The Right to Cultural Heritage - Its Protection and Enforcement through Cooperation in the European Union (HEURIGHT14)

Lead Research Organisation: Brit Inst of International and Comp Law
Department Name: Head Office

Abstract

This project investigates how human rights guarantees in relation to cultural heritage are being understood and implemented within the EU and by the EU as part of its external action. It focuses on Poland, the United Kingdom and Italy - countries representing different cultural, political and legal traditions - and their relations with other states and non-state cultural communities. Acknowledging the changing nature of the right to cultural heritage, the project will map how this right's evolving content affects the forms of protection, access to and governance of cultural heritage. The added value of the project consists in combining an analysis of the relevant laws, their implementation and enforcement.
Firstly, the project will provide a theoretical re-conceptualization of the right to cultural heritage, focusing not only on positive law and jurisprudence, but also on soft-law rules, diplomacy, and cultural cooperation, as possible alternative devices for fostering inter-cultural dialogue and understanding. Secondly, in its practical perspective, the project analyses how the technical tools used to manage and protect cultural heritage, in particular digitization processes with the development of databases, virtual museums, etc., are currently considered and how they could be further developed to strengthen the enforcement of the right to cultural heritage throughout the EU, including its external action.
Thus, the project will contribute to the development of sustainable strategies for protecting and managing cultural heritage as a means to foster inter-national and inter-cultural dialogue within the European region. Its outcomes will be twofold:
i) a ground-breaking contribution to an interdisciplinary scholarship in this area, disseminated through various publications (articles, reports, workshops and a monograph);
ii) the elaboration of recommendations and guidelines - openly accessible via a new online platform - concerning best practices on the use of cultural heritage for the benefit of states and communities which all have an intrinsic interest in its protection and enjoyment.

Planned Impact

By providing good practice examples and recommendations, the project will make a number of relevant suggestions to improve the enforcement of the right to cultural heritage within cultural rights in Europe, in particular through the use of new technologies. It will develop the current definition and understanding of what constitutes cultural heritage and how it is accessed and enforced within the current EU legal framework and will suggest how this can be improved.
In addition to academics, this project will have an impact on three other main categories of beneficiaries:

? Governmental bodies and agencies: those responsible for the development of cultural heritage policies will be able to refer to the research undertaken by the project and to use its definitions and understandings of the right to cultural heritage, including considering the application of some of the good practices identified through the project's recommendations. The relevant governmental agencies, such as cultural ministries, ministries of justice and foreign ministries will also benefit from the research in their efforts to strengthen access to and enforcement of the right to cultural heritage (as a human right) through cooperation mechanisms. The project will also have an impact on the action of states at the EU level, both for the internal and external actions of the EU.

? Cultural institutions and other private stakeholders: it is expected that cultural institutions will benefit from the project's outcomes, in particular its comparative analysis of various case studies around Europe. This will assist such institutions to ensure that they have the tools to strengthen their role in the enforcement of the right to cultural heritage through the project's innovative research on cultural cooperation. Other interested private stakeholders will include art professionals working with new technologies, such as those working on the digitization of cultural collections or the development of art databases.

? General public: the project has the potential to transfer its academic results to the wider public. The research teams, as well as the project stakeholders, are highly interested in organizing dissemination events connected to the topic of our research, such as art exhibitions, which may also be provided in a virtual form. These events / exhibitions will help to foster inter-cultural dialogue among communities which are in particular need of reconciliation with their difficult past in the process of building the national identity for which they strive. Intercultural dialogue can also assist in providing solutions aimed at the sharing of cultural heritage, instead of addressing such disputes and issues from the traditional perspective of an allocation of rights whereby one party wins all and the other loses all.
 
Description A key finding regards the use of cultural heritage within the EU's external action, one of the principal research topic for my team. Our research demonstrates that cultural heritage is generally present within the EU's partnership agreements with third countries. Its use in practice has however been limited to certain forms of heritage, in particular tangible cultural heritage. In addition, although cultural heritage is diverse and may be used as a diplomatic tool in various manners, the accent has been placed on its safeguard, conservation and restoration, as illustrated by the latest strategy paper published by the EU in June 2016. Therefore, its role is understood in a limited manner within the external policy of the EU. In addition, our research establishes that the action of the EU in this area supports its member states' international human rights obligations, ie with regard to the duty to cooperate for the right to participate in cultural life (which include the right to access and enjoy cultural heritage). Establishing this link may thus increase cooperation between the members states and the EU in this area. Finally, with regard to the UK, the research team has devoted time to research the impact of Brexit on cultural heritage, which is going to particular impact heritage funding which is going to be depending on governmental policy and no longer safeguarded through EU funding. The impact of Brexit is also likely to be important with regard to combatting trafficking, which requires cooperation at the international level. The UK will thus endeavour to remain within cooperation frameworks in order to continue to play its role in the area.
Exploitation Route The key findings of our projects are published in our book on 'Cultural Heritage in the European Union: A Critical Inquiry into Law and Policy' (BRILL, 2019). The key findings are also summarised in a chapter in a Research Agenda for Heritage Planning to be published by Edward Elgar later in 2019. Basically, we have found some remaining gaps in the way cultural heritage is addressed within the EU. We have done so by answering the following key research questions: (1) What is the concept of cultural heritage? What are the values attached to it and on which the EU's common action is based? Who are the stakeholders able to identify these values? (2) How have these values been operationalized within both the internal legal governance of the EU and its external action on the global arena? (3) Is the human (anthropological) dimension of cultural heritage recognized by the EU and, if so, to what extent? What is the place of cultural heritage within the human rights framework in Europe? (4) How does the EU protect, support, and enhance cultural heritage and the human rights attached to it?
As mentioned, we have summarised our findings and they will be published as part of a Research Agenda later this year. When our book comes out in May, we will have several press releases and also use social media to further dissiminate our findings. We will speak at conferences to discuss our key findings throughout the year. We are also seeking further funding to work on the existing gaps that we have identified through this research project.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Security and Diplomacy

URL https://brill.com/view/title/36548
 
Description Some of the findings have fed into the British Institute of International and Comparative Law's work on Brexit, with the publication of an FAQ on cultural heritage post-Brexit. This publication has been circulated within government (ie DCMS). This has also been turned into a podcast: https://www.biicl.org/brexitmaterials/culturalheritagepodcast
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description EU working group - link posted below is on the event which took place in Paris just before as there is no webpage for the London event held at the Arts Council which also gathered art market representatives
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://en.unesco.org/news/unesco-eu-and-art-market-together-ramp-fight-against-illicit-trafficking-...
 
Description Postgraduate development
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description HEURIGHT Team 
Organisation University of Jordan
Country Jordan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I participated in the development of the three year project plan during the HEURIGHT team meeting in Warsaw (September 2015); this included the identification of key research questions for the whole project and for each respective team. It was agreed that the UK team would focus its research on cultural heritage within the EU's external action; the outcome of this research will be summarised in a chapter of our book on the project, which will be published in 2018 by BRILL. With regard to the research, I also prepared an outline, which served as a model for all reports produced by the HEURIGHT team partners. I co-organised two international conferences to date: the first on the 'Return of Cultural Objects within the European Union - Implementing Directive 2014/60/EU' (21-22 March 2016, Warsaw) and the second on 'Cultural Heritage in the European Union: Legal Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges' (20-21 April 2017, Warsaw) where I spoke and chaired panels. I have also organised two public seminars in London, the first in 2016 and the second in 2018. At both public seminars the members of all teams presented their research and teams meetings were organised alongside those seminars. In 2018, I also organised and led a major workshop, in which a Polish team member took an active part. I have co-edited, with the other two project teams, the book which is the key outcome of the project. I have continuously maintained close contacts with other teams, suggesting new areas we could work on together and leading on new project proposals as possible follow-ups to HEURIGHT.
Collaborator Contribution The University of Poznan has been the main organiser of the team meeting (September 2015) and our two international conferences (March 2016 and April 2017). The University of Trieste has led on the organisation of the final conference for the project, held in May 2018. The University of Poznan has also developed the website (linked above). Both the University of Poznan and the University of Trieste have contributed to the development of our research questions and research plan during the course of the projects. Both teams participated in the event I organised in London for the project, on enforcing the 'right' to cultural heritage (27 October 2016) and the Polish team also participated actively in the workshop and event I held in May 2018 in London.
Impact It is a multi-disciplinary collaboration which has included mainly legal researchers but also historians (including art historians), economists, and policy experts. The first key outcome was the international conference taking place in March 2016 in Warsaw, which gathered many government representatives and cultural heritage experts from EU Member States, the EU itself, and beyond. It resulted in the publication of a special issue of the Santander Art and Cultural Law Review 2(2) on the 'Directive 2014/60/EU and the Movement of Cultural Objects in the European Union' (2016). The second main outcome has been the 2017 international conference on 'Cultural Heritage in the European Union: Legal Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges', the proceedings of which have been edited to be published as a book in May 2019. This conference, as well as the upcoming publication, are also multi-disciplinary as they gather academics, government officials, international organisations officials, in the following fields: cultural heritage law, economic / trade law, european law, human rights, cultural heritage studies, as well as policy experts, historians, and art historians. The third key outcome has resulted from our events in London, where we held two main public seminars (October 2016 and May 2018) during which we also discussed the potential impact of Brexit on cultural heritage in the UK. We hosted a workshop attended by 25 individuals from government (DCMS, HMRC, Metropolitan Police, National Archives, English Heritage, British Library), academia (University of Exeter, Institute of Art and Law, University of Leicester, Lancaster University, Warwick University, Queen Mary University, Brunel University, Ulster University), and other heritage professionals (British Museum, Art UK). This workshop led to discussions on the use of digitisation in providing access to cultural heritage and other forms of implementing the right to access and enjoyment of cultural heritage as a human right (full report forthcoming). Please note that I have listed this partnership as 'still active' despite the project (and funding) formally ending in May 2018. This is because we continue to work together, in particular to put the final touches to the book (and some final reports) which are due to be published in May 2019. As a result of the project, we have also been invited to speak at conferences, which we continue to do, as well as write a chapter for another book on heritage planning (to be published later in 2019).
Start Year 2015
 
Description HEURIGHT Team 
Organisation University of Trieste
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I participated in the development of the three year project plan during the HEURIGHT team meeting in Warsaw (September 2015); this included the identification of key research questions for the whole project and for each respective team. It was agreed that the UK team would focus its research on cultural heritage within the EU's external action; the outcome of this research will be summarised in a chapter of our book on the project, which will be published in 2018 by BRILL. With regard to the research, I also prepared an outline, which served as a model for all reports produced by the HEURIGHT team partners. I co-organised two international conferences to date: the first on the 'Return of Cultural Objects within the European Union - Implementing Directive 2014/60/EU' (21-22 March 2016, Warsaw) and the second on 'Cultural Heritage in the European Union: Legal Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges' (20-21 April 2017, Warsaw) where I spoke and chaired panels. I have also organised two public seminars in London, the first in 2016 and the second in 2018. At both public seminars the members of all teams presented their research and teams meetings were organised alongside those seminars. In 2018, I also organised and led a major workshop, in which a Polish team member took an active part. I have co-edited, with the other two project teams, the book which is the key outcome of the project. I have continuously maintained close contacts with other teams, suggesting new areas we could work on together and leading on new project proposals as possible follow-ups to HEURIGHT.
Collaborator Contribution The University of Poznan has been the main organiser of the team meeting (September 2015) and our two international conferences (March 2016 and April 2017). The University of Trieste has led on the organisation of the final conference for the project, held in May 2018. The University of Poznan has also developed the website (linked above). Both the University of Poznan and the University of Trieste have contributed to the development of our research questions and research plan during the course of the projects. Both teams participated in the event I organised in London for the project, on enforcing the 'right' to cultural heritage (27 October 2016) and the Polish team also participated actively in the workshop and event I held in May 2018 in London.
Impact It is a multi-disciplinary collaboration which has included mainly legal researchers but also historians (including art historians), economists, and policy experts. The first key outcome was the international conference taking place in March 2016 in Warsaw, which gathered many government representatives and cultural heritage experts from EU Member States, the EU itself, and beyond. It resulted in the publication of a special issue of the Santander Art and Cultural Law Review 2(2) on the 'Directive 2014/60/EU and the Movement of Cultural Objects in the European Union' (2016). The second main outcome has been the 2017 international conference on 'Cultural Heritage in the European Union: Legal Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges', the proceedings of which have been edited to be published as a book in May 2019. This conference, as well as the upcoming publication, are also multi-disciplinary as they gather academics, government officials, international organisations officials, in the following fields: cultural heritage law, economic / trade law, european law, human rights, cultural heritage studies, as well as policy experts, historians, and art historians. The third key outcome has resulted from our events in London, where we held two main public seminars (October 2016 and May 2018) during which we also discussed the potential impact of Brexit on cultural heritage in the UK. We hosted a workshop attended by 25 individuals from government (DCMS, HMRC, Metropolitan Police, National Archives, English Heritage, British Library), academia (University of Exeter, Institute of Art and Law, University of Leicester, Lancaster University, Warwick University, Queen Mary University, Brunel University, Ulster University), and other heritage professionals (British Museum, Art UK). This workshop led to discussions on the use of digitisation in providing access to cultural heritage and other forms of implementing the right to access and enjoyment of cultural heritage as a human right (full report forthcoming). Please note that I have listed this partnership as 'still active' despite the project (and funding) formally ending in May 2018. This is because we continue to work together, in particular to put the final touches to the book (and some final reports) which are due to be published in May 2019. As a result of the project, we have also been invited to speak at conferences, which we continue to do, as well as write a chapter for another book on heritage planning (to be published later in 2019).
Start Year 2015
 
Description Conference on The Return of Cultural Objects within the European Union 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The aim of this conference was to debate the foundations, implementing process and future functioning of the Directive 2014/60/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 on the return of cultural objects unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State and amending Regulation (EU) No 1024/2012. It also sought to discuss this new EU instrument for the return of unlawfully exported cultural objects within the broader system of protection applicable to national treasures. It exploed the relation between the Directive 2014/60/EU and the EC Regulation 116/2009 vis-à-vis other legal instruments regulating the circulation of cultural objects in Europe, including the 1970 UNESCO Convention and the 1995 Unidroit Convention. In addition, the evolving EU regime was discussed in the context of international trade in cultural material, by analysing the approaches taken by cultural heritage law scholars, art market and police experts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://heuright.eu/news/the-return-of-cultural-objects-within-the-european-union-implementing-the-di...
 
Description Cultural Heritage Conference (Venice) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact - presented on the role of cultural heritage in reconciliation and peace-building (extended abstract to be made available online by the organisers ahead of a publication later in 2016), a topic directly related to the project, which has been recognised as deserving further research.
- also attending the conference were experts who are now involved in it (either through own research or consultancy).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.veripa.org/Veripa/showVoceMenu.2puntOT?id=63
 
Description Development and Contribution to Project Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project website is regularly updated with information about all our activities, publications and research progress.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://heuright.eu/
 
Description Lecture at Institute and University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In December 2017 and February 2018, Kristin Hausler was invited by the Art and Law Institute to give three presentations based on the project's research. Her presentations focused on the movement of cultural goods within the European Union (including import and export from the EU), as well as on the implication of Brexit on cultural goods in the United Kingdom. The audience was composed of: students of the art law course of the Art and Law Institute, as well as the LL.M students at Queen Mary University (in the programme on art, business and law).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL http://www.law.qmul.ac.uk/postgraduate/courses/items/180014.html
 
Description Providing talk / evidence for EU working group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On the 16 April 2018, I gave a keynote address on 'Cultural Goods at customs - the question of provenance under international law' at the Arts Council which hosted an EU working group on provenance of cultural goods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public seminar in Trieste to present our interim research findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On 7 July 2016, the research teams of the HEURIGHT Project held an open seminar aimed at disseminating the interim results of the international research on the right to cultural heritage in the European Union. The event was held at the University of Trieste, Department of Law, Language, Interpreting and Translation Studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://heuright.eu/news/heuright14-the-right-to-cultural-heritage-protection-and-enforcement-through...
 
Description Seminar on the Enforcement of the Right to Cultural Heritage 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 27 October 2016 the British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL) will host a seminar 'Enforcing the Right to Cultural Heritage'. This special seminar discussed the enforcement of the right to cultural heritage from various legal angles. Access to cultural heritage was first be analysed from a human rights perspective, through a discussion of the practice of the European regional human rights institutions. More widely, the role of cultural heritage in foreign relations, including the role it may play in peace-building and reconciliation, and its place in international trade law was also be considered. Finally, the concept of cultural heritage itself was also be presented, including in particular its intangible aspect with a critical assessment of the impact of the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. The way culture can be measured through the UNESCO indicators was also be discussed, as well as the potential impact of Brexit on cultural heritage in the UK. An event report was published online (see link below).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.biicl.org/eventpaper/219
 
Description Speaking at academic conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On 11 May 2018, I gave a talk at Westminster University on 'Cultural heritage destruction before the ICC: the Al-Mahdi case' as part of a conference on the ICC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.westminster.ac.uk/events/sufficient-gravity-before-the-international-criminal-court-conf...
 
Description Speaking at academic conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I spoke on 'Cultural Heritage after the Iraq Invasion' at the Society of Legal Scholars Annual Seminar 2018: The Legal Legacies of the 2003 Iraq War, on 27 April 2018 at SOAS. This two-day seminar, funded by the Society of Legal Scholars, was hosted jointly by the Centre for the Study of Colonialism, Empire and International law at SOAS University of London and the School of Law at the University of Sheffield. The seminar sought to explore the diverse legal inheritance of the 2003 Iraq War - the manner in which law has been made, and remade, by the conflict; the use of law as both a justification for and a site of resistance against the conflict; and the conflict as a catalyst for legal change.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.soas.ac.uk/cceil/events/26mar2018-society-of-legal-scholars-annual-seminar-2018-the-lega...
 
Description Speaking at conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 9 June 2017, Kristin Hausler participated in the conference on Cultural Heritage in danger: illicit trafficking, armed conflicts and Cultural Diplomacy, at the Canterbury Cathedral Lodge, which was organised by the Center for Heritage, University of Kent. Her presentation focused on the EU's diplomatic response to 'cultural heritage in danger', highlighting the two key areas in which the EU has taken initiatives in that regard, namely the combat of trafficking and the safeguarding of cultural heritage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://heuright.eu/news/cultural-heritage-in-danger-illicit-trafficking-armed-conflicts-and-cultural...
 
Description Speaking at international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On the 18 May 2018, I gave a presentation of my chapter for the book which is the key output of the HEURIGHT project at the University of Trieste at our final international conference, which was attended by policy makers at the EU level. It was entitled 'Cultural heritage in the EU's external action: more than a policy objective?'. This talk analysed a key EU policy document, in the presence of the main author of the document, Diego Marani, leading to a lively discussion and further cooperation. I have since interviewed Mr Marani for the next issue of the Santander Art and Culture Law Review, discussing the European Year of Cultural Heritage and the EU's external relations in the area, which will in the future include the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://heuright.eu/news/european-union-and-cultural-heritage-legal-and-policy-dilemmas-17-18-may-201...
 
Description Speaking at international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Kristin Hausler spoke at an international conference in Warsaw (20-21 April 2017) on the key theme of the research project: Cultural Heritage in the EU's External Action. This conference was filmed and the proceedings will be published in a book in 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://heuright.eu/news/heuright-conference-cultural-heritage-in-the-european-union-legal-perspectiv...
 
Description Speaking at international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 19 March 2018, I gave a talk in Maastricht, at the Centre for Arts and Culture, entitled 'Brexit and cultural heritage: Measure for Measure?'. The conference theme 'Crossing Borders in Arts & Heritage' explored the challenges that arise when arts and heritage cross geographical borders today or which persist because of past cross-border movements.
There was a lot of interest in this paper which stemmed directly from the HEURIGHT project, in which I incorporated the potential impact of Brexit on cultural heritage. As a result of my participation, I was asked to be part of a study group on trafficking, with the UK being a key centre for art trade, as well as to give a presentation on due diligence to an EU working group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.maastrichtuniversity.nl/events/crossing-borders-arts-heritage
 
Description Speaking at international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On 13 March 2018, the Research Team of the project HEURIGHT - The Right to Cultural Heritage - Its Protection and Enforcement through Cooperation in the European Union is organizing an international seminar, entitled "Cultural Heritage, Cultural Rights and the European Union". The core aim of this event is to present the research findings of the project and its major outputs. It will also address current legal and policy challenges faced by the European Union in light of the agenda of the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018. Kristin Hausler is speaking on the impact of Brexit on cultural heritage, as well as on cultural heritage within the EU's external action.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://heuright.eu/news/public-seminar-cultural-heritage-cultural-rights-the-european-union-warsaw-1...
 
Description Speaking at the United Nations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 19 September 2018, I was invited to speak at a panel during the Human Rights Council session at the United Nations in Geneva. I talked on 'Attacks against Cultural Heritage in Yemen', asking the Group of Eminent Experts to pay more attention to the destruction of cultural heritage in their work. The event was filmed by a Turkish tv channel.

Following this discussion, I organised another event on Yemen in London in December 2018, where I talked again on the destruction of cultural heritage. This event was filmed by Al-Jazeera.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://aohr.org.uk/index.php/en/all-releases/item/9319-the-situation-in-yemen,-as-referenced-by-the...