Whose right to the (smart) city?

Lead Research Organisation: University of Plymouth
Department Name: Sch of Art, Design & Architecture

Abstract

This international network brings together different global perspectives to critically respond to the current smart city agenda. It is timely and innovative in approach and networks together a key set of academics working in different global contexts. It addresses a gap in current knowledge exchange and seeks to redress the balance of focus from the existing highly urbanised, first-world contexts to concentrate on more marginalised urban communities and people-centred urban change in relation to ICTs. The network activities delivered through a series of workshops will address the topic of the impact of digital marginalisation in the 'Smart City' context and its effect on urban space. It will explore models and tools for urban change within marginalised communities, by investigating and analysing positive and negative initiatives developed through the smart city approach. Within this context of what can be considered sustainable urban development in marginalised communities it aims to question how ICTs contribute to this process. The network will investigate a series of Smart city projects in a series of global contexts to study and understand how marginalised communities can appropriate and benefit from impacts of ICTs within the city.
The network works with the framework of Henri Lefebvre's seminal work The Right to the City to consider the role of everyday and people centred agency in urban change. Taking the right to the city, the network questions 'Whose right to the "Smart" City". The current Smart City agenda, championed and promoted by ICT companies such as IBM and global city leaders is problematic, since it adopts a technologically deterministic approach that homogenises urban problems across different economic, political, social and cultural contexts. It tends to focus on ICT solutions to be applied top-down, and therefore, fails to address particular issues related to different types of marginalised communities. The network seeks to counter this approach by exchanging and mapping examples of knowledge of ICTs and marginalised urban contexts to understand how such communities might benefit from ICT driven change and how this might support a 'right to the city'.

The network workshops will adopt a case study method and will have an open and discursive ethos. Each workshop will comprise contributions from selected invited guest speakers to represent local areas of expertise and knowledge, activities with early stage and doctoral researchers as well as a field visit with selected local community stakeholders. Early stage researchers will be invited to participate in an open forum session and to contribute to forming the outcomes of the workshop meetings.

The concluding symposium event will take place in Plymouth; comprised of a series of focused sessions with presentation of the investigators of all partner universities and of other related work. Guest speakers will also be invited from a range of disciplinary and sectorial backgrounds. This will close with an open forum session to determine crosscutting similarities and differences between the different forms of marginalisation discussed along the partnership, possible guidelines for further research and case studies.

Knowledge exchange and the outcomes of the workshops will be documented and shared through a website mapping platform. This will act as a live and open platform to disseminate the work of the network as well as providing a tangible outcome as a mapping of knowledge. This will make the work of the network available to the wider community, and will be supported by an ongoing use of social media (e.g. Twitter) to share work in progress.

The network will produce an edited book with contributions from all network partners, as well as a co-authored journal paper. The network website will also be developed from the outset of the project and act as a mode of dissemination of the academic outcomes to a broader audience.

Planned Impact

The project has impact built in to its working method. It addresses a real world topic that is currently engaging a whole series of stakeholders in cities around the world. In addition the focus on exchanging knowledge across different global contexts on a shared research problem will enable impact at a range of geographical scales.

Impact will be achieved through four complementary groups of activities:

-Involvement and knowledge exchange with stakeholders and private and public sector non HE representatives;
Invited participants in the network workshops from local community and governance stakeholders will enable us to constructively engage with stakeholders of local ICT initiatives and establish a dialogue. The final symposium will extend this approach, with a key set of invited stakeholders involved in smart city initiatives that operate within marginalised urban contexts.

-Disseminating work in progress and outcomes with public sector, private sector and community Stakeholders
The workshop activities will involve establishing a dialogue with key stakeholders on the partner countries, who are working on or planning smart city initiatives. This dialogue will be continued through the course of the Network activities, and the outcomes of the Network will be aimed at sharing and disseminating knowledge in an accessible and appropriate format.

-Engagement with the broader public using website, social media, among others.
A variety of social media activities will be used to disseminate work in progress to the academic community. The network website will also be a source of information and news about the project aims, objectives, outcomes and also provide material to download and share.

Knowledge transfer and external engagement through a dynamic web platform;
The development of a specialist web platform will enable external exchange and knowledge sharing of the network activities. It will be a public accessible face to non-academic partners at both a local and an international level.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description There are three areas of outcomes. The first is around smart city projects and the role of marginalised groups in India, Brazil and UK.
The second is linked to a review of methods for mapping and representing smart city projects and access to these by marginalised groups. The third is around creating a network of information and knowledge exchange with a wider set of partners and stakeholders to snowball communication.
The outcomes from the network activities have three main outputs:
• To create an agenda for researching and understanding the issues of inclusion in Indian Smart Cities Mission, Brazilian Cidade Inteligente and Smart London projects.
• To develop and test out methods for mapping, enabling and evaluating smart citizenship
• To create a network of partners that could use and contribute to further research, knowledge building and action around the Indian Smart Cities Mission, Brazilian Cidade Inteligente and Smart London programme.

In the first area, we have successfully informed a wide range of stakeholders from both marginalised groups to policy makers about the implications of smart city programmes for communities who have either been excluded from accessing the benefits of the initiatives or who are actually being negatively affected. We found that providing access to data was a key area of work that needs to be completed, and that current dissemination and consultation initiatives are either extremely limited or simple non-existent for these groups. Therefore the knowledge exchange and communication activities of the workshops in India, Brazil and London have had a significant impact in giving community groups capacity to challenges these projects and ensure that their needs (rights) are recognised. This work is being continued by the country partners; CAG (civic Action Group, Chennai, India) and LAGEAR lab (University of Minas Gerais, Brazil).

In the second area, we have tested a series of mapping techniques in a workshop in India, Brazil, London and Plymouth for making information about smart city projects geo-located in the communities into which they are planned to be implemented. This was a challenging exercise within the scope of the network. But this is now being developed in to a mapping platform that will prototype an alternative mapping method that can be used by marginalised groups. This involved identifying the infrastructures and resources within communities that are enabled or challenged by smart city initiatives and how these can be represented in a mapping platform in an accessible manner.

In the third area, we have established a wider network of stakeholders from a wide range of sectors with whom we are exchanging knowledge and building capacity. The knowledge exchange between UK, Brazil and India and the networking of partners from these three countries has been excellent in enabling network partners to recognised common problems that transcend cultural and geographic boundaries, and also to learn about alternative ways of addressing challenges. For example the strategies learned from the favela community in Brazil about how to harness informal infrastructures (internet access and power/water) to gain access to the benefits of technologies has informed thinking and possible future initiatives in India and UK.
Exploitation Route Through the following pathways:
1) Marginalised groups in developing counter strategies and initiatives to benefit from smart city projects, from which they are currently excluded.
2) Policy makers through learning about the needs of marginalised groups (such as slum dwellers, street traders and those working within the informal economy) to benefit from smart city initiatives
3) PGR students who are continuing research in this area through PHD study
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://whosesmartcity.net/
 
Description The network has delivered four key events - the first in Chennai, India in June 2016 and the second in Belo Horizonte, Brazil in December 2016, the third in London in September 2017 and the fourth in Plymouth, also in September 2017. At all events there have been a series of activities that have engaged a range of stakeholders; from third sector, academia, policy makers and community representatives. Two key areas of impact can be identified: 1) Third sector stakeholders who represent marginalized groups or communities who participated in the workshops in Chennai, Belo Horizonte and London. Through the information shared and the discussions about the scope, range and implementation of smart city projects in the respective countries, they have gone on to inform their members about strategies to counter these dominant paradigms. The key stakeholders who have benefited from the engagement and knowledge sharing are: India - National Hawkers Federation, India (membership of over 40 million street vendors nationally)- The General Secretary of the Federation Mr Shaktiman Ghosh attended the workshop along with a small team. The livelihood of many of their members is under threat due to the Smart Cities Mission in India, as the programme includes actions for 'sanitising' the streets in the Indian city districts identified to be transformed into smart city demonstrator projects. The smart city mission plans include a strategy that encourages a streetspace that is 'smart' where traffic, vendors and water and waste infrastructure are transformed into a wester model of a clean, efficient streetscape. This is massively at odds with way that Indian streetscapes operate- where a whole series of informal activities take place, such as street vending, informal parking, and ad hoc infrastructures. Through the workshop activities he reported that he had learned about the ways in which his members could challenge the dominant smart city actions, and try to ensure that they would not result in his members being dispossessed from the streets where they work. Brazil - In Brazil we engaged with the community group - History under Construction who represent the people of the Favela of Vila des Antenas in Belo Horizonte. The Brazilian national smart city initiative was initiated in September 2016, and is yet to be fully implemented in Brazil. But through the Network workshop activities the group became aware that they will be excluded from any benefits of such initiatives when they are implemented because their community is not recognized by the state. The focus of Brazilian Smart city initiatives is around digital inclusion, and we discussed approaches that they could use to capitalize on informal smart projects that they already have, but have been fairly fragmented. The workshop included a mapping day where we interviewed over 30 locals residents about how they use ICTs in their lives, and understanding whether these were accessed through informal (semi-illegal) infrastructures or more formal ones. This resulted in an awareness raising in the community about the need to recognize ICT access as an asset and its links to accessing jobs, wider social networks and resources. This is in a community that is very rarely informed or engaged with through traditional governmental routes, so this had an impact as it simply wouldn't have happened if we had not had the opportunity to speak with them. 2) The second set of stakeholders are policy makers or those acting as consultants who inform policy around smart cities in India and Brazil. Mr America Bernardes, Minister responsible for the Brazilian Smart City (Cidade Intelligente) Programme, Secretary of Digital Inclusion, Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication, Brazil Mr Bernardes participated in the workshop in Belo Horizonte, and engaged in active discussion about the impact of smart city projects on marginalized groups in Brazil and how this could be overcome. He is the minister responsible for delivering the Cidide Intelligent programme in Brazil, and told us that he was attending the workshop to gain some insights in to how his work could be informed by the research being undertaken. He took on board some of the findings from the previous Indian workshop, and we discussed having input into future planning of smart city projects in Brazil. In particular he recognised that it was an opportunity to understand how a similar large scale Smart Cities project in India had pitfalls and issues in its implementation and how these could be addressed in his programme in Brazil. This is to be followed up by the Brazilian network partner, Prof Ana Paula Baltazar, and with a set of her colleagues in the School of Architecture, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mr Bernardes will also now participate in the third workshop in London in September 2017. India - Durganand Balsavar, Architect and Brinda Sastry, Urban Planner have both have acted as consultants to the Indian government on the Smart Cities Mission. Through participating in the workshop they have gained specific insights into the needs of marginalized groups, such as the street hawkers. They discussed how they would take the knowledge and use it to inform future government consultation about the importance of recognizing the needs and resources required by marginalized groups to access the benefits of the Indian Smart Cities Mission. UK, London The London activities involved stakeholders who are policy makers in the Smart city area. These included - Smart London, Future Cities Catapuault and NESTA. Steve Lorimer, lead for Smart London presented at the workshop and was involved in the discussion around smart citizenship. As an outcome Katharine Willis was invited as an expert on smart cities and digital inclusion by the Greater London Authority London Assembly Regeneration Committee. The two other invited guests were Theo Blackwell, London Chief Digital Officer and Steve Lorimer, lead for Smart London. During the evidence process, Katharine Willis drew on the outcomes of the AHRC network and made a clear case for the need for a more inclusive mode of participation in Smart London. This was acknowledged by the Committee and it was recognised that the current Smart London plan disadvantaged marginalized groups. In this way the AHRC network delivered policy guidance and influenced the development of the Smart London plan in terms of its inclusivity. We involved a wide range and extensive number of stakeholders in the three countries. A number of initiatives are now being followed up with these groups directly. Below is a list of stakeholders who participated in the events: Stakeholder involvement by sector Policy Brazil: Américo Bernardes (Brazilian Government Secretary of Digital Inclusion - Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication) Gabriel Uchoa, Coordinator of dAgenda2030, Prefeitura Municipal de Teresina / Fellow for the Organisation of American States London/UK: Dr Steve Lorimer, Policy and Delivery Officer, Smart London Future Cities Catapault Tom Saunders, NESTA Tim Davies, Open Data Services Cooperative India: Shaktiman Ghosh - National Hawkers Federation, Delhi R Savvilam Parithi, Indian Association of Lawyers, National Hawkers Federation Community/Third Sector Brazil: History under Construction - a group from Vila das Antenas informal settlement (Belo Horizonte) London/UK: Living Under One Sun (Leyla Laksari) Just Space (Richard Lee) Take Back the City (Rachael Okiya| Ban Private Cars in London (Victoria Readhead) Spitalfields Urban Farm (Mhairi Weir) justMap (Niclos Fonty) D4SC (Priya Prakash) Spacehive (Toby Bennett) India: Himanshu Damle- PFPAC, public finance and accountability collective, Delhi Nandini Chami - IT for Change, Bangelore Ranjit Gadgil - Parisar, Pune Vankat T- TN labour blog, Chennai Dharmesh Shah, Centre for Technology and Policy, Chennai Kay Saran - culture research centre, Chennai Professional/Practitioner India: Durganand Balsavar- Architect, Chennai K. Sudhir Kumar- Architect, Commonweal Tara Murali- Architect, Chennai Brindra Sastry - Urban Designer Bangelore Postgraduate Brazil: Rafael Pinheiro (architect and urban planner working with parametric technologies and GIS) Flavia Neves Maia (PhD researcher, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) Gabriel Uchoa UK: Magdalena Cooper - Public Policy, University of Edinburgh India Mukul Kumar - PhD student, UC Berkeley Bikshka Radnikrishnan- PG, Maths, Berkeley Lorena Melgaço (University of Birmingham, UK)
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Evidence to London Assembly Regeneration Committee
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact I was invited to give evidence to the GLA London Assembly Reegentiona nd Planning Committee. The evidence is being used to ensure that the Smart London plan is more inclusive and participatory than it is currently. https://www.london.gov.uk/london-assembly-regeneration-committee-2018-02-06Meeting title: Making London a Smart City, Digital Connectivity and Regeneration Meeting Date 6 February 2018, 10am in Committee Room 5, City Hall Please allow time to pass through security Guests • Theo Blackwell, Chief Digital Officer, GLA • Dr Stephen Lorimer, Smart City Policy and Delivery Officer, GLA • Dr Katherine Willis, Associate Professor, University of Plymouth Purpose of meeting To consider: 1. Connectivity in London; 2. The forthcoming new Smart London Plan; and 3. Smart urbanism, regeneration and communities. Twitter Follow us @LondonAssembly and take part in the discussion using #AssemblyRegeneration Contact Tom Gill, Project Officer, 0207 983 4492 Further documents Appendix 1. Themes and questions from the Smart London Board's listening exercise Appendix 2. The committee's Digital Connectivity report (June 2017) Appendix 3. The Mayor's response to the committee's Digital Connectivity report (attached as separate document)
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YCjoycbYa70
 
Description Newton CONFAP Researcher Mobility
Amount R$ 14,500 (BRL)
Funding ID https://www.gov.uk/government/world-location-news/confap-announces-approved-projects-under-call-with-uk-academies 
Organisation NHS Direct NHS Trust 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description AHRC Network - Gendering the smart city: A subaltern curation network on Gender Based Violence (GBV) in India 
Organisation King's College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Advisory Board member for AHCR Network AH/R003866/1
Collaborator Contribution This network has just started, so no activities as yet.
Impact No outputs as yet, as this has only just started.
Start Year 2018
 
Title Mapping software 
Description This is a prototype of mapping software and platform that will represent smart city projects from the perspective of the citizen. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact This platform is in development, but will be shared with marginalised groups to enable them to have access to information about the impact of smart cities in their own cities and countries. 
URL http://tcn.cag.org.in/
 
Description Autonomy in the Smart City workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The 2nd Workshop in the AHRC Network 'Whose Right to the Smart City' took place in Belo Horizonte, Brazil on 1st December 2016. The Brazilian workshop focused on the concept of 'autonomy' and the role that people can play in producing their own community. This addressed the 'potential of ICT for their autonomous actions on space: on collaboratively creating a space as they occupy it using digital technology' (Baltazar 2010). The workshop involved invited participants (academics and key stakeholders involved in local public sector or third sector initiatives) in addition to the PI, CI and network partners.
The workshop was delivered with simultaneous translation of English and Portuguese.
A key participant was Américo Bernardes, Minister in charge of smart city and digital inclusion projects in Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication.

• Américo Bernardes (Secretary of Digital Inclusion - Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication)
History under Construction - a group from Vila das Antenas (Belo Horizonte)
• Sérgio Martins (Geographer and lecturer at UFMG)
• Heloisa Moura (Urban planner and lecturer working at the department of Geography with urban agriculture at UFMG)
• Jupira Gomes de Mendonça (urban planner and lecturer at UFMG)
• Roberto Monte-Mór (Economist, urban planner and lecturer at UFMG)
• Silke Kapp (architect and urban planner and lecturer at UFMG - MOM)
• José Cabral (Architect and lecturer at UFMG - Lagear) -
• Rafael Lemieszek (architect and urban planner working with parametric technologies and GIS)
• Paulo Silva (Department of social, political and territorial sciences, University of Aveiro, Portugal. Member of AESOP)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://whosesmartcity.net/brazil-workshop/
 
Description Chennai Smart Citizenship Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact This was a two day workshop with 15 invited participants from third sector, academia and policy makers.
The key outcomes were knowledge exchange with a number of key third sector partners. The context for the workshop was the India Smart Cities Mission which had been launched a few months earlier. A number of the participants had been marginalised by the smart cities mission and found the workshop invaluable to gain information and plan future initiatives which would create a counter strategies to the top-down projects. Theses included the chair of the National Hawkers Federation, whose 40 million members face being evicted from the streets where they make their livelihood as part of the Smart City Mission plans, which advocate a wester style 'sanitisation' of the streetscape.
Other participants such as Brinda Sastry and Durganand Balsavar had acted as consultants to policy makers in the Smart Cities Mission and used the workshop as an opportunity to inform themselves about the potential issues of marginalisation and lack of citizenship within the programme. They reported that they would feed this back in to their work on the development of the policy at government level.

The participants were:
Shaktiman Ghosh - National Hawkers Federation, Delhi (40 million members)
Himanshu Damle- PFPAC, public finance and accountability collective, Delhi
Brindra Sastry - Urban Designer and Planner, RV College of Architecture, Bangelore
Nandini Chami - IT for Change, Bangelore
Rajagopal Balakrishnan- Urban studies and Planning, MIT
Ranjit Gadgil - Parisar, Pune
Mukul Kumar - PhD student, UC Berkeley
Karen Coelho- Urban transformations, Madras Institute of Development Studies
Kay Saran - culture research centre, Chennai
Magdalena Cooper - Public Policy, University of Edinburgh
Bikshka Radnikrishnan- PG, Maths, Berkeley
Tara Murali- Architect, Chennai
Vankat T- TN labour blog, Chennai
K. Sudhir Kumar- Architect, Commonweal
Durganand Balsavar- Architect, Chennai
Dharmesh Shah, Centre for Technology and Policy, Chennai
R Savvilam Parithi, Indian Association of Lawyers, National Hawkers Federation
PII-RIND meeting room, Chennai

There were presentations on the following topics:
>>>> International perspective on smart cities with specific focus on the UK and Brazil by Katharine Willis, Ana Baltazar, and Ava Fatah.
>>>> an overview of the SCM including outline of key concerns, presented by Magdalena Cooper.
>>>> financial aspects of the mission and especially the Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) set up to implement each SCM proposal by Himanshu Damle.
>>>> smart cities, land use and the turn to technocracy by Rajagopal Balakrishnan
>>>> the use of technology and data in city governance by Nandini Chami from IT for Change.
>>>> perspectives on the role of Street traders and Hawkers from Saktiman Ghosh, chair of the Indian Street Traders Federation.
>>>> overview of Smart City Proposal of Pune by Ranjit Gadjil
>>>> overview of Smart City Proposal of Chennai by Satyarupa Shekhar
>>>> overview of Bangalore's urban development process leading up to the its preparation of the Smart City Proposal by Brinda Sastry.
>>>> perspectives on Jaipur Smart City advisory committee by Durganand Balsavar who had been on the, giving his perspective on some of the
key areas of concern for the Smart City Mission.
>>>> overview of work with GIS to represent citizenship of local fishermen in Chennai regeneration projects by Saravanan Kasi.

Discussion topics
The discussions that followed the presentations raised questions about the structure, legal framework, and financing of the Special Purpose Vehicle, the search for a different model of state development, the role of technology in urban development, and the role of citizens in the SCM. Key concerns
centred around how little we know about the legal aspects and structure of the SPV making it extremely hard to understand the repercussions it could
have for city governance and accountability. Additionally, many participants felt that many of the concerns arising from the Smart Cities Mission were
concerns that were mirrored in other development programs in India - supposedly due to the ingrained corruption within politics - and thus that
the SCM was not addressing underlying systems that led to unequal and exclusionary development.
The group further stressed that the term "smart" should be re-evaluated with respect to the citizens. For example, many expressed concerns that previous missions such as the JNNURM failed on various counts, and that the SCM would have similarly disastrous effects on the demography. The
group agreed that we should look at "smart" as implying an evaluative, flexible and retrospective/reflective approach to urban and technological
renewal as opposed to a blindly futuristic and idealistic proposition that certainly would not prioritize citizenship and the multitudinous livelihoods without which the city would not truly function.

Key themes
>>>> issues of privatisation of urban services, resources and infrastructure though SPV
>>>> problematic of governance due to set up of SPV and lack of transparency/accountability
>>>> SCM was not addressing underlying systems that led to unequal and exclusionary development
>>>> SCM builds very clearly on previous urban renewal and regeneration projects (such as the JNNURM), but seems to show little reference to these
>>>> That informal inhabitants and users of the street such as street traders will be excluded and evicted in the SCM
>>>> The impacts of smart city projects are often in the poorer and hidden districts of the city. For instance the water initiatives will be met by creating a desalination plant in Ponneri, a smaller city on the outskirts of Chennai
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://whosesmartcity.net/publications-and-outcomes/
 
Description Hack the City Event at Victoria and Albert Musuem, September 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact September 2017

Plymouth University presents HACK THE CITY at Victoria and Albert Museum

Plymouth University welcomed over 300 visitors to the 'Hack the City' event and exhibit at the Victoria and Albert Museum, during the Digital Design Weekend on 23rd and 24th September 2017.

Aimed at families and children the installation demonstrated the future of smart technologies in cities. Hack the City enabled visitors to talk to a plant, chat with a bench and deceive a light, in three interactive and playful installations that showed how simple code can connect us with everyday things in the city.

The Hack the City exhibit showcased three future applications of smart cities, and enabled visitors to interact directly with them. In 'talk to a plant' - visitors were able to view live data feeds of CO2, humidity, temperature and moisture levels on an augmented reality 3D interface displayed on a tablet. In the 'chat to the bench' installation visitors could Tweet how they were feeling that day to a specially designed bench that used sentiment analysis Artificial Intelligence to display their emotions as a colour on the bench surface. Finally, the future of surveillance was introduced through 'deceive a light' which used facial recognition software to detect presence and switch a light on and off. Children were invited to test out different patterns of facepaint to deceive the light into thinking they weren't there.

In addition children had the opportunity to join two workshops run by ODI Devon: Paper Hacks and Hello World. These brought the technology and the design thinking behind Smart Cities to an entry-level audience; exploring new ways of interacting with our environment, designing simple paper prototypes of imaginary devices that could become reality, and allowing participants to handle and inspect the basic devices and sensors that drive the interactions.

The event attracted over 200 visitors over the weekend, with around third being children, and over 265 tweets were sent to the chatty bench. It was part of a range of exhibits, talks and performances at the Digital Design Weekend 2017 at the Victoria and Albert Museum. The DDW celebrates contemporary digital design as it takes over the V&A for this special weekend of pop-up activities.

Dr Katharine S. Willis, Associate Professor from Plymouth University who organised and led the event as part of the Whose Smart project said:
'Hack the City is about introducing children to how they can interact directly with the city around them, and to show that computing can be 'city-friendly', and about connecting with everyday space and things. We hope that the children who visited the exhibit would have had their eyes opened to seeing the city and digital code as about potential for a whole range of interactions. It develops out of our AHRC funded research into smart cities, which finds that there is a need to be more inclusive in enabling participation in smart cities.'

The Hack the City installations were a joint project between the AHRC Whose Right to the Smart City project at Plymouth University, two tech startups, composed of Plymouth University DAT graduates; One Polygon, Chris Hunt of Controlled Frenzy and ODI Devon (Open Data institute Devon).

Visitors spent up to 30 minutes in the event at the Globe space in the Europe Gallery of the Victoria and Albert museum, and feedback showed that they enjoyed being introduced to the potential of new technologies in cities, and found the hands-on demos informative:

Hack the City was the best event of the day for us. Both my son and I have learnt new fascinating technologies. Thank you for sharing with so much enthusiasm.

It was great to be aware of the data available for the public. I like the talking bench as it allows something tangible which connects to emotion. The people explaining everything was very approachable, friendly. The kids enjoyed relating to the city and some tangible activity.

An interesting look at technology and how it can be used in our future cities. Well explained.

The only way my niece would come to the V&A was for Hack the City. Once we came in we saw lots of other things. She thought Hack the City was cool.

Digital Design Weekend 2017 at Victoria and Albert Museum celebrates contemporary digital design as it takes over the V&A for a special weekend of pop-up activities from 23-24 September 2017.
https://www.vam.ac.uk/event/dA7KWKAN/digital-design-weekend-2017
https://vanda-production-assets.s3.amazonaws.com/2017/09/19/13/03/53/86060b37-bb90-4c09-95bb-34ade429215f/VANDA%20DDW.pdf

Background:

Smart Cities is based in the School of Art, Design and Architecture, and current projects include the AHRC Whose Smart City Research Network between UK, Brazil and India and the EU funded Digital Neighbourhoods project.

One Polygon specialises in creating unique Virtual Reality projects and interactive 'Internet of Things' installations. Their constant exploration of emerging technologies and forward thinking approach to projects help them create the best experiences possible for clients and their users. One Polygon is formed of recent DAT graduates and is based in the Formation Zone at Plymouth University campus. For more information about the organisation please go to: www.onepolygon.co.uk

Controlled Frenzy is the creative prototyping, software development and research consultancy of Christopher Hunt. Chris is a DAT graduate and has taught on the programme for a number pf years, as well as working closely with i-DAT.

ODI Devon is a node of the Open Data Institute and works with councils, emergency services, community organisations, business and citizens across the county to improve innovation and boost transparency in every sector. The ODI Devon Node supports projects that harness the power of open data, help people and institutions to release open data, promote best practice in designing new data-driven services, and connect those with a need for data services with a directory of individuals and organisations who can help them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.vam.ac.uk/event/dA7KWKAN/digital-design-weekend-2017
 
Description Indian Institute for Human Settlement Conference - Technology and the City 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on the panel: Policy and Government, as well as Facebook Live interview with fellow participant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://iihs.co.in/research/conferences/urban-arc-2018/
 
Description London Community Engagement in the Smart City Workshop - 6Sept 2017 organised by the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact The third 'Whose Right to the Smart City' event focuses on the city itself, and how citizens within urban space engage with technologies embedded within them. This involves the understanding of how people might contribute to the design of a future urban space that reflects this changing engagement with a 'smart' city. The event took place over two day in Sept 2017: a workshop (Day one 6th Sept) and a site visit (7th Sept see info in a different entry) . The event in day one involved a number of invited participants (academics, community groups, and key stakeholders involved in local public sector or third sector initiatives) in addition to the PI, CI and members of the steering committee. The objective is to develop a shared understanding of challenges of engaging with digital city-making and identify different types of ICT initiatives might be appropriate for marginalised communities in the UK, and particularly the London context. The event consisted of the following sessions: 1) morning session (Understanding participation and engagement with (marginalized) communities in the Smart City) with academic presentation (UCL/Intel, University of Westminster) selected current smart city projects and engagement of citizens and marginalised groups, 2) demo session: a demo of a variety of digital platforms that were developed at the Bartlett, UCL. 3) noon session (Smart City London and Citizens Engagement) with a presentation by a representative form the London Greater Authority, 4) early afternoon session (Participation and engagement in the (Smart) City) with short presentation by community based initiatives that address participation and engagement in the city 5) later afternoon session (Participation in the Smart City: ICT projects and citizens-led platforms) with presentations from third sector organisations of community based and citizens-led ICT platforms that address participation and engagement in the city

Outcomes
• Identify different features that empower (marginalised) communities to achieve participation and engagement in the context of the Smart City in London/UK.
• Understanding of the context of smart city in London: what are the constraints and limits of smart project in London/UK?
• Publication of the Seminar presentations at the network website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://whosesmartcity.net/events/community-engagement-in-the-smart-city/
 
Description Mapping workshop in T Nagar, Chennai - Smart Citizenship 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact A one day mapping workshop in the proposed smart city area of T Nagar, Chennai, India in June 26th 2016. During the visit the group gained a better understanding of the current state of the area and envision how the area will change with the implementation of smart city changes. This was done through a paper mapping exercise carried out in T Nagar. Participants mapped different layers of infrastructure currently in place in T Nagar and later compared their findings with changes outlined in the Chennai proposal.

Participants included local academics (UK, Brazil, USA and India), practitioners (architects), representatives from third sector organisations (India), postgrad students as well as policy leaders. The full participant list is as follows:

Himanshu Damle- PFPAC, public finance and accountability collective, Delhi
Brindra Sastry - Urban Designer and Planner, RV College of Architecture, Bangelore
Nandini Chami - IT for Change, Bangelore
Ranjit Gadgil - Parisar, Pune
Magdalena Cooper - Public Policy, University of Edinburgh
Bikshka Radnikrishnan- PG, Maths, Berkeley
Tara Murali- Architect, Chennai
Vankat T- TN labour blog, Chennai
K. Sudhir Kumar- Architect, Commonweal
Dharmesh Shah, Centre for Technology and Policy, Chennai

Workshop Activities and Outcomes
Location: T. Nagar district, Chennai
Day one was spent completing an afternoon mapping exercise in T.Nagar, Chennai.
T.Nagar is a neighborhood in Chennai where the Smart City Proposal plans to implement the Area-Based plan. The group met at Panagal park and was given a short introduction to the mapping technology and the paper maps. Each group was assigned a street to map using Kobo, a digital survey and mapping tool, and a paper map for more details and notes. They were told to look at elements on each street falling under the themes of housing, mobility, amenities, and recreation. After completing the streets the groups reconvened at the park to discuss their observations from the exercise.
For T Nagar, the city's proposal lists assured (24x7) supply of electricity and water, recycling waste water by augmenting sewage treatment capacities, rain water harvesting, and storm water management by monitoring using sensors. It also proposes several transport-related infrastructure projects, including cycle tracks, e-rickshaws with solar charging stations, smart parking for on-street parking, multi-level car parks, intelligent traffic systems for smart signalling, and automated street lights.
Discussion topics
The mapping exercise was meant to prompt participants to look at street level infrastructure in detail and visualize the ways in which the smart city proposal for Chennai could impact the area. After returning from the mapping exercise the group discussed each group's experiences and key takeaways. The discussion centred around people's observations of street infrastructure, including flyovers, barriers, and waste bins. Additionally, observations focused on discussions with street hawkers and local vendors about their knowledge of the smart cities.

Key themes
>>>> the importance and abundance of informal activities in the street
>>>> the visibility of formal and informal infrastructure of rubbish, water, sewage, telecoms and electricity in the street
>>>> conflicts between vehicle and pedestrians
>>>> the smart city as proposed in the SCM seems very far removed from the everyday life of the
T. Nagar district.
>>>> difficult to envisage how the water, waste, ICT and transportation objectives of the SCM will be realised.
>>>> Smart Citizenship Discussion and Knowledge Exchange
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://whosesmartcity.net/workshop-1-india/
 
Description Mapping workshop in Vila des Antenas Favela, Belo Horizonte, Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a mapping activity at Vila das Antenas, a favela in Belo Horizonte where we used mapping tools to investigate how local people use technologies in the favela.
During the session we interviewed around 30-40 local residents, informed them about the work of the network and mapped their outcomes. The mapping outcomes cannot be published online due to ethical issues. However Twitter was used to share some of the outcomes of the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://whosesmartcity.net/brazil-workshop/
 
Description Smart City Podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This is an episode of the Smart City Podcast, where experts come together and share their experiences and expertise.

This is an interview with Katharine Willis about all things Smart City, including concepts, technology and anything that makes a place more livable.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://thesmartcitypodcast.com/
 
Description Web Storymap for Indian partners 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Under the Smart Cities Mission, Chennai (India) is striving to improve the lives of its urban population. However, this project is failing to involve citizens in what changes will be made, and thus it is failing to provide a sustainable and inclusive space for every citizen. In order to craft an inclusive city, we must hear from all voices. One group that needs addressed are the street vendors of T Nagar. This storymap aims to get a better grasp on the lives and business endeavors of the street vendors so that they too can be incorporated into the city.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://cag-org-in.github.io/scroll-map/
 
Description Whose Right to the Smart City Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The conference critically addressed the smart city agenda, and investigate the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in marginalised communities at a range of global contexts. Taking the right to the city as a framework, the symposium investigated the question 'Whose right to the (Smart) City'? It addressed a gap in current knowledge exchange and seeks to redress the balance of focus from the existing highly urbanised, first-world contexts to concentrate on more marginalised urban communities and people-centred urban change in relation to ICTs.
The conference examined how and why cities and people are shaping technologies to suit their needs and the role of civic inclusiveness in this process, and draws on knowledge and perspectives from marginalised city contexts at a range of geographical levels including developing world countries.
Fields: architecture, urban planning, urban studies and ubiquitous computing, urban policy. Contributions will be from academics, city governance, NGO's, community groups and industry expertsAyona Datta, Kings College London
Whose urban futures? Seeing the smart city from India
Bio: My broad research interests are in the critical geographies of smart urbanism, gender citizenships and urban futures in the global north and south. My earlier research examined the connections between transnational urbanism, migrant citizenship, and translocal geographies of belonging. This was particularly related to the resultant transformations in gender relations and citizenship struggles that occupy social, political and environmental spaces of action. My more recent research seeks to advance theoretical and empirical work on postcolonial urbanism through the examination of smart cities as experiments in urban innovation and digital citizenships

Tim Davies, Open Data Services Cooperative
Constructing participatory public data infrastructures: open data standards and the turn to transparency
Bio: Tim is a co-founder and member of Open Data Services Co-operative, working to secure civic impacts from open data. In recent years, he has co-ordinated a global research network on open data in developing countries for the World Wide Web Foundation, contributed to the civil society network shaping the UK's Open Government Partnership National Action Plan, supported facilitation and write-up of the International Open Data Conference, and written lots about the open data field whilst studying for a PhD in Web Science. Tim is an affiliate of the Berkman Centre for Internet and Society, and lives in Stroud, United Kingdom.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://whosesmartcity.net/conference/
 
Description WhoseSmarrtcity.net 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This the project website which has been regularly updated during the course of the project. The website has led to a number of enquiries from policymakers and third sector organisations who are looking for work on smart cities and social inclusion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL http://www.whosesmartcity.net
 
Description WhoseSmartCity Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was the project Twitter account. Over the period there were 240 tweets, and it had 226 followers.This is the reach
Country name % of audience
United Kingdom 43%
United States 9%
India 5%
Netherlands 5%
Brazil 4%
Ireland 4%
Australia 4%
France 3%
Germany 2%
Spain 2%
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL https://twitter.com/WhoseSmartCity
 
Description Workshop in East London: Community Engagement in the Smart City - 7Sept 2017 curated by the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Following the event on the 6th Sept in London, and building on the key themes, the dilemmas and challenges discussed during this event, a one day site visit and a workshop was carried out on the 7th Sept in East London with two parts:

Part 1) a visit to the London 'Living Lab' in the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. The living lab provides a real-world testbed for IoT solutions at scale, to show their potential to solve urban challenges and explore economic, environmental and social impacts. During the visit the group (the network partners) gained a good understanding of the current state of the area as the main 'testbest' for IoT solutions at a city scale. The 'Tales in the Park' an Urban Internet of Things project was then demoed to the group with its 3D-printed interactive creatures that people can chat to using your smartphone (The creatures are designed to explore aspects of security and trust surrounding these technologies in playful and imaginative ways). After that the group made a short visit to Here East (the former Press and Broadcast Centres for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games), and the new digital quarter and International technology innovation destination in east London.

Part 2) In the afternoon, the group continued its investigation by exploring the challenges faced by local communities in Tottenham Hale (an area of northeast London and part of the London Borough of Haringey). As identified during the first day of the London workshop on the 6th Sept, the most challenging gap in the delivery of the Smart London Plan is citizen engagement. In this respect, the group met with members of the Living Under One Sun LUOS; a community organisation and charity based in the heart of Tottenham, which promotes community development and empowerment, and job creation. Most of the afternoon was spent on the interactive mapping activity of community resources, campaigns and projects. The was led by Nicholas fonty (a freelance /urban designer, and researcher who has been involved in many initiatives of civic mapping for community-led planning such as justMap in London). Participants (UK, Brazil, and India), represented third sector organisations, post graduate researchers, local policy leaders, local activists, community members, Local educators.
The main aim was to make more visible who and what matters to the local community, and to explore how people might contribute to the design of a future urban space by using this tool for local community-led planning and initiatives. Two main questions were raised 'Do you know a community ressource that matters ? Do you know a campaign or a community project ?'. The response was, discussed, negotiated and plotted on the map by community members and the facilitator). This exercise is meant to trigger participants to look into various community resources and the ways in which Tottnham Hale citizens engage with resources and technologies embedded within urban space. Another aspect was explored around the relationship between everyday access to data and potential link (and influence) on policy level. Here, members of LUOS were presented with maps of their area showing data mapped from existing open data sources such as the London data store (data of eg deprivation map 2015, House prices, Broadband speed, etc). This exercise was meant to prompt participants to look into other 'existing' but rather invisible sources that can help them make informed decisions about local decisions. The discussion centred around the potentials of these extra digital sources and the barriers around the availability and the ability to exploit their full potentials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://whosesmartcity.net/events/community-engagement-in-the-smart-city/