SIBA: Stone interchanges in the Bahama archipelago

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: School of Archaeology

Abstract

Stone tools are the hallmark of prehistoric settlements around the world: in the Caribbean, as elsewhere, they were essential for basic tasks (e.g., food processing, wood carving) and also fulfilled roles as prestige objects. Being entirely limestone islands, the vast Bahama (Lucayan) archipelago-comprising over 720 islands-is unique in the Caribbean in entirely lacking hard stone (flint, basalt, jadeitite). Was this lack of such a critical resource a contributing factor in their late settlement post-AD 600, despite being surrounded by islands with occupation going back millennia? And once settled, how was access to hard stone achieved, and what does this tell us about people's abilities to adapt to challenging environments?

Project SIBA ('stone' in Classic Taino dialect) aims to answer these questions by bringing together a multi-disciplinary group of leading researchers in a comprehensive study of the largest corpus of Lucayan stone artefacts ever assembled: >300 'exotics' held in 8 international museums. Our aim is to characterise the regional social networks that bound the Lucayan archipelago to the wider Caribbean region, and potentially to the continental mainland, and so provide an understanding of the creation and maintenance of indigenous exchange networks, and their concomitant economic, cultural and socio-political impacts. One direct means of exploring these issues is through the study of the imported material culture itself, including identifying each artefact's provenance through its diagnostic chemical and isotope 'signature' via state-of-the-art geochemical techniques. Distinctive iconography is a complementary means of 'sourcing' artefacts; conversely, the absence of convincing stylistic and petrological comparanda from neighbouring regions would imply the local reworking of stone in the creation of a distinctive Lucayan cannon, expanding understanding of local carving styles, which are themselves poorly known. The project remit works both at the micro- and macro-scale to explore the connections between people and the stones they worked, traded and valued. It aims to better understand resilience and sustainability in resource-poor island contexts, and to question the core-periphery relations that have dominated discourse in Bahamian archaeology.

Often seen both geographically and culturally as peripheral to the large-scale cacicazgos (chiefdoms) of the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas/TCI were initially (~AD 600) used as seasonal outposts by groups from Hispaniola and Cuba, to harvest the rich marine and salt resources. Permanent villages were only established around AD 1000. Initially, access to igneous or metamorphic stone was not an issue, because seasonal groups must have transported such basic necessities with them. Once permanent settlements were established, settlers likely maintained contact with their homeland for a variety of reasons, access to stone materials among them. Later, when independent polities emerged, an exchange network must have been established, with stone exotics imported not solely as necessities, but as valuables and high status goods used to differentiate the emerging Lucayan cacical (chiefly) hierarchies. Would these exchanges have echoed the original sources of the migrating group, or would the Lucayans have sought more far flung connections to emphasise their growing independence?

Working in collaboration with 8 project partner institutions, including the National Museums of both the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands, the project will provide the first comprehensive regional overview of stone interchanges within the Lucayan archipelago, integrating the region into Caribbean-wide discourse on exchange and interaction, and significantly augmenting artefact information, and so enhancing museums' abilities to display and interpret their collections to diverse audiences. The results will contribute directly to planned museum exhibits, workshops and educational outreach.

Planned Impact

Project benefits and beneficiaries range across a wide range of areas and remits:

1/Harnessing the potential of underutilised museum collections
Stone artefacts, such as celts, are among the most common artefacts in museum collections, whether from the Caribbean or Europe. Often recovered as surface finds-hence with little stratigraphic or contextual information-they frequently languish in museum shelves, sometimes dozens to a box, with at best cursory information when displayed at all. Yet there is great potential for these collections to contribute invaluable data to debates of past interactions/exchanges and value systems, through an engagement with their materiality (manufacture, style, material properties, etc.). Now, with the emergence of non-invasive techniques that can inform on provenance histories, the data collected can enhance museum records and displays, directly benefitting visitors, curators and researchers, while ensuring the best care for the artefacts. The research highlights the benefit of long-term museum care and storage of cultural patrimony, most especially of objects whose value is not immediately apparent due to the paucity of associated information. Bringing these little known collections to wider attention by utilising their inherent research potential goes some way to justify the investment of care that continues to go into their safe keeping, underscoring collections management, and enhancing institutional documentation and interpretation.

2/Making museum collections accessible to diverse audiences
Web and museum-based exhibits are planned project outputs, with workshops and associated outreach activities aimed at a range of audiences-from school groups/college students to the general public. Institutions within both the Bahamas (Antiques, Monuments and Museums Corporation [AMMC], Gerace Research Centre, College of The Bahamas) and Turks and Caicos (Turks and Caicos National Museum [TCNM]) have expressed particular interest in making the results accessible to their diverse audiences-both local and international. This will have a variety of impacts-from exhibits in the 'out' islands and using local collections to enhance school curriculums to contributing to more informed tourism (economically critical to the Bahamas/TCI).

3/Building collaborative links (multi-institutional, cross-disciplinary)
The project develops collaborative networks between colleagues in diverse international venues, including eight museums (four of which are national museums: TCNM, AMMC, National Museum of the American Indian, and National Museum of Natural History), and two academic institutions (Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands; Universidad de Granada, Spain). The project partner museums and cultural organisations are the direct stakeholders in the project, and through them, their local, target audiences as well as the wider international community, including academic as well as public sector beneficiaries (e.g., Caribbeanists, archaeologists, Bahamian/TCI diaspora). Working in collaboration with these various stakeholders bridges different sectors and their remits, enhancing information across regional boundaries and disciplines.

4/The value of cultural heritage (policy and practice)
The project has the full support of the AMMC and TCNM (both project partners in the study), who advise their governments on archaeological and cultural heritage management and protection. Raising wider public awareness of these artefacts, and through them, of the Lucayan past, works to enforce the importance of local Bah/TCI heritage, which in turn, can impact on future public policy and legislation for cultural resource management. There is a need to do this, as indigenous heritage is not as prominent, and perhaps not as valued, as aspects of the historic, colonial past - and tourist industry development on the islands has had a history of destroying archaeological sites largely unimpeded.
 
Title Additional illustrations for education package and publications 
Description In addition to the 10 illustrations depicting specific aspects of Lucayan life that were part of the educational package (reported for 2019), an additional 5 illustrations were commissioned from artist and scientific illustrator Merald Clark. Based on feedback, these focused on areas of material culture and events that were important to visualise for broad audiences, from the construction of ceremonial artefacts such as the duho, to everyday items, such as the hammock, to agricultural practices and finally, the first moment of Lucayan/European contact, which occurred on 12 October 1492 with Columbus's visit to Guahahani (today's San Salvador). 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact These have only been released on the project's web pages, and will feature in the volume Lucayan Legacies: Indigenous life ways in The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands (estimated publication date: fall 2022, Sidestone Press), but it is anticipated that the images will be a significant educational tool not only for local schools, but for wider public and academic engagement with the prehistory of The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/educational-resources
 
Title Bead-makers 
Description This illustration, created for project SIBA by artist Merald Clark, depicts the stages of shell bead production. The dedicated web page provides the following caption: "In the busy village, in the shade of a simple shelter, two beadmakers ply their craft. They have a journey in two days time to a neighbouring island, and are working to create sufficient red beads - made from Chama sarda (cherry jewel box clam) - for trade. They have already prepared large batches of white and black beads, a few of which are loosely strung on cord in the small gourd bowl in the foreground. On the right, a man positions the bead blank (an un-perforated disk) on a wooden plank, before working the pump drill to create the central hole for each bead. Beside him is a second drill pump as well as additional drill bits, for when the drill in use gets dull. On the left, the second man holds a finished bead up to the light, to check its colour and finish. He has just been polishing it, together with the other strung beads. In his right hand he has a finished string of perfectly symmetrical beads that he uses as quality control. A small bowl of beads that have passed his critical review is at his feet. Their hard work is creating a product that will be appreciated and valued by their neighbours to the south. In the background, the women prepare cassava for the evening meal (see details in "Cassava and mischief"). The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has three worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/8-bead-makers
 
Title Beyond the everyday 
Description This evocative illustration, created by artist Merald Clark for SIBA's educational package, focuses on Lucayan histories, stories and myths. Unfortunately no Lucayan legends were recorded in early Spanish accounts, or otherwise passed down to us, so we can never know the details of their stories. But it is important to engage with these unknowns; it helps to acknowledge the undoubtedly rich tapestry of their traditions. The dedicated web page featuring this illustration has interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted; it also has five worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/10-beyond-everyday
 
Title Canoe builders 
Description This illustration, created for SIBA's educational output by artist Merald Clark, depicts [caption from dedicated web page] "the later stages of canoe manufacture, with six men working on a 10 meter-long 'expedition' canoe, to be used for travel and trade to neighbouring islands. This is not the largest canoe known from the Caribbean region, which reportedly reached nearly 30 meters in length and held over 60 people - nor the smallest, which were only large enough for one canoeist; but it is a good size for voyages between neighbouring trade hubs. The hard work of felling a tall, straight tree with a sufficiently thick trunk, and dragging it to the edges of the water is now over, and the equally hard work of adzing out the heartwood to make a light, sea-going canoe is underway. After propping the long trunk on supports that serve to raise it to a good working height, they progress through several stages, each requiring woodworking skill and the technical knowledge of the wood's strengths and limitations. The scene is set out to provide an overview for key carving phases; these progressed in sequence - from (left to right) the charring of the interior prior to the scraping and final decorative carving. On the left three men work to control the fire they built within the tree trunk, while on the right, a further three excavate the canoe's charred interior. The prow is carved in an elegant, semi-lunar design, inspired by the prow of a canoe recovered from Stargate Blue Hole, Andros." The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has three worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/6-canoe-builders
 
Title Cassava 
Description This illustration, created specifically for SIBA's educational outreach, depicts the labour involved in making the Lucayan staple - cassava bread. The dedicated web page provides the following caption: "The scene shows a typical working day for women processing bitter manioc (Manihot esculenta) into the round cassava breads that were a staple of Lucayan diet. In the right foreground, large basketry containers hold manioc tubers, scraped clean and ready for the grater board, which the kneeling woman is working with. The resulting pulp is passed to the standing woman who packs it into a long, woven tube before hanging it from the wooden frame beside her. She will pass the Y-shaped pole (currently tied to the framework) through the tube's bottom loop; when she presses down upon it, the tube tightens around the manioc pulp, squeezing its poisonous juices out into the ceramic bowls at her feet. What is left is raw flour, which is ground and sifted, before being passed to the women cooking in the nearby shelter. The flour is spread thinly over a griddle and toasted on both sides before being put onto the thatched rooftop to cool. A pair of parrots (guacamayas) and dogs (aon) keep the women company as they work - both were kept as pets by the Lucayans. This scene would have been a regular, potentially daily, occurrence, from processing the manioc roots to making the fresh, toasted bread, to the pleasant social interactions and distractions that made light the work." The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has six worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/3-cassava-and-mischief
 
Title Field Gardens 
Description This illustration, created by artist Merald Clark for SIBA's educational package, focuses on Lucayan gardens. These were filled with the most immediately useful plants - such as herbs, medicines and fruits - and were planted in close proximity to their houses. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) and other useful trees - such as Bixa orellana (its fruits used to create red pigment for body painting) and Crescentia or Lagenaria (which produced gourds) - would also be located close by. Larger gardens for crops including manioc (Manihot esuelenta Cranz), maize (Zea mays L.), coontie (Zamia sp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea botatas L.) - not to mention chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) - may have been located on the periphery of the villages, in suitable fields. Various combinations of these plants were likely grown together in mutually beneficial companion plantings, which not only increased yields and provided diverse crops at different seasons but reduced weed growth. This illustration shows manioc, maize and chilis growing together. When the first settlers came to the Lucayan archipelago, they brought with them useful root and seed crops (e.g., manioc, maize, chilies, squash) and over the years these species were absorbed into the local landscape, becoming 'wild' in abandoned plots. This illustration, one of five created during the 2021 Covid lockdowns, works to enhance the project's educational visuals/information, and is intended for use in local Bahamian and TCI schools, and by the wider public and academic communities. Its dedicated web page features worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers and students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers, as can the wider public and scholarly community. The illustrations will also feature in a soon to be published book (est. fall 2022) focusing on Lucayan culture, entitled Lucayan Legacies: Indigenous Lifeways in The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands (Sidestone Press). 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/12-field-gardens
 
Title Fisherfolk 
Description This illustration, created for SIBA's educational package by artist Merald Clark, depicts Lucayan fishing practices. The dedicated web page provides the following caption: "Three divers are in the water spearfishing in the sun-dappled shallows, while two wait in the canoe at the water's surface for the catch to come in. One diver has speared a parrotfish, while another holds a conch aloft as he swims closer to the canoe. The diver on the right faces out to the viewer, reaching for the conch spotted among the turtle grass. He holds in his hand a fishing harpoon, tipped with a stingray spine. In the distance, a curious turtle surveys the scene, and a variety of fish, including grouper, snapper and grunts, circle cautiously in the periphery. Remains of these mammals, fish and shellfish have been recovered from Lucayan archaeological sites, and were consumed as part of the local diet - as grouper, snapper and conch still are today. The Lucayans, above all other indigenous Caribbean groups, were renowned for their diving skills - a fact not lost on the Spanish who, during the very early colonial period, enslaved them for work at their pearl fisheries off the coast of Venezuela. They were forced to dive for pearls with little rest and under dangerous conditions; many died as a result. The underwater scene therefore links two threads - showing traditional life and hunting skills and touching upon how these skills were taken advantage of by the colonisers." The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the fish and highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has three worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/4-fisherfolk
 
Title Illustrations for educational package 
Description Illustrations depicting specific aspects of Lucayan life, as informed by the results of the SIBA project as well as the wider archaeology of the Lucayan region (The Bahamas/Turks and Caicos Islands), have been commissioned for inclusion in the project's educational output - including school packs and posters. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact As part of the project's educational initiative, the illustrations will enhance the information made available to island schools - through posters, information packages and web content (through the SIBA project web pages). In collaboration with the National Museums of The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands, over 220 schools will be targeted. 
 
Title Island Exchanges 
Description This image illustrates the exchange of stone celts, the focus of project SIBA. The web page provides the following caption: "A Hispaniolan (Taíno) emissary presents a siba (stone celt) to the Lucayan cacique (chief), who welcomes him to his village with an entourage of family members ceremonially painted and attired in a rich variety of stone and shell bead body ornaments (including belts, naguas - women's aprons, necklaces and ear flares). The emissary has come to offer in trade the stone artefacts from his village - not available in the Lucayan archipelago - for the small shell beads so expertly made in the region. The ceremonial nature of this exchange underscores that these inter-island connections were not simply about accessing materials and artefacts, but about the social connections that bound people together in these long-distance networks." The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has four worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/1-island-exchanges
 
Title Islands harvest 
Description This illustration, created for project SIBA by artist Merald Clark, focuses on some of the foods that the Lucayans consumed. The dedicated web page provides the following caption: "As the light begins to fade after a long day, preparation begins for the evening feast. A bountiful harvest has been brought together to feed the community and their visitors. From the land, iguana, hutia, cassava/manioc and maize have been collected; from the sea, parrotfish, lobster, conch and barracuda. Some of these delicacies are being barbequed; the man carefully stokes the fire below a traditional barbacoa (a Taíno/Arawak term, which we still use today: barbecue) made of fresh, green wood. Beside him, a woman kneels before a pepper pot, stirring the thick manioc-derived broth filled with meat and gathered plants and domesticated crops, including hot pepper or chili. These cooked foods take time to process, and are enhanced by grilling or long stewing; in contrast, fruits (not shown) were - then as now - enjoyed fresh. The islands provided a bounty for skilled Lucayan fishers, gatherers and farmers - from the turquoise waters teaming with fish, to the intertidal filled with molluscs and crabs, to the land with wild and domesticated plants and small land animals. These, however, were not inexhaustible resources - a careful balance was needed in order to ensure this bounty continued for future generations. The same can be said now." The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has five worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/5-islands-harvest
 
Title Journey's End 
Description This illustration, created for SIBA by artist Merald Clark, depicts a small Lucayan group returning from Hispaniola with a selection of trade goods. The information on the dedicated web pages notes the following: "The lead canoeist signals to the gathering crowd on the beach upon his group's return from a successful trading voyage to Hispaniola (Dominican Republic/Haiti). Behind him, the canoe is laden with goods and the paddlers covered with ceremonial body paint to honour a safe return. All are relieved to return home after the long voyage, which has taken several days of hard paddling. The cargo will be valuable stock (hutias, parrot, maize, cassava) and trade goods (ceramics, stone celts and ornaments, macaw feathers) for the next year. Trade: food, goods When Columbus first arrived in the Lucayan archipelago in 1492, he noted that the Lucayans were very eager to trade with the Spanish, offering javelins (possibly fish spears), parrots and cotton (and, likely, cotton goods) in trade. Salt may have been a commodity, and shell beads - which were produced in bulk at some sites - were also exported. These were some of the items they likely traded south, to their neighbours in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic/Haiti) and Cuba. In exchange they received stone artefacts - likely finished celts and ornaments - that could not be made in the region because there was no suitable hard stone on the limestone islands of The Bahamas and TCI. They also acquired ceramics quite different in style to the locally produced Palmetto ware (see "Palmetto Potters"); these can be identified by their different clay tempers, different shapes and designs, with the handles often modelled in the shape of animal and human heads (these handles are called adornos). Dress: a note on body painting All the canoeists - both men and women - feature full body painting in combinations of red and black. The red pigment is derived from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana); the black designs are painted with seeds of the genip tree (Genipa americana). This was another way of dressing the body for a variety of reasons - from special occasions such as feasts and ceremonies, to every day ornament. The early Spanish accounts mention that the people would be painted in a wide variety of ways - likely entirely down to the preference of the individual, or the skills of the artists who painted them (in contemporary South American indigenous cultures, it is usually the women who paint their husbands and children). Columbus, for example, noted that on Hispaniola, a man "had his face all stained with charcoal, although everywhere they are accustomed to staining themselves in different colours". Body painting was not simply for aesthetics: it offered protection from the sun and mosquitos. In this scene, the full body paint not only protects the canoeists from the scorching sun, but it is an expression that celebrates the successful completion of the long journey. Even the dog is painted for the arrival home!" The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has five worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers and/or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/2-journeys-end
 
Title Palmetto potters 
Description This illustration, created for project SIBA by artist Merald Clark, documents the production of local ceramics. The dedicated web page provides the following caption: "Two sisters take advantage of the cool morning to work on a set of new pottery bowls. The woman on the right uses the end of a thin reed to decorate the rim edge of a finished, small bowl while her sister, at centre, is working to smooth a large coiled vessel. Her daughter sits next to her, kneading the dense clay and adding burnt shell to the mixture to make the unique paste that distinguishes the pottery of The Bahamas, known today as Palmetto Ware. A set of freshly made bowls and a cassava griddle lie on mats and in basketry frames - the patterns from their weave will be impressed into the ceramic bases as a permanent record of these fragile, organic arts that do not survive the passage of time (unlike ceramics). Behind them is a pile of firewood ready for the next stage in the manufacturing process: the firing of the ceramics to harden the clay and make the vessels useable - but with storm clouds gathering on the distant horizon, the firing may need to be postponed until the afternoon." The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has four worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/9-palmetto-potters
 
Title SIBA Illustrations featured in Turks and Caicos National Museum exhibition 
Description Illustrations commissioned as part of the SIBA education package are featured in the permanent gallery space dedicated to the Lucayans. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact Based on the latest research into the Lucayan past, the commissioned illustrations provide a fresh, insightful and engaging way in which a wide audience (from school kids to the general public to academics) can explore island prehistory. The images are featured in a display panel discussing Lucayan trade networks, and contextualise some of the artefacts on display in the gallery. 
URL https://www.tcmuseum.org/culture-history/lucayans/
 
Title The Duho Carver 
Description This illustration, created by artist Merald Clark for SIBA, features a Lucayan artist carving a duho, or ceremonial chair. His toolkit, consisting of a hafted axe and adze, along with extra blades made of imported jadeite stones, is laid out next to him on a woven cotton cloth. The wood chips from the carving, which has taken months of work, litter the ground below the plaited mat. He takes his time in working the surface of the duho with a smoothing stone - one of the many careful, final touches necessary to ensure a fine finish and lustre. His investment of time, and the quality of the carving, will reflect well on his community when the duho is used by the cacique (chief) during important events, such as hosting visiting dignitaries. These seats were the prerogatives of caciques, reflecting their wealth, connection and power - and their abilities to commission talented artists. The duho illustrated is directly inspired by one recovered in the 19th century from a cave near the Blue Hills Settlement, Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands. It shows some of the characteristic features of Lucayan duhos: long, low back terminating in a square tip, tall, cylindrical legs, anthropomorphic/zoomorphic heads and bodies, elaborate two-dimensional designs, and shell or gold inlays for eyes, mouth and arm joints. This illustration, one of five created during the 2021 Covid lockdowns, works to enhance the project's educational visuals/information, and is intended for use in local Bahamian and TCI schools, and by the wider public and academic communities. Its dedicated web page features worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers and students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers, as can the wider public and scholarly community. The illustrations will also feature in a soon to be published book (est. fall 2022) focusing on Lucayan culture, entitled Lucayan Legacies: Indigenous Lifeways in The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands (Sidestone Press). 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/11-duho-carver
 
Title Use of SIBA images in media and publicity: related Lucayan projects 
Description SIBA's illustrations have been requested as visuals to illustrate various publications - including popular local magazines (Times of the Islands), web pages dedicated to Lucayan archaeology (https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/science/ancient-dna-retells-story-of-caribbeans-first-people/; https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/science/clear-as-mud-the-origins-of-early-pottery-in-the-lucayan-islands/) and the international media following Lucayan archaeological discoveries (https://ewnews.com/bahamian-researchers-contribute-to-groundbreaking-study-on-ancient-dna-in-the-caribbean; https://www.uniroma1.it/en/notizia/ancient-dna-tells-story-caribbean-europeans-arrival; https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-9086821/First-Caribbean-inhabitants-wiped-invaders-South-America-1-000-years-Columbus.html) 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact There is a growing public and scholarly awareness of these illustrations, and they are finding various uses spanning both popular and academic outputs. That the images can be used for such seemingly diverse audiences reflects their versatility. 
URL https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/invaders-nearly-wiped-out-caribbeans-first-people...
 
Title Weavers 
Description This illustration, created for project SIBA's educational output by artist Merald Clark, focuses on one of two possible techniques of weaving hammocks. The dedicated web page provides the following caption: "On a quiet morning, by the side of the bohio (house), an elder weaves a hammock in the company of her granddaughter. The loom she uses is simple, but efficient: a combination of smooth wooden slats and battens, well worn over the many years of use, strung with well carded cotton yarn. When not in use, the loom framework and tools will be bundled together and tucked away into the house rafters until the next hammock or nagua (woman's apron) needs to be woven for a family member. She's about to thread a new strand of cotton into the weave with a bobbin thick with cotton yarn, when the play of her pet pup and parrot catches her eye. They've made her spindle whorl into a toy, and are playing with the loose cotton string. It's a good thing her granddaughter is spinning new yarn - they'll need much cotton to complete the hammock, particularly if strands get lost to play. Despite the pleasant distractions of the day, the cotton hammock begins to take shape in her expert hands. It will take some months to complete the work. Her granddaughter, who wears the fine nagua and new armbands her grandmother wove for her as a gift when she came of age, watches and learns, honing her own skills - she is the next generation of family weavers." The web page features interactive pop ups that provide further information on the highlighted artefacts depicted in the illustration; it also has five worksheets (colouring in pages) that teachers or students can download for school activities focusing on the indigenous populations of the Lucayan archipelago. The same image also appears on school posters, to facilitate in-class teaching. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Teachers and students can directly interact with the content from their home or school computers. With virtual teaching during the Covid lockdowns, this has been a useful resource. 
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/7-weavers
 
Description The results of the project (anticipated to be in press in 2022/23) will directly inform a wide variety of sectors - from cultural (museums, and their audiences) to educational (inform on school curriculums). Meetings with the direct stakeholders - the national museums of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands as well as representative from the Bahamas Ministry of Education - were held in Nassau, Bahamas in August 2017, in order to establish a schedule for the educational element central to the project's outreach aims. Two further workshops were held in August 2018 and January 2020, which further refined and clarified the content of the educational pack. Over the course of 2019, illustrator briefs for 10 images, commissioned from the artist Merald Clark, were circulated to a panel of stakeholders (the AMMC, TCNM, The Bahamas Ministry of Education) and regional archaeology experts; the feedback was unanimously positive. The project dissemination focuses on posters and detailed teachers packages, which were sent to The Bahamas/TCI in June 2020, and will be provided to 220 schools across the two island nations one the course of 2021/22; in this way, SIBA results will feed directly into the development of the new curriculum, and will provide teachers with the resources to teach modules on the regions' early inhabitants. The results are still being collated, with the first priority to report them to the institutions whose collections have been the focus of our studies, followed by a planned sequence of publications that are anticipated in 2022/23 (delayed due to Covid).
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Official receipt of SIBA posters and teachers' guides by The Bahamas Ministry of Education
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Although still in early stages, particularly given the continuing impact of Covid, feedback suggests that the educational resources have already been taken up by schools in the region via the on-line materials (https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/educational-resources). Powerpoint presentations were also provided to The Bahamas Ministry of Education in time for the restart of in-class teaching in October 2021, particularly for the history module which focused on the Lucayans and the Columbus voyage of 1492.
 
Description SIBA educational package provided to Turks and Caicos National Museum
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Although still in early stages, particularly given the continuing impact of Covid, feedback suggests that the educational resources have already been taken up by schools in the region via the on-line materials (https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/educational-resources). The dissemination of the posters/teacher's guides has been highlighted in the museum's newsletters, and the curator has personally delivered the packages and done an in-class presentation using the powerpoints which feature the images and information.
 
Description ESRC IAA Strategic Impact Capacity Building Fund
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ESRC IAA Strategic Impact Capacity Building Fund 
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description NERC Radiocarbon Facility/NRCF
Amount £21,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NF/2018/1/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Department NERC Radiocarbon Facility (Environment)
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 06/2020
 
Title SIBA: Photographic inventories of museum collections 
Description Extensive photographic inventories were taken during each museum research visit, not only to provide a clear artefact record for the purposes of the research project (from entire artefact documentation to details such as carving scars, resin/adhesive remains, pitch staining, etc.), but to provide as detailed a record of the condition of the artefacts for the museums involved. The project generated over 20,000 images, with up to 6 views of each study artefact. Composite artefact images showing multiple views of each artefact have been forwarded to all participating museums. Where applicable, these are to be featured on the institution's web pages, and as part of their database inventories and collection documentation (e.g., Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The photographic inventories serve both to document the condition of each artefact (and as such are relevant to the artefact's history files), as well as a visual record for the purposes of database inventories (which, in some museums, are not yet fully established). As such, sharing these visual records with the museums involved has immediate and future impact for their collection documentation aims. 
 
Title SIBA: data reports for participating institutions 
Description The results from the project have all now been submitted to the participating institutions as a permanent record for their history files; this is the first stage in the dissemination process. Through the course of 2020, Prof. Antonio García-Casco, of the Universidad de Granada, and the lead on the EPMA/SEM analysis within the SIBA project, has produced detailed reports summarising the results for the National Museum of Natural History and National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian, Washington, DC; American Museum of Natural History, New York; Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT; Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, MA. The results from the laser ablation/trace element and isotope analyses, lead by Prof. Gareth Davies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, were submitted over the course of 2021 to all participating museums (the National Museum of The Bahamas (AMMC), Nassau, The Bahamas; the American Museum of Natural History, New York; the National Museum of the American Indian and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven; the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge). The wider dissemination of the results through publications is now (2022) underway. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The data reports serve to identify the material the artefacts are carved from, and their possible source of origin; they are a detailed overview of the analyses undertaken with each artefact to build a comprehensive contextual and provenience record which benefits the artefact's history files in each participating institution. Sharing this information with the museums involved has immediate and future impact for their collection documentation aims. 
 
Description Antiques Monuments and Museum Corporation, Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas 
Organisation Antiquities Monuments and Museums Corporation
Country Bahamas 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The project's study of the pre-Columbian stone artefacts in the collections of the AMMC provides detailed information to the museum for their long-term records - from extensive photography to thorough material identification (via laser ablation and, for selected artefacts, EPMA/SEM). Together with the artefact studies completed on the collections of other project partner institutions, the results collectively build a detailed picture of the networks that bound the Lucayan archipelago to the wider Caribbean region - benefitting all partners in their interpretation of their collections for their visiting public.
Collaborator Contribution The AMMC enabled access to relevant collections for the project team, providing a dedicated work space for the study, the support of their staff in finding artefacts in the museum store, and permissions to analyse the selected artefacts with various techniques.
Impact Anticipated: integration of results into displays, catalogues and web pages; curriculum education packages and school posters; national and international publications
Start Year 2017
 
Description Gerace Research Center, San Salvador, Bahamas 
Organisation Gerace Research Center
Country Bahamas 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The project's study of the pre-Columbian stone artefacts in the collections of the Gerace Research Center provides detailed information to the Center for its long-term records - from extensive photography to thorough material identification (via pXRF, laser ablation and, for selected artefacts, EPMA/SEM). Together with the artefact studies completed on the collections of other project partner institutions, the results collectively build a detailed picture of the networks that bound the Lucayan archipelago to the wider Caribbean region - benefitting all partners in their interpretation of their collections for their visiting public.
Collaborator Contribution The GRC supported a visit of Bahamian archaeologists Drs. Mary Jane Berman and Perry Gnivecki, to select and then courier relevant artefacts from the GRC on San Salvador to the AMMC in Nassau, New Providence for the study.
Impact Anticipated: integration of results into displays and web pages; national and international publications
Start Year 2017
 
Description National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA 
Organisation National Museum of Natural History
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The project's study of the pre-Columbian stone artefacts in the collections of the NMNH provides detailed information to the museum for their long-term records - from extensive photography to thorough material identification (via pXRF, laser ablation and, for selected artefacts, EPMA/SEM). Together with the artefact studies completed on the collections of other project partner institutions, the results collectively build a detailed picture of the networks that bound the Lucayan archipelago to the wider Caribbean region - benefitting all partners in their interpretation of their collections for their visiting public.
Collaborator Contribution The NMNH enabled access to relevant collections for the project team, providing a dedicated work space for the study, the support of their staff in taking pieces out of storage or off display, and permissions to analyse the selected artefacts with various techniques.
Impact Anticipated: integration of results into displays, catalogues and web pages; national and international publications
Start Year 2017
 
Description National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA 
Organisation Smithsonian Institution
Department National Museum of the American Indian
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The project's study of the pre-Columbian stone artefacts in the collections of the NMAI provides detailed information to the museum for their long-term records - from extensive photography to thorough material identification (via pXRF, laser ablation and, for selected artefacts, EPMA/SEM). Together with the artefact studies completed on the collections of other project partner institutions, the results collectively build a detailed picture of the networks that bound the Lucayan archipelago to the wider Caribbean region - benefitting all partners in their interpretation of their collections for their visiting public.
Collaborator Contribution The NMAI enabled access to relevant collections for the project team, providing a dedicated work space for the study, the support of their staff in taking pieces out of storage or off display, and permissions to analyse the selected artefacts with various techniques.
Impact Anticipated: integration of results into displays, catalogues and web pages; national and international publications
Start Year 2017
 
Description Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA 
Organisation Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The project's study of the pre-Columbian stone artefacts in the collections of the PMAE provides detailed information to the museum for their long-term records - from extensive photography to thorough material identification (via pXRF, laser ablation and, for selected artefacts, EPMA/SEM). Together with the artefact studies completed on the collections of other project partner institutions, the results collectively build a detailed picture of the networks that bound the Lucayan archipelago to the wider Caribbean region - benefitting all partners in their interpretation of their collections for their visiting public.
Collaborator Contribution The PMAE enabled access to relevant collections for the project team, provided a dedicated work space for the study, the support of their staff in taking pieces out of storage and off display, and permissions to analyse the selected artefacts with various techniques.
Impact Anticipated: integration of results into displays, catalogues and web pages; national and international publications
Start Year 2017
 
Description Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, USA 
Organisation Peabody Museum of Natural History
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The project's study of the pre-Columbian stone artefacts in the collections of the PMNH provides detailed information to the museum for their long-term records - from extensive photography to thorough material identification (via pXRF, laser ablation and, for selected artefacts, EPMA/SEM). Together with the artefact studies completed on the collections of other project partner institutions, the results collectively build a detailed picture of the networks that bound the Lucayan archipelago to the wider Caribbean region - benefitting all partners in their interpretation of their collections for their visiting public.
Collaborator Contribution The PMNH enabled access to relevant collections for the project team, providing a dedicated work space for the study, the support of their staff in taking pieces out of storage or off display, and permissions to analyse the selected artefacts with various techniques.
Impact Anticipated: integration of results into displays, catalogues and web pages; national and international publications
Start Year 2017
 
Description Turks and Caicos National Museum, Cockburn Town, Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands 
Organisation Turks and Caicos National Museum
Country Turks and Caicos Islands 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The project's study of the pre-Columbian stone artefacts in the collections of the TCNM provides detailed information to the museum for their long-term records - from extensive photography to thorough material identification (via pXRF, laser ablation and, for selected artefacts, EPMA/SEM). Together with the artefact studies completed on the collections of other project partner institutions, the results collectively build a detailed picture of the networks that bound the Lucayan archipelago to the wider Caribbean region - benefitting all partners in their interpretation of their collections for their visiting public.
Collaborator Contribution The TCNM enables access to relevant collections for the project team, providing a dedicated work space for the study, the support of their staff in taking pieces off display, and permissions to analyse the selected artefacts with various techniques.
Impact Anticipated: integration of results into displays; contribution to the school curriculum via education packages and posters; national and international publications
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Granada, Granada, Spain 
Organisation University of Granada
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution SIBA facilitates access to relevant artefacts for the EPMA/SEM study.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Garcia-Casco is a leading expert in the field of Caribbean petrology, and is undertaking the EPMA/SEM study as part of this project.
Impact Anticipated: integration of results into displays, catalogues and web pages; national and international publications
Start Year 2017
 
Description A conference presentation by Alice Knaf at the European Association of Archaeologists, Bern, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation by Alice Knaf regarding SIBA methodologies and preliminary results, entitled 'A provenance study of Lucayan pre-colonial jadeite celts: unraveling mobility networks in the Greater Caribbean), with co-authors Ostapkowicz and Davies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRXFrJyOSoA
 
Description A conference presentation by Professor Davies at The International Association for Caribbean Archaeology, Barbados from July 21 - 27, 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Present preliminary outcome of the SIBA project and to make active Caribbean around the world aware of the methodological developments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://blogs.uoregon.edu/iaca/41-2/
 
Description Conference paper - Society of American Archaeology, Albuquerque [2019]; Ostapkowicz 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A paper on "Function and Ceremony: Lucayan adzes, axes and celts" was an invited contribution presented by Ostapkowicz at the session "Advances in the Archaeology of the Bahama Archipelago", held at the Society of American Archaeology conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference paper - Society of American Archaeology, Albuquerque [2019]; Pouncett, Slayton, Davies, Garcia Casco and Ostapkowicz 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented by John Pouncett, co-authored by Emma Slayton, Gareth Davies, Antonio Garcia Casco and Joanna Ostapkowicz, and entitled "SIBA: Stone interchanges within the Bahama archipelago." This was an invited contribution to the session "Advances in the Archaeology of the Bahama Archipelago", held at the Society of American Archaeology conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference paper - Society of American Archaeology, Albuquerque [2019]; Schulting, Ostapkowicz, Pateman, Keegan, Brock, Snoeck, Delancy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented by Rick Schulting, co-authored by Joanna Ostapkowicz, Michael Pateman, William Keegan, Fiona Brock, Cristophe Snoeck and Kelly Delancy, and entitled "Bone of the Lucayans: Radiocarbon dating of human remains from the Bahamian Archipelago." This was an invited contribution to the session "Advances in the Archaeology of the Bahama Archipelago", held at the Society of American Archaeology conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference paper - Society of American Archaeology, Albuquerque [2019]; Snoeck, Schulting, Pateman, Keegan and Ostapkowicz 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented by Christophe Snoeck, and co-authored by Rick Schulting, Michael Pateman, William Keegan and Joanna Ostapkowicz, and entitled "Origins of Bahamian settlers buried in wet and dry caves." This was an invited contribution to the session "Advances in the Archaeology of the Bahama Archipelago", held at the Society of American Archaeology conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference paper - Society of American Archaeology, Vancouver, Canada [2017] 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A paper on "Lucayan Connections: Core and Periphery in the Bahama/Turks and Caicos Archipelago" was an invited contribution presented by Ostapkowicz at the session "Identity and change: archaeological interaction across archipelagos, inland seas and oceans", held at the Society of American Archaeology conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.saa.org/Portals/0/SAA/MEETINGS/2017%20Abstracts/Individual%20Level%20Abstracts_M-P.pdf
 
Description Conference paper - Society of American Archaeology, Washington, DC [2018] 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An invited paper entitled "SIBA: the research potential of Bahamian/Turks and Caicos museum collections" will be presented by Alice Knaf at the session "Contextualising Museum Collections at the Smithsonian Institution", held at the Society of American Archaeology conference in Washington, DC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.saa.org/Portals/0/SAA/Annualmeeting/PrelimProgram2018_Final.pdf
 
Description Education outputs workshop hosted by the Turks and Caicos National Museum (Sept 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A meeting, hosted by the Turks and Caicos National Museum, and including colleagues from the National Museum of the Bahamas (Antiquities, Monuments and Museums Corporation) and the University of Florida, was held in August 2018. The meeting included a conference call to colleagues at The Bahamas Ministry of Education. The aim was to review plans for the educational outputs, including posters and school packs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRXFrJyOSoA
 
Description Educational outputs workshop hosted by the National Museum of the Bahamas (Antiquities, Monuments and Museums Corporation)(January 2020) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A meeting, hosted by the National Museum of the Bahamas (Antiquities, Monuments, and Museums Corporation), and involving representatives from the Turks and Caicos National Museum and The Bahamas Ministry of Education, was held on 15 January 2020. The aims were to review progress made towards educational outputs on project SIBA, including posters and school packs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Gerace Research Centre (January 2020) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An invited presentation was made on Lucayan prehistory at the Gerace Research Center on San Salvador, The Bahamas to an audience consisting of the local general public as well as the international researchers and undergraduate and graduate students staying at the Center. This generated interest in the local as well as regional prehistory of The Bahamas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://en-gb.facebook.com/GeraceResearchCentre
 
Description Invited Talk; Geochemical characterisation and discrimination applying decision tree to precolonial jadeite jade sources in the Greater Caribbean 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk: Archäometrie und Denkmalpflege, Hamburg, March 2018 Geochemical characterisation and discrimination applying decision tree to precolonial jadeite jade sources in the Greater Caribbean
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://indico.desy.de/indico/event/18645/
 
Description Invited contribution to week long workshop: Intersecting worlds: The interplay of cultures and technology. Contribution entitled-New Methods and techniques in isotope geochemistry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 60 leading international researchers invited to a week long closed workshop to discuss the methodologies that are being or can be used to examine the immediate and long lasting influence of European expansion at the end of the 15th century and the impact on indigenous societies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2019/1100/info.php3?wsid=1100
 
Description Invited presentation at international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the European Association of Archaeologists, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2017, A new provenancing tool: "Non-invasive" portable laser ablation sampling for subsequent trace element and multi-isotope analyses, Knaf, A.C.S., Koornneef, J.M., Davies, G.R.
Invited contribution to a session on Caribbean Archaeology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z13-suZwJEQ&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Presentations by Gareth Davies at the International network on Jade Cultures, Athens workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two talks given by Gareth Davies at the International Network on Jade Cultures workshop held in Athens, Greece, before an international audience of colleagues (primarily European, but also colleagues form the US, Japan and Taiwan).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description SIBA Education web content - https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/educational-resources 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The SIBA education web content makes the results of the project accessible to a broad audience - from school children in The Bahamas and TCI (the target group) to an international general public, in addition to archaeologists and interested researchers (including university students, postgraduates and professionals). The 10 illustrations by artist Merald Clark showcase the lifeways and material culture of the Lucayans, the indigenous people of The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands. They are based on the latest archaeological investigations in the region, and focus on the artefacts in the collections of partner institutions, including the national museums of the islands (The National Museum of The Bahamas [AMMC], Nassau, Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos National Museum, Grand Turk), the National Museum of the American Indian, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian and the Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven. The interactive elements enable users to engage more directly with the visual content, learning about the artefacts and traditions, and the downloadable activities support virtual as well as in-classroom learning participation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://siba.web.ox.ac.uk/educational-resources
 
Description Society of Natural Scientific Archaeology and Archaeometry Symposium, Hamburg, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Geochemical Characterization and discrimination applying random forest to precolonial jadeite jade sources in the Greater Caribbean; Knaf, A.C.S., Habiba, H., Shafie, T., Koornneef, J.M., Hertwig, A., Cárdenas-Párraga, J., Harlow, G.E., García-Casco, A., Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V., Hofman, C.L., Brandes, U., Davies, G.R.
Keynote presentation discussing methods required to provenance jadeitite
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk presentation: A new provenancing tool: "Non-invasive" portable laser ablation sampling for subsequent trace element and multi-isotope analyses 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of co-authored paper at the European Association of Archaeologists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.eaa2017maastricht.nl/
 
Description invited talk, GeoBremen Sept. 2017, Bremen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of an invited talk to a professional audience "Non-invasive" portable laser ablation sampling of art and archaeological materials with subsequent trace element and multi-isotope analyses
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.marum.de/en/Research/GeoBremen-2017.html