying a range of supervised and unsupervised dimension reduction techniques. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The software has been used extensively for the identification and transcription of the undertext in the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. As the result of software application, the palimpsest has been fully identified, its substantial part has been transcribed and prepared for publication. 
URL https://github.com/wol101/GalenQt.git
 
Description ARAM conference (Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation 'The classification of the Syriac Melkite Octoechos, according to the 11th - 13th century manuscripts', at 'Melkite Christianity 1st - 19th Centuries (The Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem)', 45th international conference of the ARAM Society for Syro-Mesopotamian Studies, University of Oxford, 12-14 July 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description COMSt Conference (Hamburg) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Naima Afif and Natalia Smelova, 'The Syriac Galen Palimpsest Project: research methods and latest discoveries', 'Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies: Looking back - Looking ahead', Asien-Afrika-Institut, University of Hamburg
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.aai.uni-hamburg.de/en/comst/conferences/comst2016/pdf/smelova-afif.pdf
 
Description John Rylands Research Forum (Manchester) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Naima Afif and Natalia Smelova, 'The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: uncovering the hidden text by means of technology, codicology and philology', John Rylands Research Forum, JRRI, University of Manchester
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Lemmatisation workshop (Manchester) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact An international workshop on automated methods of lemmatization, morphological analysis and other types of annotations and mark-ups of Syriac texts, University of Manchester, 31 May 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Linked Data and Syriac Sources (VU Amsterdam) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of the project "The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: Galen's On Simple Drugs and the Recovery of Lost Texts through Sophisticated Imaging Techniques" with demonstration of the DH tools and methodology worked out and applied as part of the project. Workshop on Linked Data and Syriac Sources (VU Amsterdam), 12-13 March 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://etcbc.nl/uncategorized/workshop-linked-data-and-syriac-sources/
 
Description Natural Sciences and Technology in Manuscript Analysis Conference (Hamburg) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Corneliu Arsene, Siam Bhayro, Peter E. Pormann, William Sellers, 'Computational techniques in multispectral image processing: application to the Syriac Galen Palimpsest', Second International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technology in Manuscript Analysis, Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures (CSMC), University of Hamburg
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.manuscript-cultures.uni-hamburg.de/cal-details/CSMC%20Natural%20Sciences%202016%20Book%2...
 
Description Rethinking Ancient Pharmacology (Rome) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation 'On Simple Drugs: an in-depth study of the Syriac text of Book Nine', at 'Rethinking Ancient Pharmacology: the transmission and interpretation of Galen's treatise On Simple Drugs', International workshop dedicated to the textual transmission and the interpretation of Galen's treatise On Simple Drugs, British School at Rome, 22 September 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Revealing Galen's Simples (Philadelphia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact William Sellers, 'Working with the Data', 'Revealing Galen's Simples' Symposium, Kislak Centre for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, Philadelphia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/galen.html
 
Description Revealing Galen's Simples (Philadelphia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Siam Bhayro, 'Discovering Galen's Simples', 'Revealing Galen's Simples' Symposium, Kislak Centre for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, Philadelphia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/galen.html
 
Description Revealing Galen's Simples (Philadelphia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Corneliu Arsene, 'Revealing the Palimpsest', 'Revealing Galen's Simples' Symposium, Kislak Centre for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, Philadelphia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/galen.html
 
Description Revealing Galen's Simples (Philadelphia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Peter Pormann, 'The Final Frontier: Galen's Syriac Versions and Graeco-Arabic Translation Technique', 'Revealing Galen's Simples' Symposium, Kislak Centre for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, Philadelphia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/galen.html
 
Description Textual Criticism and Scholarly Editing of Syriac Sources (Frankfurt) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation "Towards a critical edition on Galen's On Simple Drugs in Syriac: Deciphering the Syriac Galen Palimpsest" discussing the methodology and editorial principles of the critical edition. International workshop "Textual Criticism and Scholarly Editing of Syriac Sources. Ongoing Projects, Current Issues and Methods in Practice", Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, 07-09 July 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description XII Symposium Syriacum (Rome) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Natalia Smelova, 'The Syriac Galen Palimpsest Project: scope, objectives and interim results', XII Symposium Syriacum, Pontificio Istituto Orientale, Rome
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016