The Linguistic DNA of Modern Western Thought: Paradigmatic Terms in English, 1500-1800

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: English

Abstract

The aim of this project is to understand the evolution of early modern thought by modelling the semantic and conceptual changes which occurred in English discourse (c.1500-c.1800). The early modern period was an era of profound linguistic and conceptual change which scholars have long recognized as the bridge between the medieval and modern worlds. The insight of such work is that this period yields key concepts - or paradigmatic terms - that are primary in shaping our understanding of the emergence of modern culture, the nature of historical thought and conceptual history. However such insights are the result of the historical (re)construction of cultural keywords or concepts by examining their complex semantic make-up and change at any particular moment of time and over time. This project aims to explore the ways in which key terms emerge as concepts (and paradigmatic terms) in a particular universe of historical printed discourse over time.

Instead of searching for keywords and assigning them to 'concepts', the project will use information extraction techniques to identify lexical patterns within approximately 37 million pages of printed discourse, using (48,327 re-keyed texts from Early English Books Online (EEBO) and approximately 205,000 OCR-ed texts from Gale Cengage's Eighteenth Century Corpus Online (ECCO)). The techniques include query expansion using rules derived from keyword frequency, proximity, density (keyness), syntax and semantic relatedness. High Performance Computing Infrastructure will be used due owing to the scale of the querying process. Visual representation of the resulting database will then enable the project's researchers to identify and explore the emergence of paradigmatic terms and conceptual structures in early modern English.

Three Research Themes will be used to validate the accuracy of the information extraction techniques and provide insights into the emergence of paradigmatic terms and conceptual structures in early modern English. Research Theme 1 (Contexts of Semantic Change) will explore the historical and discursive circumstances of concept development. Research Theme 2 (Lexical Families and Conceptual Fields) will explore the linguistic characteristics of concepts and their constituent keywords. Research Theme 3 (Lexicalisation Pressure) will explore the characteristics of word formation and vocabulary size within conceptual fields.

The principal outcome of this project will be a complete visual representation of the lexical structure of English printed discourse from 1500-1800, enabling patterns, trends and anomalies to be traced whilst also providing access to the underlying texts for deeper, contextualised readings. Further, a Web API will enable third parties to develop their own research projects and digital products using the underlying dataset.

The project will be a collaboration between English historical linguists at the universities of Sheffield, Glasgow and Sussex, the digital humanities team at the Humanities Research Institute and the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary. The project will also work closely with the Early Modern OCR Project (eMOP) at Texas A&M University, Jisc Historic Books and Gale Cengage.

Planned Impact

The overall impact we want to achieve is a data-driven, language-led revolution in our understanding of knowledge. Our hope is that the database and research arising from this project will constitute an important step on the way to achieving this ambition, but it will be equally important to put in place the wide collaborative environment and processes necessary for kick-starting its impact.

The proposed project will impact on numerous sectors outside academia:

1. Libraries, museums, archives, digital content publishers and the popular press. These sectors will be key to widening the dissemination of the database and its accompanying visualisations to a general audience through their established activities and dissemination channels. Ideally the impact of engagement with these sectors will be both an increase in public awareness of the resource and, eventually, new resource discovery services. Further, the methodology and algorithms will have a value to digital content publishers across numerous markets and genres as a means of improving a user's access to online content by facilitating semantic search and the ability to use concept modelling as a visual interface to information.

Key stakeholders for embedding this impact are considered to be: the British Library (including British Library Labs); National Library of Wales; National Library of Scotland; The National Archives; BBC History (magazine); the Arts Council (public libraries division); ProQuest; Gale Cengage; Jisc Historic Books; the Text Creation Partnership; JSTOR; 18thConnect; Routledge (journals); Amazon (e-books).

2. Policy development, journalism, market research and information science. These sectors will be key to demonstrating the wider value of the project's methodology and algorithms. We believe that the methodology can be used for predictive modelling of concept formation within contemporary electronic discourse. This will be of value to a range of organisations that need to understand trends, behaviour and demographic change within bodies of discourse that represent particular communities. Such organisations include policy development units (governments and NGOs), journalists, consumer market researchers and information science researchers (the people usually concerned with undertaking R&D for products that meet the requirements of these types of organisations).

Key stakeholders for embedding this impact are considered to be: Runnymeade Trust; Joseph Rowntree Foundation; Nominet Trust; Centre for the Study of Journalism and History (Univ. of Sheffield, Department of Journalism); MarketResearch.com; Institute of Work Psychology (Univ. of Sheffield, Management School); Trilateral Research; OCLC; Natural Language Processing Group (Univ. of Sheffield, Information School).
 
Title Writing as Resistance - Creative Writing Performance and Anthology 
Description Members of the public participated in workshops led by Iona Hine and Seth Mehl on the semantic histories of social and cultural keywords, based on Linguistic DNA research. Participants were then led by creative writing coach Desiree Reynolds in composing new creative writing works. These works were read live at the Festival of the Mind 2018, and were published in an anthology by the University of Sheffield. 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Thirteen participants attended all sessions, and performed and published their work. Between 50 and 100 people attended the performance of the work, and took home copies of the anthology. The anthology is now held in the University of Sheffield library, the Sheffield Hallam University library, and local Sheffield city library branches. Participants at the workshops and audience attendees at the performance stated that their perspectives and ways of thinking had developed and changed as a result of the work. 
URL https://festivalofthemind.group.shef.ac.uk/talk-about-change/
 
Description Theoretical findings: The Linguistic DNA project has defined discursive concepts in relation to the history of theoretical frameworks of semantics, pragmatics, and discourse; operationalised this definition in the LDNA processor; and tested the operations and the processor. Discursive concepts are meanings in language that encompass traditional semantics, pragmatics, discourse, and topic; include encyclopaedic meaning; and are indicated by sets of words, but are not equivalent to those words. Operationally, discursive concepts are indicated by relationships between sets of words within relatively large discursive spans of text. For example, a set of three or four lemmas that consistently co-occur together in specific spans of 100 tokens throughout the archive can be seen to indicate a discursive concept. Variant forms of such sets within a time period, or between time periods, further indicate discursive concepts. No existing tool, or even method, existed to identify or statistically analyse actual non-adjacent co-occurrences beyond lexical pairs, in large spans of text. Fitzmaurice (2018) has argued that the pragmatics of discursive concepts can be analysed in a stepwise manner through disambiguation; resolution of reference; contextual saturation; free enrichment; and ad hoc concept construction. She applies this process to the discursive concept indicated by the lexical trios life-death-soul and mind-body-soul in EEBO-TCP.
Methodological finding: The LDNA processor was designed to meet this new need, and represents a step change from existing methods of distributional semantics and topic modelling. We have tested the LDNA processor as a new 'way in' to discursive and conceptual meaning in texts, which facilitates manual analysis and close reading of co-text. The LDNA processor incorporates a new key development in the statistical analysis of large text archives, in its use of a Part-of-Speech (POS) baseline for measuring lexical co-occurrence, rather than the traditional baseline of the total number of tokens in the text. This new method has been found to dramatically change rankings in strength of co-occurrence; and to reduce false positives in tests for statistical significance (Mehl, forthcoming).
Exploitation Route At the Linguistic DNA impact workshop (see 'Engagement Activities'), the project invited representatives from the private sector, with the aim of sharing the project's offer; identifying the representatives' organisational needs; and exploring ways that the Linguistic DNA project could meet those needs. From this workshop, two new collaborations are being developed, with potential for private sector impacts.
The first collaboration is with the Oxford English Dictionary, a private sector partner that the project had not previously worked with. The Linguistic DNA processor is being applied to meet the OED's independently identified need for more efficient retrieval of typical example sentences for dictionary headwords. The LDNA processor extracts examples of headwords in typical pragmatic and discursive environments, and these are being used to streamline the OED's processes. This is envisaged to become a long-term project which will significantly impact the OED's workflow. A long-term goal is to connect LDNA data to the very large structured data that lies behind the online OED3.
The second collaboration is with the BBC. The LDNA processor is being applied to the very large BBC Radio News Scripts archive, with the aim of improving information retrieval based on the LDNA processor's models of semantic, pragmatic, discursive, and conceptual meaning within texts. The ongoing goal is to apply the LDNA processor to additional BBC text archive material for similar purposes.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

 
Description Linguistic Analysis for 'Ways of Being in a Digital Age' Project
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://waysofbeingdigital.com/
 
Title Concept modelling algorithm. 
Description The bespoke concept-modelling algorithms developed for the Linguistic DNA project generate insight into the discursive content of large text collections. Prototype versions have already been applied to two other datasets. Because we are still refining our processes, these have not been fully published although workbenches that employ this kind of data modelling are available online (subject only to ethics-based restrictions). 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Supporting revised policy for the ESRC (see Ways of Being in a Digital Age under other collaborations). 
 
Title EEBO-TCP Trio Data 
Description This database is the output of the LDNA processor's analysis of co-occurring sets of three lemmas (trios) in specific spans of text in EEBO-TCP. Specifically, it consists of all trios occurring at least 50 times each, composed of noun lemmas occurring at least 5000 times each in EEBO-TCP, within specific spans of 100 tokens. It is big data, housed at University of Sheffield servers, consisting of billions of co-occurring lemma trios. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database has facilitated unique new research into discursive meaning, at scale, in Early Modern English texts. The resulting research has been presented at academic conferences, and publications are pending. The resulting research also supported the Talk About Change knowledge exchange project. 
 
Title LDNA Processor 
Description The LDNA processor's technique of analysing lexical co-occurrence in texts is unique and novel. It begins by analysing co-occurring trios - sets of three non-adjacent lemmas that actually co-occur within a given span of text. Previously, non-adjacent co-occurrences had only been analysed to the pair level; and trios had only been analysed given that they were adjacent. The processor analyses these trios within relatively large spans of text consisting of 100 tokens. Finally, strength of co-occurrence is analysed using a modified Mutual Information score, which employs a Part of Speech baseline for statistical and probabilistic measures, rather than a baseline of all tokens. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The uniqueness of this model has led to new collaborative projects, now in early stages of development, with external non-academic partners, aiming to analyse large privately held text archives. 
 
Description Collaboration to Improve EEBO-TCP lemmatisation and POS-Tagging 
Organisation Northwestern University, Philippines
PI Contribution The Linguistic DNA team used the MorphAdorner tool, developed by Martin Mueller at Northwestern University, to prepare EEBO-TCP data for processing. The Linguistic DNA team reported errors in MorphAdorner's outputs to Martin Mueller, who revised the tool and the outputs. A new version of the tool and the outputs resulted from the collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Martin Mueller at Northwestern University received error reports from the Linguistic DNA team and used them to revise the MorphAdorner tool and to better clean and prepare a final version of EEBO-TCP, which was then used in the Linguistic DNA project's analysis.
Impact The collaboration is multi-disciplinary, combining computational linguistics with the study of historical texts. The newly cleaned version of EEBO-TCP is the primary output; it is not yet publicly available.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with the BBC 
Organisation British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Linguistic DNA team is applying the LDNA processor to an analysis of all texts in the BBC News Scripts data. At this stage, the analysis will be delivered to the BBC so that the BBC team can explore the data and its uses.
Collaborator Contribution The BBC is supplying the Linguistic DNA team with the BBC News Scripts texts, and exploring the results of the data analysis.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Concept-modelling YouTube comments for Militarization 2.0 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Sheffield DHI team designed a bespoke application of concept-modelling techniques originally developed for Linguistic DNA. This was taking data (over 7 million comments) already extracted at the University of Leeds, and enabling quantitative analysis in relation to the research questions brought to us. We also assisted in the cleaning of metadata relating to the data gathered. This culminated in delivery of an online interface (currently restricted access in keeping with ethics guidance).
Collaborator Contribution Dr Nick Robinson (Leeds) directs one-third of a project funded by the Swedish Research Council: Militarization 2.0. The overarching goal is to establish the impact of military presences (real or fictional) in social media. In a previous phase of the project, Dr Robinson and a postdoctoral researcher had collected and annotated video game adverts and related promotional material, and gathered examples of videos with military content from other genres (music videos, arms manufacturers' promotional material). Dr Robinson sub-contracted the Sheffield team to concept model associated comment data in order to test hypotheses he had developed on the basis of qualitative analysis.
Impact Online tools for Dr Robinson and other Militarization 2.0 researchers. Dr Robinson is based in Politics, and this was his first experience of linguistics-oriented analysis and sophisticated digital humanities tools.
Start Year 2017
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation American University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation Brunel University London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation Cisco International Limited
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation Liverpool John Moores University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation Michigan State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation Nanyang Technological University
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation Ofcom
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation Santa Clara University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation University of Arizona
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation University of Bath
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation University of Burgundy
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation University of California, Santa Barbara
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation University of Sussex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Description WOBDA 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution DHI Sheffield team used techniques developed for Linguistic DNA to "concept model" Social Sciences publications as part of the ESRC-funded project, Ways of Being in the Digital Age (WOBDA). The enhanced quantitative analysis of literature concerned with Digital Society, based on a sample from the past ~20 years, informs the ESRC's future funding policies.
Collaborator Contribution Others within the project (Liverpool, Newcastle) sampled publications and conducted a complementary qualitative analysis of some literature, aided by the concept modelling findings. Other components of the project included survey and interview-led research across adjacent fields.
Impact Sheffield concept modelling data is available on the open access interface here: https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/ The initial report from the whole project was delivered to the ESRC in 2017. A revised and expanded version of the report is due to be published in 2018, incorporating an account of the Sheffield processes in its methodology chapter (courtesy of Hine and Pidd).
Start Year 2016
 
Title Concept modelling data from the Ways of Being in a Digital Age project 
Description Interactive visualisation tools developed to show and facilitate exploration of concepts in recent Social Sciences projects. (See Collaboration: Ways of Being in a Digital Age.) 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Informed ESRC policy on future research funding related to Digital Society. 
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/waysofbeingdigital/
 
Title Concept modelling exploration workbench for YouTube data 
Description Tools to explore and navigate data output from collaboration on YouTube for Militarization 2.0 (see Collaborations). 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Continues to inform the research of Dr Nick Robinson (Leeds) and others in the Militarization 2.0 team. Potential to influence policy on military representations in media. 
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/projects/militarisation-2-0/
 
Title Online Interface for LDNA Processor Trio Data 
Description This pre-release version offers a demonstration of the kinds of data produced by the LDNA Processor, and allows users to explore the data outputs. A new version will be released later in 2019. The new version will include revised outputs such that repeated lemmas and multiple permutations of lemmas are removed; revised thresholds; and faster interface. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Users at the introductory workshop at the Society for Renaissance Studies 2018 conference found the webtool useful for their research, even in just a few hours of work. The interface supported the engagement work in which the Linguistic DNA project collaborated with Our Mel and Desiree Reynolds (see 'Engagement' and 'Collaborations'). This interface has served as the prototype foundation for the tool that is being created for the Oxford English Dictionary (see 'Collaborations'). 
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/ldna/
 
Description #Thisthat Camp (Sussex 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Justyna Robinson and Seth Mehl attended the 2-day The Humanities & Technology Camp (This&THATCamp) at the University of Sussex. As an unconference-style event, some elements of the programme were agreed democratically on the day. Robinson & Mehl's ad hoc workshop proposal ranked highly, and was scheduled for the first available two-hour session. There was considerable interest and wide-ranging discussion, with input on the first principles (particularly related to baselines). Questions raised have continued to inform the development of LDNA's algorithm.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://this.thatcamp.org/
 
Description Academic Book Future Scotland 2017 (MA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As an invited speaker at the Scottish launch event for "Academic Book of the Future", Marc Alexander spoke to a mixed audience including publishing and library professionals, discussing work with Linguistic DNA and the Historical Thesaurus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/humanities/events/humanitieslectureseries2016-17/headline_503522_en.htm...
 
Description Academic Talk at Digital Humanities Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Iona Hine delivered an academic paper at the DHC 2018, entitled 'A distant history of Libraries: "Is this the librarye that thou haddest chosen"?'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/dhc/2018/paper/173
 
Description Academic Talk at Digital Humanities Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seth Mehl delivered a talk at DHC 2018 entitled 'Finding meaning through linguistic probability in 60,000 early modern English texts: Innovations from the Linguistic DNA project'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/dhc/2018/paper/172
 
Description Academic Talk at Digital Humanities Congress 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Fraser Dallachy delivered an academic talk at DHC 2018 entitled 'Fuzzy Dating and Ambiguous Courting: Accounting for varying metadata precision in historical semantic development'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/dhc/2018/paper/174
 
Description Academic Talk at ICAME 2017 Conference by Seth Mehl 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seth Mehl delivered a talk entitled 'Innovations in measuring lexical co-occurrence: Improved implementation for the automatic analysis of discursive meaning'. The talk was delivered to a crowded room, and new requests for collaboration resulted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://icame.ff.cuni.cz/wp-content/uploads/sites/70/2017/05/icame38_book_of_abstracts.pdf
 
Description Academic Talk at ICAME 2018 Conference by Seth Mehl 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seth Mehl delivered a paper entitled 'Lexical co-occurrence and linguistic meaning in historical texts: Novel approaches and new findings'. The question session afterwards reflected the enthusiasm for the new methods developed by the Linguistic DNA project and a keen interest among researchers in the potential future value of these new methods. Extensive discussion afterwards during the conference including requests for additional details on implementing the techniques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://events.uta.fi/icame2018/wp-content/uploads/sites/29/2018/05/book-of-abstracts_online_230518....
 
Description Academic Talk at International Conference for English Historical Linguistics 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seth Mehl delivered an academic paper at the ICEHL 2018 conference. This led to discussion with researchers from across Europe, on methods for computational semantic analysis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.conferences.cahss.ed.ac.uk/icehl20/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2018/08/Book-Of-Abstracts-W...
 
Description Academic Talk by Iona Hine at the Society for Renaissance Studies Conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Iona Hine presented a talk entitled 'What is EEBO Anyway? Contextual Study of a Universe in Print', as part of a workshop organised by the Linguistic DNA project. Discussion followed: audience members learned about the Linguistic DNA project and its methods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://rensoc.org.uk/sites/default/files/SRS%20programme%202018%2C%20final%20July.pdf
 
Description Academic Talk by Seth Mehl and Justyna Robinson at the International Society for the Linguistics of English conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Justyna Robinson and Seth Mehl delivered an academic talk entitled 'Linguistic DNA and new ways of exploring conceptual variation and change'. As part of the workshop, a good deal of productive discussion was generated, including increased enthusiasm for the Linguistic DNA project, and discussion of possible future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/english-usage/isle5/workshops/pdfs/ws5/abstracts.pdf
 
Description Academic Talk by Seth Mehl at Big Data Big Theory Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seth Mehl delivered a talk on the methods of the Linguistic DNA project in relation to the history of theories of lexical semantics. There was a very positive response among researchers, who were keen to receive more information on the project and its methods, and to experiment with the Linguistic DNA processor.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/linguistics/events/bdbt
 
Description Academic Talk by Seth Mehl at the Society for Renaissance Studies 2018 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seth Mehl delivered a talk entitled 'In the Beginning was the Word? EEBO-TCP and Another Universe of Meaning', at a panel organised by the Linguistic DNA project. Discussion on research methods in corpus semantics followed, and there was increased enthusiasm for the Linguistic DNA project among researchers present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://rensoc.org.uk/sites/default/files/SRS%20programme%202018%2C%20final%20July.pdf
 
Description Arts & Humanities Showcase 2017 (Sheffield) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Linguistic DNA hosted a stand about our research, giving interactive examples of our proto-concepts, and offering one in a series of 10-minute talks ("What can computers teach us about meaning in 55,000 early English books?") at this University of Sheffield daytime public event, held in the city's Millennium Galleries. There were 1000 attendees, and our team engaged in wide-ranging conversations with members of the general public from age 7 through 70. There was significant interest in the public workbench (which should be available for the 2018 Showcase) and we were able to make connections between general experience of language and our work with early modern English.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/festivalah/talks2017
 
Description Big Data and Bad Data Workshop (2-3 September 2016). 'New Approaches to interrogating digital historical language data' (Lausanne) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshop held as part of the CUSO Doctoral Programme in English Language and Literature (Conference Universitaire de Suisse Occidentale), involving international experts on data and quantitative language research, and postgraduate students from Swiss universities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.emergingstandards.eu/big-data-and-bad-data-workshop-report/
 
Description Blog: Re-using Bad Data in the Humanities (Pidd 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In an invited blog post for the Talking Humanities blog (hosted by SOAS), Co-Investigator Michael Pidd discussed the dirty data challenges facing Linguistic DNA, arguing that current modes of funding digitisation projects are responsible for creating dirty data, "aid[ing] specific lines of enquiry rather than digitisation for discovery purposes" and consequently fixing the data has become a necessary part of any DH project involving reuse. One reader requested further information on the blog, while others visited the main Linguistic DNA website (evidenced by a spike in visitors).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://talkinghumanities.blogs.sas.ac.uk/2015/11/05/re-using-bad-data-in-the-humanities/
 
Description CBDA Sudden semantics (Robinson) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Robinson delivered a paper produced in collaboration with Dr Mehl, "Sudden semantics: Identifying and analysing meanings and discourses of 'suddenness' in 55,000 early English books", at the Colloque Bisannuel de Diachronie de l'Anglais | Biennal Conference on the Diachrony of English in Tours, France (4 July 2017).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cbdaconference.org/
 
Description DRHA 2017 (DataAche) paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Iona Hine delivered a presentation on EEBO metadata and the challenges of messy metadata as part of a panel. The audience was a mixture of creative writers and academics working in digital fields. Participation in this event provided useful feedback from others on the panel, as well as reaching a new audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://drha2017.com/
 
Description Data2Evidence (2015 Helsinki) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Responding to an invitation, the Linguistic DNA team prepared a poster outlining the data, methodology, data preparation processes and goals of the project for display at the three-day Data2Evidence conference hosted by the University of Helsinki in October 2015. In addition to the main poster exhibition, Iona Hine and Susan Fitzmaurice gave a short talk about the project. This prompted ongoing contact with the IDeAL group at the University of Saarland and expanded the LDNA e-network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.helsinki.fi/en/researchgroups/varieng/d2e-from-data-to-evidence
 
Description Data@Sheffield (2015, Pidd) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of the Open Data Science Initiative, Michael Pidd addressed the one day Data@Sheffield event in December 2016. The audience was predominantly computer scientists, drawn largely from the University of Sheffield. Pidd's paper, "The Problem with Data in the Humanities", used examples from the Linguistic DNA project to challenge received ideas about big and dirty data. This event was funded by grants including an Amazon AWS in Education Grant Award and Facebook Faculty Award.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://opendsi.cc/das2015/schedule.html
 
Description DiXiT (Pidd 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of the second DiXiT convention (linked to an EU-funded research network concerned with digital scholarly editions), Co-Investigator Michael Pidd (an invited participant) gave one of three scene-setting talks for a workshop on Publishing: "Scholarly Digital Editing by Machines". This talk drew on challenges faced and questions raised by the Linguistic DNA project. The audience included digital editors, researchers, library and digital collections specialists, publishing professionals, marketing experts and entrepreneurs, gathered with the intention of discussing (and challenging) the production, publishing and dissemination models for digital scholarly editions.

A version of this talk was also given to a group of 50 students participating in Quadrivium XI at De Montfort University in February 2016, part-funded by the Academic Book of the Future project. (http://quadriviumnetwork.com/events/quadrivium-xi)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://dixit.uni-koeln.de/convention-2-abstracts/#pidd
 
Description DiXiT training session (Pidd 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the second DiXiT convention, Co-Investigator Michael Pidd delivered a training workshop on "Institutional Models for Creating and Maintaining Scholarly Research Resources". Participants were principally researchers in the DiXiT EU Training Network. Pidd drew on examples from the Linguistic DNA project for this training, with the goal of influencing future best practice for digital scholarly editions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://dixit.uni-koeln.de/programme/convention-2/
 
Description Discourse and the machine (Sussex 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Justyna Robinson and Seth Mehl delivered a paper, "Discourse and the machine: Computational tools for the study of concepts and contexts in historical English", at a one-day colloquium, "Discourse: Multidisciplinary Perspectives", hosted by the University of Sussex's English Language & Linguistics group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Discourse: Multidisciplinary perspectives on identity (Sussex 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Mehl and Robinson gave a talk, "Discourse and the machine: Computational tools for the study of concepts and contexts in historical English", at a multidisciplinary two-day event at the University of Sussex (Discourse: Multidisciplinary perspectives on identity). This highlighted innovative aspects of our work in an accessible manner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ENeL presentation 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited by the European Network for e-Lexicography (ENeL), Hine gave a presentation about Linguistic DNA and potential collaborations with the EU Cost action. This prompted subsequent participation of network members in Linguistic DNA's methodological workshops, a short-term visiting fellowship in Sheffield for ENeL member Dr Kris Heylen (KU Leuven), and ongoing consultation regarding the ENeL open access resources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.elexicography.eu/
 
Description European Researchers' Night 2016 (MA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Marc Alexander spoke (by invitation) at the European Researchers' Night (Scotland) 2016, in Glasgow, giving a talk entitled "A Time-traveller's Word-hoard". This public event organised by the European Commission attracted a varied audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.explorathon.co.uk/glasgow
 
Description Fantasy Night at the Museum (Glasgow--Dallachy & Alexander) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Fantasy Night at the Museum: Stall held (by Prof. Alexander & Dr Dallachy) as part of 'Being Human Festival' event at Glasgow's Hunterian Museum. Around 200 visitors came to the stall which used word games as a lead in to discussions about linguistic research, and attendees showed real interest in following up through accessing the websites of related projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.gla.ac.uk/hunterian/visit/events/headline_543558_en.html
 
Description Festival of the Mind - Talk About Change 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This project brought together early career researchers from the Linguistic DNA project (Iona Hine and Seth Mehl), creative writing coach Desiree Reynolds, and local social enterprise Our Mel ("dedicated to exploring cultural identity, Black history and what it means to be a person of colour in Britain today"), to explore creative knowledge exchange using academic out/input from the Linguistic DNA project. Specifically, the project explores meanings and discourses around the words and concepts of 'race', 'immigrant', 'diversity', and 'feminisms', from Early Modern English to the present day. After an initial closed project workshop, we co-facilitated themed workshops on each concept with volunteer participants from the public, recruited through Our Mel's networks. Academic input served as provocation through which to reflect on personal experiences / opinions / commitments concerning "reformation". Participants then volunteered to take part in further workshop / writing sessions, developing their own spoken word pieces for performance, facilitated by Our Mel. The final event during the Festival of the Mind showcased the pieces.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://festivalofthemind.group.shef.ac.uk/talk-about-change/
 
Description Genealogies Manchester (Hine & Mehl) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Drs Hine & Mehl delivered a paper, "Conceptual change: Some challenges of modelling time with historical data", at the first Genealogies of Knowledge conference in Manchester (7-9 December, 2017). This was part of a two-panel session on Data-Driven Conceptual History, organised by colleagues at Utrecht University (and following up on our previous exchanges with them in May and December 2016). The paper focused on associations with knowledge and power and incorporated proto-visualisations of Linguistic DNA data (themselves helpful in thinking through future visual aids). The audience was heavily interdisciplinary and the Q&A demonstrated considerable interest in and curiosity about our methods and their wider applicability. We anticipate that some of those in attendance will help to test our tools, and we will use the Genealogies of Knowledge networks to circulate information about progress.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://genealogiesofknowledge.net/gok2017conference/
 
Description Going Digital, Manchester (Pidd 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of the 2-day event, "Going Digital with Humanities Research" (organised by the John Rylands Research Institute and Digital Humanities@Manchester), Co-Investigator Michael Pidd gave a paper entitled, "Why use XML in the Humanities". The event was intended to gather expertise from different fields of the Humanities and, through a workshop, to introduce TEI XML to the research, IT and librarian community of Manchester. Pidd's role was critical and the talk drew upon the Linguistic DNA project for examples.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://events.manchester.ac.uk/event/event:rp5-ii5ss311-73fag9/going-digital-with-humanities-researc...
 
Description HRI Showcase (Mehl) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Mehl was one of three speakers at an interdisciplinary showcase, participating in a debate on the topic "What does interdisciplinarity mean to you?" The audience included academics and students from across the Faculty of Arts and Humanities as well as members of the general public. This event was held at the Humanities Research Institute at the University of Sheffield, as part of a wide HRI programme exploring interdisciplinarity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2017
URL http://www.humanitiesresearch.org/
 
Description IAUPE 19 London 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International Association of University Professors of English meeting. This was the first opportunity to share the project's methodology and disseminate a key theoretical output, namely the 'discursive concept'. The presentation generated considerable interest and continued collaboration with colleagues within the field of historical semantics and pragmatics. A key outcome will be an early publication in an international journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ies.sas.ac.uk/events/conferences/previous-conferences/international-association-universit...
 
Description Impact Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Representatives from business and industry across the UK attended the Linguistic DNA impact workshop, held at the Wellcome Trust. Participants included representatives from the Wellcome Trust, BBC, Oxford English Dictionary, ProQuest, Adam Matthews. Discussion was extremely fruitful in recommending new applications for the Linguistic DNA processor, for text archives held privately. One new collaborative commercialisation project emerged from the workshop, which is in development with one of the workshop participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Introduction to Linguistic DNA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the suite of AHRC-funded research projects and fellowships at the University of Sheffield, Linguistic DNA was selected for focus at a visit day to Sheffield by the chief executive of the AHRC. It provided an opportunity to disseminate early results and share key methodological innovations with the chief representative of the funder as well as to articulate the ambitions of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited Talk at University Saarbrucken 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project Co-I Justyna Robinson delivered an invited talk entitled 'Identifying and analysing meanings and discourses in 55,000 early English books'. Discussion followed, including important research conversation about corpus semantics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Talk at University of Antwerp 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project Co-I Justyna Robinson was invited to give a talk entitled 'How do concepts live?'. Discussion followed, including important research conversation about corpus semantics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Lost books on Radio Sheffield (Hine) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Hine was invited to join a discussion about items lost and found, and why as a researcher on the Linguistic DNA project, lost books were a particular concern. This was a lunchtime broadcast on BBC Radio Sheffield, and had been partly prompted by two online book reviews Hine had written. Dr Hine explained why it is important to think about the information we do not have---e.g. the disproportionate destruction of well-used texts like school textbooks and recipe books---when working with big historical datasets. Discussion also covered informal language use recorded e.g. as marginalia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p05rt6jx
 
Description Mehl. ICEHL 19. Essen, August 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seth Mehl (Sheffield) presented a paper entitled "Historical semantics and conceptual change in Early Modern English: computation meets close reading" to the International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (Essen, August 2016).

Opportunity for the Linguistic DNA project to share different aspects of the methodology underpinning the project with scholars of the history of the English language and English Historical Linguistics from universities in Europe, the UK and the USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.uni-due.de/anglistik/icehl19/
 
Description Methodological Workshop at Sussex Humanities Lab 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project Co-I Justyna Robinson led a workshop 'Advanced Text Analytics' at the Digital Methods Open Workshop Series, Sussex Humanities Lab. Discussion followed, and considerable enthusiasm was generated for LDNA methods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.sussex.ac.uk/shl/newsandevents/events/methods_workshop_series
 
Description Methodological workshops (2015, 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of our methodological development, we held two full-day workshops on computational analysis of concepts (September 2015) and language change and visualisation (September 2016). Both events were by invitation only, with special provision for postgraduate participants. The range of participants, including representatives of stakeholder organisations (e.g. EEBO-TCP and the OED) and researchers from complementary domains, hastened the theoretical and practical evolution of our methodology.

The main organiser for both events was Justyna Robinson and the events were held at the University of Sussex.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL https://www.linguisticdna.org/2016/09/07/language-visualisation-and-methodology-our-second-workshop/
 
Description Mozilla Festival (Glasgow team, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 'How Can Linguistics Help a Healthy Internet?' (Marc Alexander, Fraser Dallachy, Jennifer Smith), at Mozilla Festival 2017, 29th Oct 2017. 30 attendees took part in an interactive session on how linguistic corpora and annotation might feed into future voice recognition technology. Questions and discussion with participants followed the session and both audience and session organisers/presenters reported increase in knowledge and ideas related to the session's topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.linguisticdna.org/2017/10/29/ldna-at-mozfest/
 
Description Nottingham Corpus Conference 2016 (Genre) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In Spring 2016, Seth Mehl presented a paper, "Automatic genre identification in EEBO-TCP: A multidisciplinary perspective on problems and prospects", at Nottingham University's annual Corpus Linguistics conference. In addition to directing research attention to genre (the conference theme), Mehl challenged some preconceptions normally held by corpus linguists. The paper was well received and some new contacts for our ongoing e-network made.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://nottinghamcorpusconference2016.weebly.com/
 
Description Oslo 2017 Concepts (Fitzmaurice) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Fitzmaurice delivered a paper "Linguistic DNA: Modelling concepts in Early Modern English" as part of the 20th International Conference on Conceptual History (Concepts in the World, Oslo, September 23, 2017). The audience was predominantly researchers active in the field of History. The discursive approach taken by Linguistic DNA was recognised as distinctive and innovative, with broad interest in following the progress of the project and opportunities to experiment directly with concept modelling.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.hf.uio.no/ikos/english/research/projects/synchronizing-the-world-globalization-and-multip...
 
Description PALA 2015 paper (MA FD) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Marc Alexander and Fraser Dallachy (Glasgow) presented a joint paper at the Poetics and Linguistics Association (PALA) 2015 conference in Canterbury.

"flat and insipid, damp'd and extinguish'd, bitter'd and poison'd": Insipidity and Taste in Early Modern English
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://blogs.kent.ac.uk/creative-style-conference/
 
Description PhilSoc roundtable (Mehl 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of the programme of events organised by the UK Philological Society, Seth Mehl was invited to participate in a round-table on the topic "Sources of evidence for linguistic analysis" together with Dr Aaron Ecay (York) and Dr Nick Zair (Cambridge), and chaired by Prof. Cécile De Cat (Leeds). Mehl's contribution included a short paper, "Corpus semantics: From text to data to meaning". There was intense discussion.
This event was hosted by the University of Leeds, on 11 November 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.philsoc.org.uk/programme.asp
 
Description Pint of Science 2017 (Hine) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the international Pint of Science festival, Dr Iona Hine was one of three speakers at an evening event in the Old Queen's Head, Sheffield (part of the Our Society strand). The event sold out a week beforehand. The main topic of Dr Hine's discussion was based on prior research, but she also explained her current work on the Linguistic DNA project and distributed postcards publicising the project. In general the audience were highly engaged (asking many questions, including wanting suggestions for further reading) and we expect to participate in the festival again in 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/event/ideology-politics-and-terror
 
Description Pint of Science 2018 (Hine) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the international Pint of Science festival, Iona Hine spoke about the Linguistic DNA event to a sold-out audience at a Sheffield pub.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://pintofscience.com/
 
Description Pint of Science 2018 (Mehl) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the international Pint of Science festival, Seth Mehl spoke on the Linguistic DNA project at a Sheffield pub. The event was sold out, and there was an enthusiastic question and answer session afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://pintofscience.com/
 
Description Poster at Digital Humanities 2016 conference, Krakow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A poster outlining innovative methodology and potential applications was presented at the international Digital Humanities conference in Krakow, under the broad title "Linguistic DNA: modelling concepts and semantic change in English, 1500-1800". During the main poster session, we received multiple enquiries about the work, with people subsequently joining our email network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://dh2016.adho.org/
 
Description Poster, Sixteenth Century Society 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A poster explaining Linguistic DNA and illustrating its application within sixteenth century studies was displayed in the Book Exhibit throughout the Sixteenth Century Society Conference in Bruges. This engaged academic and publishing audiences from a broad range of disciplines in considering how digital approaches could enhance their work with Early English Books Online. Advertised alongside the conference's workshops, the poster drew immediate enquiry from interested delegates and prompted several additions to our e-network. Some outputs of the project were also referred to within Hine's conference paper (Ruth as deserving stranger).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sixteenthcentury.org/conference/
 
Description Quill Project Workshop 2019, Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Personally invited talk at a workshop for the Quill Project, Oxford, attended by leaders in digitising and publicly disseminating historical records, primarily of governmental decision making. Resulted in conversation, raised awareness of project and outputs, fed into how others develop their own resources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.pmb.ox.ac.uk/content/digital-workshop-historical-decision-making-quill-project
 
Description SHARP 2016 (Hine) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Hine delivered a paper at the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing's annual conference in Paris (July 2016), using early output from the Linguistic DNA project to substantiate observations about semantic change pertaining to early modern bible translation. The audience included book historians and librarians. Much of the conference, including this paper, was live-tweeted (#sharp16).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sharpweb.org/ocs/index.php/annual/sharp2016/index
 
Description SHARP 2017 (Hine) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact During the 4-day international conference held by the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing, Dr Iona Hine presented a demonstration during the general DH & poster session and a paper within a panel showcasing how Sheffield's Digital Humanities Institute contributes to the conference theme (Technologies of the Book). Both demonstration and panel sessions were well-attended, reaching early modernists and others whose interests in book history and technology can be assisted by Linguistic DNA's concept modelling.
Several individuals followed up with face-to-face discussion outside the scheduled sessions, and there was considerable activity on Twitter (ca. 70 tweets responding to or reporting on the paper, for example).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sharp2017.com/
 
Description SHEL 2017 Kansas: War doesn't change (Fitzmaurice) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Fitzmaurice delivered a conference paper, "War doesn't change: challenges of modelling conceptual change over time," The core audience were delegates at the SHEL: Studies in the History of English Language conference in Lawrence, Kansas (June 1-5, 2017). Discussion directly after the paper and subsequently at the conference indicated that many in the audience had not considered the methodological challenges in such detail previously, and would carry that thought into their own future projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://shel10.ku.edu/
 
Description Sixteenth Century (Hine Bruges 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In August 2016, Iona Hine delivered a paper at the annual Sixteenth Century Society Conference in Bruges, Belgium, using early output from Linguistic DNA to substantiate observations about semantic difference in relation to early modern bible translations. The audience was interdisciplinary, including historians and literary scholars (potential end users for Linguistic DNA's tools). Preparation drove forward thinking about visualisation and potential refinements for the LDNA algorithm.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sixteenthcentury.org/conference/
 
Description Sociolinguistics Symposium (2016 Murcia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-Investigator Justyna Robinson contributed a poster, outlining the methodology and goals of the Linguistic DNA project and some early output relevant to sociolinguistics, at the 2016 Sociolinguistics Symposium in Murcia, Spain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk at International Conference for English Historical Linguistics 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Susan Fitzmaurice gave an academic talk at the ICEHL 2018 conference at the University of Edinburgh, resulting in extended discussion with international researchers in relevant subject areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.conferences.cahss.ed.ac.uk/icehl20/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2018/08/Book-Of-Abstracts-W...
 
Description Talk at Sussex Humanities Lab 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project Co-I Justyna Robinson gave a talk entitled 'Mapping concepts: A linguistic perspective' at the workshop on 'Mapping, maps and digital enquiry' organised by Sussex Humanities Lab. Discussion followed, including increased enthusiasm for Linguistic DNA methods and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Text Analytics I & II (DHC panels) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Linguistic DNA organised (through a call for papers) and participated in two panels on Text Analytics at the 3-day Sheffield Digital Humanities Congress.

Text Analytics 1: Between numbers and words

1) How not to read texts: giving context to big data
Iona Hine (University of Sheffield)
2) Quantitative analysis and textual interpretation in Caxton
Rosie Shute (University of Sheffield)
3) Comparing like with like? Tools for exploring families of corpora
Harri Siirtola (Tampere), Terttu Nevalainen (Helsinki), Tanja Säily (Helsinki)

Text Analytics 2: Identifying complex meanings in historical texts

1) Distributional semantics as a tool for the humanities: Compatible frameworks or unbridgeable gaps?
Seth Mehl (University of Sheffield)
2) The Utility of Count-based Models for the Digital Humanities
Gabriel Recchia (University of Cambridge)
3) Developing an interface for historical sociolinguistics
Eetu Mäkelä (Aalto), Tanja Säily (Helsinki), Terttu Nevalainen (Helsinki)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.shef.ac.uk/hri/dhc/dhc2016
 
Description The architecture of concepts and conceptual change. Fitzmaurice ICEHL-19, Essen, 25 August, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International Conference on English Historical Linguistics, held every two years. This was an opportunity to share the work of the project with a highly engaged and interested audience of historical linguists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.uni-due.de/anglistik/icehl19/
 
Description Themed Workshop at International Society for the Linguistics of English Conference, UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop was focused on relatively large-scale projects which have received substantial grants or other funding in the last decade. It interrogates and evaluates the impact of these projects on the field, and addresses the question of how far they have given rise to new research questions or offered new ways of thinking about unresolved issues. The workshop was held as part of the ISLE conference at UCL in 2018.

The workshop featured five papers from scholars who work on, or whose work draws on, recent or ongoing national and international projects:

• The Anglo-Norman Dictionary (http://www.anglo-norman.net/)
• The Gersum Project, which examines Scandanavian influence on English vocabulary (https://www.gersum.org)
• The Historical Thesaurus of English (http://historicalthesaurus.arts.gla.ac.uk),
and its daughter projects: SAMUELS, which produced a system for automatic semantic annotation of texts (http://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/critical/research/fundedresearchprojects/samuels/)
• The Linguistic DNA of Modern Western Thought, which models concepts and semantic change using printed material from 1500-1800 (https://www.linguisticdna.org)
• Nephological Semantics, which uses token-based vector semantics for distributional meaning analysis, as a means to study semasiological and onomasiological variation (http://wwwling.arts.kuleuven.be/qlvl/NephoSem.html)
• OED3 (http://www.oed.com)

The session concluded with a panel-led discussion which drew together the common themes and concerns of the papers, and considered future directions for the discipline.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/english-usage/isle5/workshops/ws5.htm
 
Description Themed Workshop at the International Conference on English Historical Linguistics 2018, University of Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop asked participants to consider research questions that fit within the scope of the following:

What are the traditional theoretical frameworks and goals of semantic research?
What are the approaches within historical pragmatics, historical sociolinguistics, historical lexicography or historical semantics that challenge the traditional frameworks and goals?
What are the outcomes of such challenges, and how do they require us to revise our theoretical frameworks?

Talks were delivered by Justyna Robinson, Louise Sylvester, Harry Parkin, Gerold Schneider, Gabriel Recchia, Seth Mehl, and Susan Fitzmaurice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.conferences.cahss.ed.ac.uk/icehl20/computational-approaches-investigating-meaning-history...
 
Description Utrecht workshop 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Three of the project team (Fitzmaurice, Hine, Pidd) were invited to participate in a one-day workshop dedicated to History and Digital Humanities at the University of Utrecht. The invitation included a presentation of Linguistic DNA, and in-depth discussion about collaboration with historians working on conceptual change. All participants were there by invitation, with the Netherlands eScience Centre also in attendance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016