Restoring the Palace of Westminster's nineteenth century ventilation system - Between Sustainability and Heritage

Lead Research Organisation: University of Kent
Department Name: Kent Sch of Architecture

Abstract

The Palace of Westminster is facing a major restoration programme. In October 2012 a joint study group of House of Commons Commission and House of Lords Committee reported that the historic fabric was in a serious state of decay, and that the current ventilation system were outdated and in need of a complete replacement. This provides the unique opportunity to systematically re-examine the original Victorian stack ventilation system, which had been in use for 90 years before it was replaced with mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning in the 1950s. Previous research by the PI has shown that the historic system was highly sophisticated. Its design had been refined over several decades and followed principles similar to those used in modern naturally ventilated buildings to reduce energy use. It was designed to exploit, as far as possible, the natural stack effect produced by hot air ascending air shafts within the large towers and numerous gothic turrets of the Palace. Yet, how effective was this historic stack system and how far could it be revitalized to provide a sustainable solution to ventilation in the 21st century?

To address this question it will be essential to develop a critical understanding of the historic system. Although various studies have highlighted the importance of the Palace within the wider history of environmental design, to date there is no comprehensive study of the original stack system. This project aims to fill this significant gap in the literature by providing the first in-depth investigation into the design, history and performance of the ventilation, based on a combination of archival research, surveys inside the Palace, and the analysis of historic data collected and scientific studies conducted between 1852 and the 1941. Moreover, it will investigate how it could be restored in conjunction with the restoration, exploiting its potential in providing a sustainable strategy.

Surveys and archival research will be used to reconstruct the original technical arrangements adopted in mid-19th century, to retrace how scientists, working alongside architects and engineers, had developed them, and to explore how the system was modified over its lifetime. Records of historic experiments, eye-witness accounts and measured data the project will be used to explore how scientists had empirically evaluated the performance of the ventilation, e.g in terms of thermal comfort and air quality. Covering a period of 90 years, these records will also be used to undertake an in-depth analysis of how the ventilation had performed historically under a variety of conditions. The gain such insights, however, the project will not only cross different areas within the field of history(e.g. history of science, environmental and architectural history), but also draw on current scientific methods to review the historic evidence from a technical perspective.

Over the past 3 years the PI has conducted a pilot study, funded by the Kent Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities, and built a partnership with the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme (R&R), a body appointed by the UK government to coordinate the restoration. Recognising the importance of the proposed research to the programme, the Houses of Parliament agreed to be project partner. The research will form a separate work stream within the programme, which will be led by the PI and feed directly into the restoration. In addition to taking part in project meetings at Westminster and the PI will lead a series of workshops and project conferences, bringing together the R&R team and Parliamentary Estate Directorate to develop proposals for re-vitalizing the stack ventilation based on the new insights yielded by the historical research. In addition to demonstrating how historical research can be used to gain insights into past environmental principles, the project aims to show how it can be applied in the context of conservation.

Planned Impact

The PI aims to actively engage with a range of audiences outside academia, but in particular with professionals in the fields of heritage conservation, architecture and sustainable design:

1) The Palace of Westminster Restoration Programme
The Palace of Westminster has agreed to be a project partner and the proposed research will feed directly into the restoration. Over the past year the PI has given several presentations at Westminster, showing the findings of his previous research on the stack ventilation that had been funded through a small grant from the Kent Institute of Arts and Humanities. Dr Richard Ware, Director of the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme (R&R) and Andy Piper, Lead Mechanical Engineer of the Parliamentary Estate Directorate (PED), recognised the proposed research as highly important to the restoration programme as it will be first study to study the design and evolution of the historic stack ventilation. The proposed research will form a work stream feeding directly into the restoration programme. In addition to attending regular project meetings at Westminster, the PI will lead a series of one-day workshops during which research findings will be presented, peer-reviewed, and ways of restoring the system explored.

2) Professional Bodies
The research will be of particular interest to practitioners and organisations in building conservation, (e.g. English Heritage, National Trust and Prince's Foundation) and in architecture and engineering, including the Royal Institute or British Architects, Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) and the Royal Academy of Engineering. Throughout the project the PI aims to actively engage with these organisations through workshops, lectures and contributions to professional journals. The PI has begun to develop links with several organisations and in recognition of his previous research and has recently been appointed a member of the CIBSE Heritage Group, which has close links to English Heritage. This will give the PI a platform through which to engage with professionals in environmental design and building conservation. The PI will establish a working group that explores how the methodology developed in the context of the Westminster project can be applied in building conservation more widely. Moreover, the research addresses a real educational need. The PI has met engineers at senior level, including Bill Addis (BuroHappold), Jake Hacker (Arup Associates) and Robert Thorne (former director of Alan and Baxters), who highlighted that understanding of historic environmental solutions among engineers was limited. These contacts will form the core of the working group.

3) Other public institutions
During meetings in Westminster it was highlighted that the research would be relevant to other public institutions in London, e.g. Natural History Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum, Royal Courts of Justice, as these were designed following similar principles of stack ventilation. To explore how the research could be applied to the study and restoration of other public buildings, the PI aims to lead workshop activities engaging these institutions.

4) Wider public impact through the media.
There is a strong popular interest in the Palace of Westminster, the history of science and engineering, and more current issues such as climate change. To make the research more widely accessible the research will be disseminated through the web, social media (LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook) and also newspapers, TV and radio. The aim is to produce one article in a broadsheet newspaper, and more regular contributions in the online newspaper 'The Conversation'. The BBC will be approached with the view of securing interviews and producing a documentary.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The research undertaken during the AHRC Fellowship between June 2016 and October 2018, has yielded critical new insights into the nineteenth-century technology of the Palace of Westminster. It was first study to systematically examine the history, design and performance of the historic ventilation systems, using a methodology that combine archival research with building surveys inside the Houses of Parliament. The latter had only been possible as the PI was seconded full-time to the UK parliament for the duration of the Fellowship. He was provided with his own office space, received assistance from parliamentary staff and, having undergone security vetting, he was also granted unrestricted access to the buildings.

The research has shown that the physical infrastructure of the historic systems, although currently disused, is exceptionally well-preserved and that the building itself represents an important primary source for the study of 19th century environmental technology and design principles. Combined with the archival research, the study of the building allowed to reconstruct the design of the individual systems deployed in different parts of the Palace. It also allowed to determine how far David Boswell Reid's plans for the ventilation were realised and how its development was affected by tension during his collaboration with the architect Charles Barry. That latter had been subject of debates amongst architectural historians since the 1970s, but had not been successfully answered. The new research has been able revisit this question, revealing that large parts of the infrastructure designed by Reid between 1840 and 1846 was built according to his plans. This was incorporated into the new systems adopted after Reid's departure. Despite some alterations, it remained in continual use for over 90 years. This research has yielded a series scholarly publications, which included three book chapters and large journal articles published in the ASHRAE Journal, Building Research & Information, Antiquaries Journal. The PI is currently working on academic monograph on the environmental history of the Palace of Westminster with Routledge, which due to be completed by the end of June and to be published in December 2020.

The secondment to Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme, a client body established by parliament to lead the restoration, enabled the PI to directly inform the client, and he also worked closely with the consortium of external consultants that the client had engaged to deliver the project. This work has been described in the impact section of this report. In addition to the scholarly research within the history of environmental design, the PI used the project to explore critical questions of contemporary architectural practice and its relationship to academic research and education. Being embedded within the UK's largest architectural conservation project enabled the PI to develop and pilot new approaches to environmental design for heritage buildings. These demonstrated a way of acquiring and utilising knowledge of historic environmental principles to inform the design of modern services. At the core of this methodology was a redefinition of the relationship between industry-based practice and university-based research. It yielded a new framework for collaboration between academia and industry, which the PI has explored in the article 'Historical Research as an Applied', published in the Journal of the Institute of Historic Building Conservation in July 2018. This strand culminated in a one-day symposium held at the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineer, which has been featured in the CIBSE Journal in September 2018.

The research undertaken during AHRC has had significant impact on the R&R programme, much of which fully matured during new projects undertaken after the AHRC funding had ended. (See 'outcomes' section below for details) The PI has received, amongst other a government grant to undertake new research and author chapters for the new Palace of Westminster Conservation Management Plan and Policies (CMPP) and also collaborate with the conservation architects Donald Insall Associates, the conservation team of the Parliamentary Estate, and Historic England. The new CMPP, published in the autumn 2019, set out the policy framework for the restoration, and the PI's responsibility was to ensure that the significance and vulnerability of the environmental and technological heritage is recognised and its preservation and potential re-use enshrined within policies.
Exploitation Route The secondment, which involved being fully embedded within the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme (R&R), enabled the PI to directly feed into the work undertaken by parliament and various design consultants involved in the project. This provided the basis for new research undertaken after the AHRC project with additional funding from the UK government. This new research project, which lasted from November 2018 until January 2020, enabled the PI to further develop the research and convene a programme of actives designed to facilitate the utilisation of the research findings within R&R. The focus of this second project was on the creation of digital model of the entire historic ventilation system, using Building Information Modelling (BIM) techniques. It is based on a methodology that the PI had developed and piloted at a small scale during the AHRC project. In addition to the research grant award to the PI directly, UK government also provided the funding (£250.000) to employ a team of specialist BIM modellers. Theses produced the model under the PI's direct supervision. This model, completed in February 2020, is significant as it provides the detail required to design new building services that utilize the historic infrastructure and also complies with the requirements of fire safety, architectural conservation and sustainability. It directly underpinned the development of design scenarios for re-utilising the historic infrastructure.
Sectors Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-wAbebHLqc&list=PLj3mInRJqIen4Oy_ACfZsjzjICht9-vTO&index=10&t=0s
 
Description SUMMARY: Dr Henrik Schoenefeldt's research into the Houses of Parliament's Victorian ventilation system had key impacts on the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme. It underpinned initial inquiries within parliament between 2013 and 2016, as well as design studies and building surveys conducted by the team of design consultants appointed to deliver the refurbishment (2017-2020). As a direct result of this research the (a) re-utilisation and integration of the historic infrastructure within the design of a modern, more sustainable ventilation scheme was made a requirement in the design brief, (b) the scope of the building survey was increased to capture the infrastructurere of the historic system, using a new methodology that the PI developed in collaboration with surveyors and architects, (c) and the system was listed within the new Palace of Westminster Conservation Management Plan. Working closely with Parliament's in-house conservation department and Donald Insall Associates, the PI also contributed to the development of new conservation policies for the preservation and reuse of the technological heritage. The research also attract interest within the fields of building conservation and sustainable design more widely, leading to invitations to speak at practices and professional bodies and commissioning of articles for professional journals. At the end of the project the PI received a new grant from the House of Commons (127K) to lead another research project in parliament, which builds on research undertaken during the Fellowship but also extends into areas of research. The project will last from November 2018 till January 2020. IMPACT NARRATIVE The Palace of Westminster (PoW) incorporates a sophisticated system of stack ventilation that was developed in the mid-nineteenth century. Designed to exploit natural convection and wind pressure to reduce reliance on energy consuming mechanical solutions, this historic system followed principles similar to those deployed in contemporary sustainable architecture. The forthcoming refurbishment of the PoW provides the unique opportunity to re-examine the design and effectiveness of this system and also explore its potential in providing the basis for the development of a modern natural or mixed ventilation strategy. Dr Schoenefeldt, who had been conducting research into the historic ventilation since autumn 2011, had briefed the House of Commons Commission and the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme (R&R) on these opportunities in 2013, and his research subsequently fed into inquiries underlying the planning of the refurbishment at key stages. As direct result of his research and involvement in the inquiries the significant of the historic infrastructure to the restoration has been formally recognised by the senior management. Over a period of three years (2013-16) the PI had built links with the Houses of Parliament, efforts that culminated in an AHRC funded research project fully embedded within the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme (R&R). The project was preceded by earlier research into the Victorian system of the Palace that the PI had conducted at the University of Kent since 2012, funded through smaller research grants awarded by the Kent Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities. Since January 2013 Dr Schoenefeldt has also been providing advice at Westminster. In response to a joint inquiry into the refurbishment of the Palace, which was undertaken by the House of Commons Commission and the House of Lords House Committee in 2012-13, Dr Schoenefeldt submitted a briefing paper to John Bercow, Speaker of the House of Commons, on the opportunity of reutilizing the historic ventilation principles. Dr. Schoenefeldt was subsequently invited to hold two one-day consultancy sessions at Parliament with the aim of providing a more detailed briefing to the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme team on the findings of his research. The first session, which was held on 21 February 2014 and comprised a lecture, Q&A session and site visit, focused on the historic system in the House of Lords area. It was attended by the senior management team: Richard Ware, Director of the R&R Programme, Dr Mark Collins, Parliamentary Estate Archivist, and Andrew Piper, resident mechanical engineer and Adam Watrobski, Principal Architect of the Palace of Westminster. The second session, which was held on 23 April 2014, focused on the historic system of the River Front and House of Commons. In these sessions Dr Schoenefeldt introduced the team to the significance of the historic ventilation system and its potential re-vitalisation in the conjunction of the refurbishment. Recognising the relevance and importance of the research to the programme, Adam Watrobski, Principal Architect of the Palace of Westminster, and Richard Ware, former Director of the R&R, and Andrew Piper, Deputy Director, agreed on a research partnership and endorsed the PI's bid for a research grant from the AHRC, submitted in May 2015. Ware wrote that the 'research is very timely for the programme and the findings will provide a valuable insight into how the Palace's original ventilation systems were designed, built and adapted, which will contribute towards development of the future design brief.' Piper wrote in a letter from 7 April 2015 that the research 'adds significant value' to a number of work streams and will 'help to establish the overall services approach' and feed into 'investigations looking at the potential of a natural or mixed mode ventilation scheme.' In interview with the Hindu Businessline, Ware noted that the research will provide the opportunity to develop a modern system building on historic principles: 'Though 21st-century technology will aid the programme, one of the challenges will be to rediscover many of the 19th-century skills that have been lost over the years. It took much trial-and-error for Parliament's specialist supplier to master the technique for handcrafted "encaustic tiles". A separate project at the University of Kent is looking into whether the Victorian system of natural ventilation (they used chimneys that were cleverly designed as gothic towers) could be updated and incorporated into contemporary design.' (Putting Houses in order, Hindu Businessline, 18 November 2016) From June 2016 until October 2018 the PI has been working four days a week within the R&R team, taking on the role of research-stream lead within the programme. He has been working closely with Julian Flannery (Architectural Lead), Robert Stewart (Engineering Lead), Andrew Piper (Deputy Director of R&R) and was assisted by Andrei Iulian (BIM coordinator) and two architectural assistants (Elizabeth Venning and Regina Avencini). Aside from the R&R team itself he worked with different departments within Parliamentary Estates (Conservation, Fire Safety, Building Services) and various external consultants. Starting in September 2017 Dr Schoenefeldt has also been working with the newly appointed Consultant Advisory Services (CAS) team, which was commissioned by R&R to deliver the refurbishment. It is composed of the project architects BDP, the project management companies Jacobs and CH2M, conservation architects Donald Insall, structural engineer Alan Baxters and the Building services engineers Hoare Lea. During the Fellowship the research has contributed to the development of (1) the design brief for the refurbishment, (2) has fed into an ongoing fire safety design programme and (3) Dr Schoenefeldt has also led the development of new methodological framework for surveying the historic ventilation infrastructure and (4) and convened various knowledge exchange and design workshops with the consultants involved other programmes. The impacts are detailed below: 1) The research informed several parliamentary inquiries. It was referenced by the Joint Select Committee on Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal in their final report published in September 2016. In February 2017 the PI has given a witness statement to the 'House of Commons Treasury Committee inquiry on Restoration and Renewal of the Palace of Westminster', explaining the significance of the full-decant delivery option in harnessing the full potential of making the Palace more sustainable and energy efficient. In January 2019 the PI has provided evidence to the Joint Select Committee on the Parliamentary Buildings Bill, looking at the role of experts and parliamentary participation in the delivery and governance of the restoration programme. 2) On the ground of his expertise, the PI received further funding from the House of Commons (2017-18) to undertake an additional piece of research for the new Palace of Westminster Conservation Management Plan (CMP), which included, amongst, others, a statement on the significance of the Palace's technological heritage, identification of vulnerabilities and the production of an inventory and commentary on the surviving technical features. Moreover, he collaborate with Donald Insall Associates and Parliament's in-house conservation team in developing new conservation policies relating to the preservation and reuse of the Palace's technological heritage. The new knowledge acquired through the research allowed the Palace's technological heritage to be covered in detail in the CMP for the first time. It superseded an earlier CMP published in 2007 and under the PI's guidance, the historic ventilation system was acknowledged, for the first time, as an important part of the Palace's heritage and its preservation has been included in the new conservation policy for the Palace. 3) Development of Design Brief making inquiries into reutilisation of historic ventilation infrastructure a requirement: The PI was directly involved in writing of the design brief for R&R, and it was through his research that the utilization of the historic ventilation infrastructure has been made a design requirements. The design brief forms the basis of design work to be undertaken by the architects, engineers and specialist consultants. The PI's contribution to the brief included four sections. Two of the sections outline a series of design scenarios for re-utilising this historic ventilation infrastructure and identify areas that offer the greatest opportunity regarding the re-instatement of stack-driven system. The third section explains the significance of the ventilation arrangements as part of the Palace's heritage and the fourth sections highlights its importance to understanding the structural fabric. The PI also produced a 200 page report on the design of the historic ventilation system, consolidating the findings of the surveys and archival research. The report forms part of core pieces of supporting information referenced in the design brief as foundational knowledge required for the project. 3. Providing the consultant team with knowledge and understanding of the historic system: Dr Schoenefeldt has increased the knowledge and understanding of the historic ventilation system amongst the consultants involved in the restoration of the Palace of Westminster. The research was exchanged through lectures, workshops and tours as well as through reports included in the core reading list of the design brief. The reports produced by Dr Schoenefeldt ('An Overview'), which are cross-referenced within the design brief, are used by the whole of the CAS team. Prior to the mobilisation of the CAS team Dr Schoenefeldt has also advised Alan Baxter, who had previously been appointed to produce a structural survey of the Palace, on the design of the historic ventilation system and its effect on the structural design and construction of the Palace. The final reports, issued to the Palace of Westminster in September 2016, referenced and discussed Dr Schoenefeldt's reports and academic publications. 4. Research facilitating the development of a more effective fire safety improvement scheme: The research also yielded new insights that were fundamental to realise an effective fire compartmentation scheme that takes into account the vertical and horizontal voids of the historic system. Since November 2016 Dr. Schoenefeldt has been holding knowledge exchange and design workshops with the fire safety teams within Strategic Estates and various external consultants involved in the development and delivery of the Fire Safe Improvement Works Programme (FSIW) of the Palace of Westminster. A first workshop, held on 23 November 2016, was attended Robert Stewart (Engineering Lead of the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme), Oliver Dixon (Assistant Director of Project Delivery at Strategic Estates) Barry Wainwright, from the design consultants WSP. During this workshop Dr Schoenefeldt presented the findings of his ongoing research, followed by interactive workshop during which the application of this research to the FSIW was investigated. In July 2017 the teams at WSP and Project Delivery were provided with a copy of Dr Schoenefeldt recently completed report on the design of the historic system, which included a detailed surveys of voids. Since November 2017 Dr Schoenefeldt has also been consulting Purcell and International Fire Consultants Ltd (IFC) on the design of the historic ventilation infrastructure. Matt Hodgson, Senior Architect at Purcell who oversaw the delivery of the FSIW, acknowledged that his team had not been aware of the scale and complexity of the historic network of voids before he introduced to Dr Schoenefeldt's report. Purcell and IFC were supplied with copies of Dr Schoenefeldt's reports and Dr Schoenefeldt will be holding a series of knowledge exchange and design workshops with the two firms at the beginning of 2018. Matt Hodgons, Senior Architect at Purcell, who is overseeing the Fire Safety Improvements Works Programme for the Palace, wrote following brief with Dr Schoenefeldt that he 'had not appreciated just how complex and extensive the system and its associate voids and ducts are,' and that he was 'particularly concerned that those working to create the primary 120 minute fire compartments within the building have an understanding of the voids within the building fabric' (email, 25 October 2017) 5. Generating the knowledge and leading the development of a new survey process to capture the historic ventilation network within BIM model: From 2015 until 2016 the Palace of Westminster was surveyed using modern 3-D point cloud scanning techniques, but did not cover the historic ventilation network embedded within the architectural fabric. This was largely due to the fact that the design and scale of the network of air chambers, shafts and channels was not well understood. The research, for the first time, provided a comprehensive understanding of the historic infrastructure, and led R&R to recognize the importance and value of extending the scope of the survey to capture the network. Aside from the research providing the fundamental understanding of the position and arrangement of historic of voids, the PI has led the development of a new methodological framework for surveying the historic infrastructure, using modern 3D point cloud scanning technology. It was first trailed in a small number of ventilation voids (Spring of 2017) in collaboration with the surveyors Plowman Craven and the R&R BIM coordinator. The trial was used to demonstrate, at a small scale, how the ventilation infrastructure, which was composed of a complex network of interconnected voids that are difficult to access, can be systematically scanned and the information integrated into the BIM model of the Palace. The data was used to create a three dimensional representation of network that was incorporated into the BIM model of the Palace. The BIM model shows in three dimensions the complex web of horizontal and vertical voids within the structural fabric. Starting in the autumn of 2017 the PI collaborated with the surveyors and BDP, the lead architects appointed for the refurbishment, in undertaking a large-scale pilot, which involved applying the methodological framework to a full bay of the Palace extending over five floors. After the pilot, due to be completed in Spring 2018, the methodology is to be integrated into a large-scale survey covering the entire Palace. The PI has also acted as an expert advisor to Alan Baxter, a structural engineering consultancy that had been commissioned by R&R to undertake a survey of the structure and construction. The PI's research is discussed and referenced extensively in their final reports (September 2016), acknowledging its importance to the understanding of Palace's construction. The PI's research was fundament for the survey as the design of the structural fabric and historic ventilation infrastructure are closely intertwined. 6. Exploring changes in professional practice and education within the fields of architecture, conservation and sustainability: The research has also attracted much interest outside the Palace of Westminster project, and Dr Schoenefeldt had established links with practices (MaxFordham, Alan Baxters, Purcell, Donald Insall), professional bodies (CIBSE, IHBC, IMechE) and heritage organisations (EASA, Historic England) exploring how the research and working methods developed in the context of the Palace of Westminster could inform practices in building conservation, engineering and environmental design more widely. Dr Schoenefeldt has received invitation to speak and convene workshops at different universities, architectural firms and professional bodies. This included, among others, talks at 2015 RIBA Research Symposium 'Design Quality and Performance,' 2015 symposium of the Standing Conference of Heads of Schools of Architecture, and the CIBSE Building Performance Conference (2017). He was also invited to speak to the AHRC Peer Review College about the application of history in architectural research and practice. Publications produced in the context of the research also feature in the reading lists of the University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, McGill University Canada, University of Wyoming. The research has also discussed by Professor Alan Short, a world-leading designer and researcher of natural ventilation, in his new book 'The Recovery of Natural Environments in Architecture.' and in the editorial of Building Research and Information. The Institute of Historic Building Conservation (IHBC) invited the PI to contribute to a special issue of its journal 'Context' (July 2018). Dr Rebecca Madgin, member of the editorial board, argued that Schoenefeldt's work was a 'great example' of university-based research informing building conservation practice. He was given a lecture at the annual meeting of the Ecclesiastical Architects and Surveyor's Association (EASA) on 26 October 2017. Roger Molyneux, President of EASA wrote that the research was of interest to EASA as it illustrated a new ways of looking at the often difficult relationship between sustainability and heritage in conservation practice. He also expressed a strong interest in exploring opportunities for collaborations between the EASE and University of Kent, exploring how sustainable heritage could be integrated into conservation practice and education. This approach became the subject of the cover article in the CIBSE Journal in November 2017. A workshop day on the re-use of historic environmental principles was also undertaken with students from the IDBE Programme in Cambridge, during which students explored how the methodology could be applied to other buildings, using the disused Smithfield market for a design project.The research and efforts to embed the study of past environmental principles within the education of building scientists and engineers has led to a partnership between the University and the CIBSE Heritage Group, a Special Interest Group (SIG) within the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) that promotes the study of historic environmental technology and has strong links to Historic England and the National Trust. The PI, who has been elected a member of the Group in 2015, acting as its Academic Liaison Officer. Starting in December 2017 Dr Schoenefeldt will be convening a series of workshop at the Institute exploring (a) how post-graduate research could contribute towards advancing our current understanding of historic environmental principles and (b) how this new understanding can inform engineering practice and education. This workshops will bring together postgraduate students with members of the Heritage Group and other SIGs within the CIBSE. Dr Schoenefeldt is currently buildings links with the restoration programme team at Buckingham Palace to explore how the research undertaken in the context of the Palace of Westminster can be applied to other buildings. It is to be noted that there is a considerable number of nineteenth-century public building in Britain that followed principles of stack ventilation, which include, amongst others, Royal Albert Hall, National History Museum, British Museum, V&A and the Royal Courts of Justice. The research is particular relevant to Buckingham Palace as the design of its building services was directly informed by the Palace of Westminster. 7. Contribution to public discourse: Moreover, Dr Schoenefeldt contributed to public discourse about the future of the Houses of Parliament, e.g. as expert speaker on radio programmes, interviews with the CIBSE Journal, Observer, Total Politics, the German newspaper Westfälischer Anzeiger and his work has featured in the Indian business paper Hindu Businessline. He has also been invited speaker at a joint roundtable discussion about parliamentary architecture at the 2017 Annual Conference of the Political Studies Association, was appointed advisory board of the 'Designing for Democracy' project at Sir Bernard Crick Centre for the Public Understanding of Politics (University of Sheffield) and spoke at Symposium on the architecture of parliaments at the Museum of Architecture in London. In addition he has given talk at the Institute of Historical Research, House of Commons Members Library at the Palace of Westminster Open Day.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Construction,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Policy & public services

 
Description Cititation in House of Commons and House of Lords Joint Select Committee on Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact The report, which reviews the challenges of renewing the building services in the Palace, refers to my work on the Houses of Parliament's historic ventilation system, acknowledging its contribution towards addressing the problem.
URL https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt201617/jtselect/jtpow/41/41.pdf
 
Description Gave evidence to the Joint Select Committee on Parliamentary Buildings Bill, which sat between January and February 2019.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact At the time of filling in this researchfish report. the parliamentary inquiry was still ongoing. Therefore I am not yet able to provide evidence of the specific impact my contribution had on the outcome of this inquiry. The URL below is a transcript of oral session held on 9 January 2019. It shows that my evidence has strongly influenced the discussion during the first sessions. My contributions focused primarily on (a) the role of parliamentary participation in strategic design decisions and the (b) need for expert involvement in the governance of the restoration programme. My evidence was based on the research (and also experience of directly working with the client body) I have undertaken during the AHRC Fellowship. A series of publications produced as part of my research was presented, which included my recent articles in (1) Building Research and Information, (2) Journal of the Institute of Historic Building Conservation and (3) Antiquaries Journal.
URL http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/draft-parliamentary...
 
Description Witness Statement to House of Commons Treasury Select Committee 'Restoration and Renewal of the Palace of Westminster inquiry', 20 February 2017
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/treasury-committee/inquir...
 
Description Additional funding provided to PI by House of Commons to undertake the new edition of 'Research for Palace of Westminster Conservation Management Plan'
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 3697 
Organisation House of Commons 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Expert historic ventilation advice for the Palace of Westminster
Amount £127,000 (GBP)
Organisation House of Lords 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 01/2020
 
Description Project title: Informing the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme Project, funded through grant from House of Commons
Amount £127,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Krimson project ID: 6187 
Organisation House of Commons 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 01/2020
 
Description 'Gute Luft fürs Parlament, Westfälischer Anzeiger, 22 April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Newspaper article about research project, which is based on interview with German newspaper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 'The challenges of designing the House of Lords; The lecture given at the Institute of Historical Research in London on 7 November 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 'The challenges of designing the House of Lords' nineteenth-century ventilation system: a study of a political design process, 1840-47'
The lecture was held at the Institute of Historical Research in London on 7 November 2017. The title is: 'The challenges of designing the House of Lords' nineteenth-century ventilation system: a study of a political design process, 1840-47' It is part of the Institute of Historical Research's (IHR) lecture series entitled: Parliaments, Politics and People. The venue is: IHR Past and Present Room, N202, Second Floor, IHR, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HU
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://thehistoryofparliament.wordpress.com/2018/01/30/parliaments-politics-and-people-henrik-schoe...
 
Description CPD Seminar with staff of the engineering consultancy Maxfordham, London, 2 March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The PI Held a CPD staff seminar at the office of Max Fordham's in London, with video conference to offices in Edinburgh, Manchester and Cambridge. The firm has a specialism in sustainable environmental design and has shown an interest in the research project due to its relevance to their practice. The seminar, which was entitled 'Nineteenth-century environmental strategies in the Houses of Parliament' was given on 2 March 2017. Over the next few months the PI will run a programme of workshop with staff of this firm to develop a design methodology for sustainable design in historic building, with a particular focus on the possiblility of building on past environmental principles.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Das Klima in Zeiten des Brexit, Westfaelischer Anzeiger, 19 October 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article based on interview I have given to a journalist of Westfaelischer Anzeiger on 17 October 2018. The article discusses my work at Parliament, with some reference to my experience of Brexit as a German working in the British Parliament.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview with Journalist of CIBSE Journal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The research project became the subject of main feature article of the CIBSE journal in November 2017, which included a picture of the PI on the front cover. The article is based on an interview and tour of Palace of Westminster that the PI has given to the deputy editor of the Journal, Liza Young. The full reference to the article is: Liza Young, 'Back to the Future', CIBSE Journal, November 2017, pp. 24-27. The article has been shortlisted for a journalism award issued by Institute of Internal Communication. The CIBSE Journal is a professional journal published by the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers and has a readership of 30 000.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.cibsejournal.com/archive/PDFs/CIBSE-Journal-2017-11.pdf
 
Description Interview with journalist, involving tour of the Palace of Westminster, which resulted in cover story in the CIBSE journal. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project was the subject of a cover story in the CIBSE Journal, discussing the PI's and how it has been informing the restoration programme.
Liza Young, Back to the Future, CIBSE Journal, November 2017, pp. 24-27
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://portfolio.cpl.co.uk/CIBSE/201711/24/
 
Description Live interview with Roberto Perrone on BBC 3 Counties Radio, 10 March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact On 10 March 2017 the PI had 6-minute live interview with Roberto Perrone on BBC 3 Counties Radio about the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme. The interview was about the recommendation made by the Committee of Public Accounts, who had published their final report on 9 March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04swz9j
 
Description Organising Symposium 'Historic building services in education, practice and research on historic building services' at the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The PI organised a symposium, which was entitled 'Historic building services in education, practice and research on historic building services' at the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) in London. This was held on 25 July 2018. The objective of symposium was to explore how and why research into historic environmental technologies should be integrated into the education and practice of engineers. The event was attended by 55 delegates, which included academics, practitioners (e.g. Arup), government bodies (e.g. Historic England) and clients (e.g. TFL). The event was featured in a larger article in the CIBSE Journal: 'Making History', CIBSE Journal, September 2018, pp. 28-30.

A motion to the president of the CIBSE, which is based on the findings of the symposium, has been produced in collaboration of stakeholders at Historic England, CIBSE and within industry. The motion is for change in the curriculum of CIBSE accredited building services engineers and for establishment of a centre of excellent for research in the historic environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.cibsejournal.com/general/making-history-heritage-group-symposium/
 
Description Public Lecture at St. Paul's Church, Canterbury 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I have a public lecture at St. Martin and St. Pauls Church in Canterbury. It was part of a evening lecture series on contemporary issues organised by the church and I was one of the invited speakers. In this lecture I talked about the restoration programme and how my own works feeds into it. At the Q&A session after the talk the audience demonstrated a strong interest in the issues facing Parliament by undertaking a major refurbishment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk at the Spring Conference of International Association of Museum Facilities Administrators, held at the Natural History Museum, London, on 3 May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was speaking at the IAMFA Spring Conference held at the Natural History Museum, London, on 3 May 2018. The panel was entitled 'The Technology Challenge Modernising Estatesí Systems' and Dr Schoenefeldt was invited to talk about his research at the Houses of Parliament and how it could provide lessons for the use of historic building services in 19th and 20th century museum buildings. The IAMFA is the International Association of Museum Facilities Administrators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk given at the Annual Conference to the Ecclesiastical Architects and Surveyors Association (EASA). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited by the director of EASA to give one of the keynote talks at their annual conference on 26 October 2017. The talk explored the role of historic research in understanding heritage building from an environmental perspective. The talk showed how the methods trialed in the Houses of Parliament can be applied to the study of church buildings. EASA is interesting in collaborating with me in exploring new directions for research and education in the field of building conservation, addressing the Heritage and Sustainability.

The talks was discussed in an article written by Anna Joynt, Associate Director at Allies and Morrison, in the EASA Journal: Anna Joint, '2017 Annual General and Autumn Meeting', EASA Journal (Winter 2017), pp. 4-6.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk given to Allies and Morrison Architects, 23 January 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I have given a talk to staff of Allies and Morrison, a large architectural firm, about my research in parliament, which focused on the relationship between academic research and architectural practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk to Donald Insall Associates, Conservation Architects, 14 February 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I have given a talk to staff of Donald Insall, Conservation Architects, about my research into the historic technology of the Palace of Westminster and how it provided new ways of looking at heritage and conservation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Workshop with Practitioners at Purcell, Canterbury, 17 October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 17 October 2016 the PI has run a seminar with practitioners at Purcell, one of the UKs leading firms in architectural conservation that has been involving in restoration work in Westminster over several years . The purpose of the seminar, which was entitled 'Critical Reconstruction - a deep engagement with the environmental principles of historic buildings,' was to introduce staff to the research and explore how it could be applied in practice. The firm has expressed a strong interest in the research and the aim of future workshops is to investigate these questions in more depth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016