Forged by Fire: Burns Injury and Identity in Britain, c.1800-2000

Lead Research Organisation: University of Birmingham
Department Name: Health and Population Sciences

Abstract

Throughout the past two centuries, Britons have experienced personal and collective tragedies involving burns and scalds, which have been connected to British culture and society and rooted in the habits and design of home, workplace, war and play. This project will investigate how burns have shaped identity: individual, urban and group. In 19th-century Britain, the mortality rate for burns injuries was 50%. Between 1900 and 1950, of an annual 100,000 burnt and scalded people, 20-30,000 were admitted to hospital; 2,000 died - over half were children. Today, burns injuries make up 175,000 of all A&E visits. There are 16,000 hospitalisations; 300 (2%) die. On the surface, this is a story of progress, yet in some ways this is just skin deep. Unlike other aspects of public health, there has been little progress in burns prevention. According to burns pioneer Dr Leonard Colebrook in 1950, these statistics reflected peculiarly British practices: tea drinking, open fires in homes, and widespread use of inflammable, raised-nap cottons. Not only is meaning attributed to the causes, but the material culture of burns, from changing fuels to the resultant technologies that shape how we live, is also tied into what being modern meant at key moments in the wider chronology of British history. For emergency services, emerging hazards meant pooling information and devising countermeasures, informing the design and construction of new, safer homes and workplaces - this project will examine how these decisions were reached.

While burns incidents have influenced the professionalisation of ambulance and fire services, little is known about their roles in co-ordinating life-saving and treatment. Moreover, given that many ambulance services evolved out of municipal fire brigades in the early 20th century (including our three cities), both services are ripe for comparative scrutiny to better understand their joint roles as first responders to emergencies. Alongside this, priorities around treatment have shifted from resuscitation and isolation in the 1840s, when the first 'burns unit' was established in Edinburgh (1845), to infection control and shock prevention in the 1890s, and reconstruction in the 1940s, each shift introducing new specialists to burns teams. Gradually, as mortality rates began to fall noticeably after the Second World War, the ultimate goal of burns practitioners also changed from survival to full rehabilitation and psychological recovery.

Despite this progress, burns remain a visually distinct, sensually assaulting and emotionally overwhelming injury, with significant effects on mobility, the self and identity. They also have a significant bearing on psychological wellbeing, not only of the injured, but those involved in fire rescue and burns treatment. Burns are felt to be horrific and iconic. Self-immolation in particular jars our collective and emotional response, but might also inspire people. In 2010, Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire in protest at police treatment in Tunisia. In doing so, he has been said to be the human spark for the Arab Spring and its darker wake. Indeed, rarely are burns just individual tragedies. They can galvanise collective action, as they did following the 1981 New Cross fire, which claimed 13 young lives and is recognised as having helped create a Black British identity. The 1987 King's Cross fire was the first fatal fire on London underground, and killed 31 people and injured 100. It transformed health and safety regulations in London's transport network and led to the founding of the Healing Foundation (1999), a charity working for people who have sustained burns injuries. The recent establishment of support groups suggests a more collective and consoling experience of burns, yet our cultural image of the 'burns victim' remains that of a solitary, tragic, and mysterious figure - of Miss Haversham and spontaneous human combustion.

Planned Impact

The research subject uniquely ensures a humanities project that will benefit groups beyond academia. Through our varied and non-academic outputs, 'Forged by Fire' offers a wide reach, impacting on the work of policy makers, fire services, burns physicians, third-sector groups, former patients and their families, schools and workplaces, and the wider public.

The team is uniquely placed to deliver genuine impact for a history of burns project. The PI has made close links with the Burns Collective, a newly-established national burns initiative linking units in Birmingham, Bristol and UCL, funded by the Healing Foundation. The CI will use his connections with the fire and rescue service via service associations, charities and heritage groups. More importantly, these links will enable people in these organisations to create their own histories, through oral histories organised and supported by the project team, which has ties with the Oral History Society. Interviews will be deposited with the British Library and local archives, and offers a resource for professional training. These diverse narratives, evidencing experience, have a place in the recovery process employed by group therapy. Other than in behavioural and mental health circles, this technique is unusual, with patients with burns injuries from the 1940s only the second such grouping organised into collective therapy. Group support and patient narratives continue to be used by patient organisations and evolve; a process which, through our links with Changing Faces, we will develop by offering to share at meetings, relaying historical narratives which capture the diversity of experiences.

Free public exhibitions are part of our core impact strategy and rely on RF1's curating experience. An exhibition, based on 1000 photo essays (dated 1940s-80s) of the material culture surrounding individual burns events, will visit Glasgow, Birmingham and London. It is our aim that the exhibition will not only develop links between the academic sector and our planned venues (The Library of Birmingham, London Fire Brigade Museum, and the Mitchell Library, Glasgow), but also contribute to their profile and community importance. Furthermore, select and suitable material from the exhibition, as well as other project material, will be displayed at annual pop-up events organised by our home institutions to connect them with their neighbourhoods. In addition to embedding impact locally in the urban centres that form our case studies, our exhibition strategy will do the same in Leeds.

The project can also make a sustained difference to prevention strategies, potentially feeding through to national policy. The research will consider the ways in which burns knowledge evolved historically, through literature, newspapers, court records, and prevention and first-aid activities. Some innovative prevention strategies remain dormant because it is assumed we inhabit similar, modern homes, but given the diversity of housing stock in our three chosen cities; the project offers to inform and develop new prevention initiatives. Through our established and developing associations with local fire services these refreshed strategies will reach schoolchildren and workplaces. Project members will offer talks tailored sensitively to each audience. Fire prevention and basic first aid activities - building on our proven record of medical simulations created by MESH's former public-outreach officer Julia Hyland - will aim to engage such groups with the experience and treatment of burns in their own communities. We will commission Birmingham artist Sarah Silverwood Taylor to produce a graphic novel reconstructing and anonymising 4-6 stories from across the two centuries. The publication, as well as postcards and posters based on its illustrations, will be distributed through our fire service partners, primarily in schools in our three cities, and material will also be made available for digital download.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Graphic Novel story about Geoffrey Page, Guinea Pig 
Description Artist Sarah Silverwood Taylor has been hired to create several graphic novel stories based on burns we have recovered from the historical archives examined in our project. The first story was submitted in Dec. 2017 and covers the experiences of Geoffrey Page, a fighter pilot, who was burned when his Hurricane plane was shot down during the Battle of Britain. Page was involved in the establishment of the Guinea Pig Club, a mutual support group at East Grinstead Hospital. His story is particular inspirational, because he recovered and went on to fly again after the war. This story was chosen to encourage teens with whom we do artwork that there is a positive outcome following recovery for the burns injured. The story will be printed to be distributed at future school outreach events, but will also be downloadable online for teachers to access, and will be included in a fully downloadable teaching pack, which will be available by the end of the project. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact This first story has taught us much about working with artists, and our artist now better understands our project. The users of the graphic novel will also be learning more about historic burns and the way treatment has evolved, as well as the challenges and triumphs of patients with these injuries. 
URL https://forgedbyfiresite.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/interview-with-forged-by-fire-artist-sarah-taylor-...
 
Title Graphic Story No. 3 Pauline Gough 
Description The third story in our graphic novel was completed by project artist, Sarah Silverwood. The story covers the 1950s burns of then 7-year-old Pauline Gough, of Coventry. Pauline spent three years in Birmingham Accident Hospital and was chosen to be a poster girl for a national burns awareness campaign. As part of this event, we placed Pauline together with the Children's Burns Trust, who selected Pauline for a new poster campaign. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact Links with the Children's Burns Trust were further strengthened. 
URL https://www.cbtrust.org.uk/2019/05/20/from-the-girl-in-the-burning-dress-to-nan-burn-survivor-paulin...
 
Title Graphic Story No. 4 Queen Victoria Street Fire 
Description The fourth graphic story for our graphic novel was completed by Sarah Silverwood. The story covers the events of the 1902 Queen Victoria Street Fire in London, when 10 young employees of the General Electric Company died as a result of a fire breaking out in the offices of the GEC. The story was used to illustrate panels for our exhibition at the Museum of the Order of St John in London, Jan 2020. The story was also the subject given in an evening talk on 15 Jan. 2020 as part of the exhibition. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact The fire is better known that it was previously and the talk will now be written up as a publication from the project. 
URL http://museumstjohn.org.uk/events/professor-jonathan-reinarz-university-of-birmingham-lessons-from-a...
 
Title Graphic novel story No. 2: Glasgow Watson Street Fire 
Description The second of five graphic novel stories proposed in our project application has been completed by artist, Sarah Silverwood Taylor. The graphic novel was discussed as part of a paper presented at a Workshop held at the Maison Francaise, Oxford on 'Fires and Communities'. The story, like all others produced as part of this project, will be made available in a teaching pack that will be downloadable for teachers from the project website and will be used as part of engagement activities in school and as part of our other exhibitions. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact The project team was invited to speak at an event at the University of Birmingham organised by television presenter Alice Robert's Public Engagement Working Group about using graphic novels to bring your research to wider audiences. 
URL https://forgedbyfiresite.wordpress.com/2019/02/22/workshop-report-fires-and-communities-in-the-early...
 
Title Organized screening of The Firefighters Story documentary 
Description The Firefighters Story documentary (in which Co-I, Dr Shane Ewen, appears) was screened as part of Scalarama Film Festival and was followed by a Q&A session, at which Dr Ewen answered questions about the history of the fire service. After the film screening and talk, a plaque unveiling for Solomon Belinsky (for which Dr Ewen undertook the research research) took place at The Old Fire Station, Gipton, Leeds, Sept 2018. The event was reported in local and national newspapers and websites, including the Yorkshire Evening Post and BBC website. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact The event has resulted in a closer working relationship with the fire service and the event was also reported on the Fire Brigade Union's website (https://www.fbu.org.uk/news/2018/09/11/plaque-forgotten-blitz-hero-be-unveiled-leeds). 
URL https://www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk/news/plaque-for-forgotten-wartime-leeds-firefighter-1-9354881
 
Description Burns and burn injuries have been important moments in the forging of identity for individuals in Britain over the last two centuries. Burns treatment has also changed considerably and impacted on the identity of professionals and policy over this period. Medical advice has not however been consistent for very long periods of time expect for the last 50 years. Very many folk treatments therefore continue to circulate when it comes to burns. The most significant changes in treatment and policy appear to have followed iconic fires, not all of which have been adequately recognised in various local communities. These may be industrial, domestic, or fires that occurred during leisure activities outside the home.
Exploitation Route There have been many opportunities to work with burns charities and members of the fire services. We have fed into their educational programmes, helped raise awareness about regional burns tragedies and explored some alternative ways to communicate with school children and the public.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://forgedbyfiresite.wordpress.com
 
Description We have become increasingly closely linked to the Fire Service in our key cities. Not only are they represented on our steering committee, but we are now exploring more close working in terms of school talks and exhibitions.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Education,Healthcare,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description History & Policy op ed article online entitled 'Lessons from the Grenfell disaster: the historic failures of the state in fire safety'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact This article has contributed to public debates following the Grenfell Tower fire and has been reprinted in the Fire Brigades Union magazine (Aug-Sept 2017), as well as invitation to speak at consultation with Home Office.
URL http://historyandpolicy.org/opinon-articles/articles/lessons-from-the-grenfell-tower-disaster-the-hi...
 
Description Published policy paper on red tape and fire safety in Britain
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact This paper was the result of an invitation from the editors of History & Policy, a national network which aims to bring the work of scholars to the attention of policy makers. The paper has resulted in subsequent invitations to speak at events organised by History & Policy, as well as the fire service.
URL http://www.historyandpolicy.org/policy-papers/papers/why-red-tape-saves-lives-the-fire-service-tombs...
 
Description Talk at Home Office on 'The Rise of Fire Prevention since 1945'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact The talk was given at the invitation of the Home Office and covered historical examples of fires and prevention strategies in the communities at the heart of our 'Forged by Fire' project. In the context of Grenfell, examples were chosen which highlighted the impact of inequalities on fire prevention and safety in the home. The talk, delivered by Co-I, Dr Shane Ewen, received excellent feedback, including from the Head of the Home Office Fire Safety Unit, Rod McLean.
 
Description International Network for the History of Hospitals Conference, University of Barcelona 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter and Shane Ewen presented a paper entitled, 'Mobile Hospitals?: The Operation of Civilian Ambulance Services and the Provision of Emergency Medical care for Burns, c.1900-1930', Travel and the Hospital: From Pilgrimage to Medical Tourism, International Network for the History of Hospitals Conference, University of Barcelona, 24-26 April 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://bmdoyleblog.wordpress.com/2018/05/15/cfp-travel-and-the-hospital-from-pilgrimage-to-medical-...
 
Description Talk at History Seminar Series, Leeds Beckett University, 4 November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Aaron Andrews was an invited speaker, and gave a presentation, entitled 'Truth, Trust and Tragedy in Late Twentieth-Century Britain: the New Cross Massacre' at the History Seminar Series, Leeds Beckett University, 4 November 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 'Burns and First Responder Witness Seminar', Museum of the Order of St John, 27 January 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter organised a 'Burns and First Responder Witness Seminar', with Rosemary Cresswell and the AHRC-funded project 'Crossing Boundaries: The History of First Aid in Britain and France, 1909-1989' (grant number: AH/N003330/1), Museum of the Order of St John, 27 January 2020. The seminar gathered testimony from senior St John volunteers about first aid and life-saving.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 'Heroes, Burns and Top Trumps', Social History Society blog, July 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Aaron Andrews wrote a blog post, entitled 'Heroes, Burns and Top Trumps', which appeared on the Social History Society blog, July 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Appearance on Radio4 episode of The Long View 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Co-applicant Shane Ewen was invited to appear on Radio 4 programme The Long View. In the wake of Grenfell Tower fire, we identified a fire in a Glasgow boarding house at the start of the 20th century and made many comparisons between the Grenfell Tower fire and this earlier tragedy. The programme was first broadcast on 20 July 2017 and feedback has been very good and sustained, indicating that a very large audience heard the programme and appreciated the comparisons and findings from the project. The project team has been invited to be involved in another episode in future and we aim to identify another historic burn/fire, which will have contemporary relevance, such as acid attacks in the 19th century compared with contemporary attacks in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08y24f5
 
Description Article in Yorkshire Evening Post 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article in Yorkshire Evening Post about historical fire which triggered the introduction of modern fire safety campaigns.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk/your-leeds/nostalgia/leeds-nostalgia-the-terrible-christmas-fi...
 
Description Blog page for the 'Forged in Fire' project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project has set up a blog on Wordpress, which regularly publishes information, stories related to the project. We aim to post approximately 3 stories or posts a term.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL https://forgedbyfiresite.wordpress.com
 
Description Blog post for Railway Work, Life and Death project, published 20 January 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter published 'Romance is Dead: Glasgow Railway Workers, Burns and Hospital Treatment at the Cusp of the Twentieth Century', blog post for Railway Work, Life and Death project (University of Portsmouth): http://www.railwayaccidents.port.ac.uk/romance-is-dead-glasgow-railway-workers-burns-and-hospital-treatment-at-the-cusp-of-the-twentieth-century/, published 20 January 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.railwayaccidents.port.ac.uk/romance-is-dead-glasgow-railway-workers-burns-and-hospital-tr...
 
Description Co-applicant Shane Ewen appeared in Timeshift series 17 on BBC, episode 2, Blazes and Brigades: The Story of the Fire Service 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Co-applicant was interviewed on screen and spoke to a number of issues related to public safety and the fire service over a period of one hundred and fifty years in Britain. The programme was first broadcast nationally on 13 April 2017 and has led to several other interviews and invitations to publish blogs and articles online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08lvtz6
 
Description Co-convened workshop at the Maison Francaise d'Oxford on 'Fires and Communities' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Members of the Forged by Fire project attended a workshop on 'Fires and Communities in the Early-Modern and Modern Periods' at the Maison Française d'Oxford. Organised by Marie Thébaud-Sorger (MFO/French National Centre for Scientific Research) and Shane Ewen (Co-I of Forged by Fire, Leeds Beckett University), the event was the first in what we hope will be a series of conversations about the evolving relationship between fires and communities. It builds on our long-standing interest in individual fires, urban environmental history, and the history of science and technology, whilst also pointing towards emerging themes of materiality, care and the emotional response to great fires. The workshop was attended by leading urban historians from Europe and America and attendees specifically requested updates on the 'Forged by Fire' project because of its unique interdisciplinary and team approach to this subject.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://forgedbyfiresite.wordpress.com/2019/02/22/workshop-report-fires-and-communities-in-the-early...
 
Description Conference presentation: Woundcare4Heroes, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Reinarz was invited, following his RCP, London, presentation in July, to speak at the annual Woundcare4Heroes conference, which was held in Chelsea, London on 26 October 2017. Jonathan spoke about the importance of multidisciplinary teams in the treatment of burns historically to an audience that comprised mainly medical practitioners, and primarily nurses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.woundcare4heroes.org.ac.uk/education/events
 
Description Consultation on new exhibition at Army Medical Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact In December 2017, Jonathan Reinarz and Rebecca Wynter attended a steering committee meeting at the Army Medical Museum at Aldershot, Hampshire. The committee is advising the AMM on what their new exhibition space and content should look like. The team has encouraged aspects of its project, including the history of burns and their treatment in war, be included in the future permanent exhibition. The museum is visited by thousands of visitors each year, both from the military and the general public, and participating with ensure another aspect of the project will be disseminated to these public in an appropriate space. This was only the first of many meetings which will be held until the new exhibition space opens to the public in over a year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description History talk at junior school 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 40-minute presentation describing the work of a historian of medicine, focusing on the history of burns. During talk children were given an opportunity to wear burns applied by a make-up artists on the project (Julia Hyland) and we discussed issues such as stigma and operations for scars and disfigurement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://bournvillejunior.org.uk/2017/01/12/medical-historian-and-a-make-up-artist/
 
Description Inclusion in Huffington Post article of 2 March 2020 on New Cross Fire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Aaron Andrews, who has been researching the New Cross Fire and its place within the wider project, was interviewed for an article in the Huffington Post, entitled Black People's Day of Action: Inside the 1981 New cross Fire March that Brought Britain to a Standstill. The project is mentioned in the last sentences of the article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/new-cross-fire-black-peoples-day-of-action_uk_5e582608c5b6450...
 
Description Invitation to give lecture at Royal College of Physicians in London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 21 July 2017, Jonathan Reinarz delivered one of the formal lectures at the Royal College of Physicians in London describing the evolution of burns wound care over two centuries. The lecture was advertised in the Metro newspaper in London and attracted a very large audience as it occurred in the wake of the Grenfell Tower fire. The audience was comprised on medical practitioners, but also members of the general public, as well as many international tourists and guests, as it was held in London. The lecture was attended by approximately 200 people. The lecture fee was turned down and used to prompt collections at the end of the evening in support of the Grenfell survivors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/events/public-lecture-history-burns-and-their-treatment-intergrated-story...
 
Description Invited speaker at History of Medicine Seminar, University of Birmingham, 13 February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter was an invited speaker, talking about,"All the precautions in the world cannot prevent the occasional accident': Fire, Burns and Blame in the Asylum, 1800-1920' - History of Medicine Seminar, University of Birmingham, 13 February 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description LEBME conference, Leeds Beckett University, 16 May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Shane Ewen and Aaron Andrews presented a paper entitled 'Narratives of tragedy, community, and resilience: the Bradford City Football Club Fire, 1985', at the LEBME conference, Leeds Beckett University, 16 May 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Lecture at Thackray Museum, Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research Fellow Rebecca Wynter delivered a paper entitled 'Working with Conscience: Pacifism, the Friends' Ambulance Unit and the First World War' - Medicine and History Lecture Series, Thackray Medical Museum, Leeds, 2 December 2017. Paper covered first aid offered by the FA during wartime and highlighted Forged by Fire project and focused on burns medicine during the First World War.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2017
URL http://www.thackraymedicalmuseum.co.uk/getattachment/What-s-On/Medicine-History-Lecture-Series/260_T...
 
Description Paper at Annual History of Medicine Conference, Liverpool 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team presented a paper on the history of burns prevention strategies in the second half of the twentieth century at the main annual history of medicine conference in Britain (SSHM), which was held at Liverpool. Being the largest history of medicine event, the presentation had maximum exposure and generated interactions with scholars from a wide range of countries. A strategic link was formed with Ciara Breathnach from the University of Limerick, who researches the history of accidents in Ireland and a subsequent panel has been organised for the Canadian History of Medicine Conference (2019).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/history/events/sshm/
 
Description Paper at Children Trauma event, University of Warwick 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 19-20 April 2018, Project P-I, Reinarz and Co-I, Ewen, delivered a joint paper on burns prevention and the use of shock imagery at a two-day conference 'From Trauma to Protection: The Twentieth Century as the Children's Century. Papers were on subjects, including children's experiences of war, recovering children's voices and charitable support for vulnerable children. The paper presented by Reinarz and Ewen was selected for a publication coming out of the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/history/chm/events/childrenscentury/programme/
 
Description Paper presented at History of Emergency Medicine Conference, Huddersfield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team presented a paper at the AHRC-funded History of Emergency Medicine Conference held at the University of Huddersfield. The team reflected on first-aid for burns over the two hundred years of the project and were subsequently invited to contribute a chapter to the edited collection coming from the event to be edited by Prof. Barry Doyle and Dr Rosie Cresswell. The team also made a very important connection with the staff of the Museum of the Order of St John, London, who attended the event and will be partners for the project exhibition to be held at the museum in London in early 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://firstaidhistory.hull.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/History-of-Emergency-Medicine-Conferenc...
 
Description Paper to History Seminar at Swansea Univesity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project P-I was invited to present a paper as part of the History Department Seminar Series at Swansea University. The paper was entitled 'can a History Project Save Lives' and it generated a very interesting discussion, especially as the Wellcome-funded Cultural History of Coalfields project was part-based in Swansea. Additional important links were made with staff from the Burns Unit in Swansea, who attended the talk, as well as a retired general practitioner from Bradford who attended and made links to the Coroner in Bradford at the time of the Bradford Stadium Fire, who was subsequently interviewed for the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation in Panel on 'Regulation, Inspection and Risk' at Cambridge Festival of Ideas 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As a result of discussion and debate surrounding the Grenfell Fire, the Co-I, Dr Shane Ewen, was invited to be part of a panel on Regulation, Inspection and Extreme Risk' at the Cambridge Festival of Ideas. Although Dr Ewen was ill on the day, his paper was read by panel organiser, Prof. Simon Szreter, Editor of History & Policy. A podcast of the paper was made available and ensures the paper is given wider impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://soundcloud.com/history-policy/ewen-shane?in=history-policy/sets/regulation-inspection-and
 
Description Participation in a museum object workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Rebecca Wynter participated in a Birmingham Manufactures 'Objects-in-Focus' day in February 2018 at BMAG's Collections Centre at Duddeston, where scholars and members of he public were invited to draw items from the Museum Collection and present on these at the final workshop of the project on 29 March. Dr Wynter wrote an entry (for T. B. Wilkins, about a burn death that took place at the military ornament manufactuer) that will appear in the museum catalogue, which will be available to all participants and any other interested parties.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.birminghammuseums.org.uk/blog/posts/call-for-collaborators-birmingham-manufactures-and-wo...
 
Description Participation in sensory history workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project P-I, Jonathan Reinarz and RF, Dr Rebecca Wynter, were invited to attend and present at a funded workshop on the Senses and Hospitals. Jonathan Reinarz was invited to present a keynote paper on 'A Sensory History of the Burns Unit' and Reinarz and Wynter were invited to participate in a writing retreat and publication proposed to come out of this workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://hospitalsenses.wordpress.com/2017/04/30/blog-post-title-5/
 
Description Presentation at 'Anonymity: Past, Present and Futures Unknown' Workshop, an Institute of Advanced Studies event, University of Birmingham, 13-14 June 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Reinarz and Rebecca Wynter presented a paper entitled 'Burns, Surgery and Identity in Twentieth-Century Britain', presentation at 'Anonymity: Past, Present and Futures Unknown' Workshop, an Institute of Advanced Studies event, University of Birmingham, 13-14 June 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/ias/workshops/2019/Anonymity-Call-for-Abstracts.aspx
 
Description Presentation at 'Breast Cancer and Radiotherapy Burns', at University of Manchester meeting on 9-10 September 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter, participant in the'Remarking Cancer Network' at the University of Manchester. Presented on 'Breast Cancer and Radiotherapy Burns', at University of Manchester meeting on 9-10 September 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.manchester.ac.uk/collaborate/give/appeals/rewrite-cancer/
 
Description Presentation at European Association for the History of Medicine and Health, University of Birmingham, 27-30 August 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter and Shane Ewen presented a paper entitled, 'From Cantlie to Casualty: Developing a Sensible First Response for Burns in Britain, c.1900-1950', at the European Association for the History of Medicine and Health conference held at University of Birmingham, 27-30 August 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/mds/centres/eahmh/conferences/index.aspx
 
Description Presentation at The Hero and Heroism: Then, There, Now, Leeds Beckett University, 12-13 September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter presented a paper entitled 'England has many heroes, but none more brave than they: Asylum Staff, Life Saving, and the Colney Hatch Fire', with the panel submission 'The Imagined Hero and Villain? The Case of the Asylum, c.1888-1918', with Rob Ellis (University of Huddersfield) and Mark Butterfield (Leeds Beckett University), The Hero and Heroism: Then, There, Now, Leeds Beckett University, 12-13 September 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/events/school-events/the-hero-and-heroism/
 
Description Presentation to CSHM in Vancouver, May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Reinarz, Rebecca Wynter, and Shane Ewen presented a paper entitled, 'Going round in circles? Communicating Burns Prevention in post-Second World War Britain', panel submission 'Communicating Violent Death', with Ciara Breathnach (University of Limerick), Magda Fahrni (Université du Québec à Montréal), and chair Nicolas Kenny (Simon Fraser University), Joint Conference: Canadian Society for the History of Medicine & Canadian Association for the History of Nursing, 1-2 June 2019. The presentation was followed by a visit to a fire service museum in North Vancouver.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cshm-schm.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/70-cshm-schm-2019-05-16-FINAL.pdf
 
Description Presentatuion entitled ''Before Grenfell Tower: Fatal Fires and Community Resilience in Post-War Britain', Museum of the Order of St John, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Shane Ewen and Aaron Andrews gave a talk entitled ''Before Grenfell Tower: Fatal Fires and Community Resilience in Post-War Britain', at our project exhibition held at the Museum of the Order of St John, London. Audience included representatives from the Home Office's Fire and Resilience Directorate, Home Office civil servants (UK Fire and Resilience Directorate), so significant national reach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://museumstjohn.org.uk/events/dr-shane-ewen-leeds-beckett-university-before-grenfell-tower-fatal...
 
Description Project Blog on Wordpress 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Project Blog site was set up to cover a number of key developments and moments in the life of the project. These include papers delivered at conferences, trips to archives, anniversaries of iconic fires, the work of people on the team, etc. It will also be a lasting legacy of the project and brings to project into contact with ordinary members of the public interested in the subject of fires and burns in history.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL https://forgedbyfiresite.wordpress.com/
 
Description Public talk about history of burns project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project P-I spoke about the project to a general audience as part of the local Café Scientifique series. The talk, 'Can a History Project Save Lives' took place in a public house and generated a lively debate about fires, burns and local identity, especially as the project engages with burns tragedies such as the Birmingham Bombings. The title for the talk was intended to suggest history has real relevance outside academia, and has inspired further talks about the relevance of historical scholarship to policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://livebrum.co.uk/pure-bar/2018/09/04/cafe-scientifique
 
Description Public talk to accompany exhibition, Museum of the Order of St John, 22 January 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter and Jonathan Reinarz presented, 'Burns First Aid and the Search for Simplicity in Britain, c.1800-2000', a public talk to accompany exhibition, Museum of the Order of St John, 22 January 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://museumstjohn.org.uk/events/forged-by-fire-burns-injury-and-identity-in-britain-c-1800-2000/
 
Description Public talk to accompany exhibition, Museum of the Order of St John, 27 January 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Rebecca Wynter gave a talk entitled, 'Blunders, Blazes and Heroes: The 1903 Colney Hatch Asylum Fire' public talk to accompany exhibition, Museum of the Order of St John, 27 January 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://museumstjohn.org.uk/events/forged-by-fire-burns-injury-and-identity-in-britain-c-1800-2000/
 
Description Public talk: 'The New Cross massacre, truth and justice in Thatcher's Britain' at exhibition at Museum of the Order of St John, 29 January 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Aaron Andrews gave a public talk, entitled 'The New Cross massacre, truth and justice in Thatcher's Britain' at our project exhibition held at the Museum of the Order of St John, 29 January 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://museumstjohn.org.uk/events/dont-panic/
 
Description School Talk, King's Norton, 20 Nov. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A talk was given at King's Norton Boy's School, year 10 Medicine Through Time, Mr Williamson, covering the history of germ theory with connections to hospital infection and the history of burns in WWI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description School Talk, Painsley, Staffordshire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The P-I, Jonathan Reinarz and medical make-up artist, Julia Hyland, travelled to Painsley Sixth Form College in Painsley, Staffordshire to speak to approximately 30 members of the student Medical Society about burns injury in history. The talk involved students discussing burns injuries and stigma through the use of medical make-up. The students also read Benjamin Zephaniah's novel, Face, which deals with facial disfigurement through burns, and students were invited to submit a question to Benjamin Zephaniah about the novel when the team interviewed the novelist a few months later.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://forgedbyfiresite.wordpress.com/2019/02/11/interview-with-benjamin-zephaniah-to-mark-20th-ann...
 
Description School talk at Holly Lodge High School, Smethwick, Birmingham on 22 Nov. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A talk was given by Jonathan Reinarz at Holly Lodge High School Smethwick to three history classes covering Medicine Through Time, and involving medical make-up and linking with the burns project, considering issues including hospital infection, burns and disfigurement and stigma. Students were asked to report to teachers a number of additional issues related to stigma in classes run post-visit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description School visit (Studley Warwickshire) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The project team has an invitation to speak to secondary school history students in Studley, Warwickshire in Dec. 2017 and who were studying the history of the First World War. This opportunity was used to continue to hone our school talks and collaborate with our make-up artist, who is working on improving her burns make-up. A 2-hour talk and workshop session was run in which we covered the history of iconic fires in Britain, their medical impact and changes in treatment over two centuries. Some additional time was spent discussing the war and medicine in order to assist students in their revisions for an exam and several students were invited to wear burns make-up and discuss issues such as stigma, self-worth and other social impacts of burns.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://studleyhighschool.org.uk/curriculum/history/
 
Description Shane Ewen and Aaron Andrews organised 'Heroes and Heroism: Then, There and Now', Leeds Beckett University, 12-13 September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Shane Ewen and Aaron Andrews organised a workshop entitled 'Heroes and Heroism: Then, There and Now', at Leeds Beckett University, 12-13 September 2019. National. The workshop concluded with a first-aid demonstration and hands-on workshop delivered by West Yorkshire FRS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/events/school-events/the-hero-and-heroism/
 
Description Shane Ewen and Aaron Andrews worked with Saltaire Stories (Rachel Wood) to run Schools workshops: 'Bradford City Fire 1985: Tales of Heroism, Community and Resilience'. Telegraph & Argus, 5 Dec. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact In May & Nov. 2019, Shane Ewen and Aaron Andrews worked with Saltaire Stories (Rachel Wood), to run Schools workshops: 'Bradford City Fire 1985: Tales of Heroism, Community and Resilience'. The event was covered by Telegraph & Argus, 5 Dec. 2019. Four sessions totalling approx 75 students across 2 schools - Beckfoot Thornton Academy, Bradford and Hoyle Court Primary, Baildon, were involved. 15 students will be attending our Cultural Conversation lecture at Leeds town hall in May 2020, a follow-on event. We also recorded a podcast with the Beckfoot Thornton Y9 pupils who draw our graphic novels: http://player.broadcastradio.com/beckfoot-thornton-radio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.thetelegraphandargus.co.uk/news/18080109.beckfoot-thornton-school-makes-city-fire-graphi...
 
Description Shane Ewen presented a paper entitled 'Forged by Fire: Anonymity and the Bradford City Stadium Fire, May 11th 1985', Anonymity: Past, Present and Futures Unknown, University of Birmingham, June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Shane Ewen presented a paper entitled 'Forged by Fire: Anonymity and the Bradford City Stadium Fire, May 11th 1985', Anonymity: Past, Present and Futures Unknown, University of Birmingham, June 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/ias/workshops/2019/Anonymity.aspx
 
Description TV news interview on acid attacks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jonathan Reinarz was interviewed by online news programme madeinbhamtv to speak to rising number of acid attacks in both contemporary and historical contexts. The speaking head was included in the programme and was broadcast at 6pm on 28 April 2017 and then repeated at 9pm. There is an online archive of programmes, but photos of the filiming are included in tweets on Twitter, which were posted by the team and by the University of Birmingham medical office.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at Anonymity: Past, Present and Futures Unknown, University of Birmingham, 13-14 June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Aaron Andrews delivered a paper entitled 'The New Cross massacre, identity and belonging in Britain, 1981 to the present' at the IAS workshop Anonymity: Past, Present and Futures Unknown, University of Birmingham, 13-14 June 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/ias/workshops/2019/Anonymity.aspx
 
Description Talk at Ecoles des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales E.H.E.S.S., Marseille, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact EHESS organizes every year a "Social sciences and health" school for graduate students and postdocs. The topic of 2019 was "Hospitals and institutions of care in time of crisis and transformations". It addressed the centrality of hospitals in our health systems (North and South), their transformation in the past two decades, the rise of new management/forms of work and funding, the new commonalities of these patterns and discussions in the North and South in the context of austerity policies, etc. Jonathan Reinarz was invited as a keynote and delivered a talk entitled: 'Sensing the burns unit: the new sensory history of the hospital'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ehess.fr/fr/rencontres-scientifiques/institutions-soin-crises-et-transformations-aux-nor...
 
Description Talk at Humanities Centre, University of Tokyo, Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Reinarz was invited to be a summer scholar in-house and delivered a paper on his burns research at the Humanities Centre at the University of Tokyo in summer 2019. The talk was entitled 'Recording Atomic Flash Burns, Archiving and its Living Legacy'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://hmc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ja/open-seminar/2019/recording-atomic-flash-burns-archiving-and-its-living...
 
Description Workshop 'Anonymity: Past, Present and Futures Unknown' Workshop, an Institute of Advanced Studies event, University of Birmingham, 13-14 June 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Reinarz and Rebecca Wynter organised a workshop on the subject of 'Anonymity: Past, Present and Futures Unknown'. The workshop was not originally costed into the grant, so an application for funding was made to the Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Birmingham, who funded the event, which ran on 13-14 June 2019. The organisers will attempt to publish a selection of the papers in an edited collection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/ias/workshops/2019/Anonymity.aspx
 
Description •Jun/Jul. 2019: SE was Consultant Researcher, Fire Brigades Union Red Plaque Scheme for Firefighter Jeff Naylor, West Yorkshire Fire Service, plaque unveiled July 2019: He also wrote a piece about this for the Fire Brigades Union blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact in June/July 2019: Shane Ewen was Consultant Researcher, Fire Brigades Union Red Plaque Scheme for Firefighter Jeff Naylor, West Yorkshire Fire Service, plaque unveiled July 2019: He wrote a piece about this for the Fire Brigades Union. Press coverage: https://www.keighleynews.co.uk/news/17754754.plaque-unveiled-tribute-firefighter-died-keighley-house-blaze-photo-gallery/, https://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/people/plaque-be-unveiled-last-west-yorkshire-firefighter-die-active-duty-632938.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.fbu.org.uk/blog/remembering-quiet-hero