Poetry in Expanded Translation

Lead Research Organisation: Bangor University
Department Name: College of Arts and Humanities

Abstract

Translation may seem like a simple matter of transposition between languages, but the translation of poetry in particular reveals the fascinating complexity and richness that comes from the interface of different languages and cultures. Language itself is constantly changing, and experimental forms of poetry have embraced the complex relations between words, meanings and the spaces they inhabit. As twenty-first century poetry expands into the possibilities of different media through international readings, performances and festivals, it also expands possibilities for translation. Poetry has always circulated internationally. The network will challenge the widespread view of autonomously monolingual poetic traditions while discovering how exchange between languages works in artistic terms, and how it brings cultural particularities into view.

This network will bring together practitioners and critics of poetry and translation with visual and sound artists to discover new ways of creating and interpreting language across art forms and cultures. It will analyse the impact of experimental traditions that continue to forge links between different languages, and will discover new ways of presenting poetry to multilingual audiences. Through its link with the Poetry Library in London's Southbank Centre, it will invite active involvement from readers and practitioners of poetry beyond academic contexts.

Though located primarily in a UK and European context, with a special focus on Wales and France, the network will be attentive to non-European influences and the co-existence of diverse cultures and languages. At a time when technologies such as machine translation are enabling communication, the apparent untranslatability of poetry makes it a crucial site for the creative exploration and understanding of intercultural difference.

The network will discover how poetry travels internationally, by examining international links and legacies that connect poetry across languages. Examples include the influence of early twentieth-century Dada performances on contemporary sound poetry or the adoption of mathematical procedures inspired by the 1960s French Oulipo writers by UK and American poets. How might these cross-currents engage with the multiple linguistic communities of contemporary Europe? How these exchanges in experimental practice shaped by race, class and gender? How does collaboration contribute to intercultural dialogue? What political questions are raised by a cross-border ethics of translation?

How do visual forms contribute to transition between languages? The network will consider collaborations between poets and visual artists that explore equivalences of word, form and image in intersemiotic translation, that is, translation that substitutes sign systems or art forms rather than one language for another. How do these, as well as emerging hybrid forms enabled by new technologies, expand possibilities for intercultural dialogue? In a visual environment where there is much competition for attention, what is distinctive about the role of poetry?

The closing conference will examine the role of sound in translation. What does it mean to listen to poetry in another language? In performance work that combines different media, what is the relation between translation and the political, physical or ecological dimensions of listening? How might considerations of noise open up new ways of listening to other languages? How can translation reveal different ways in which the poem 'listens'? How helpful is a musical comparison or vocabulary in discussion of the sound of a poem in translation? Conversely, what is meant when we talk about music as a language? Can the relationship between poet and translator be compared with that of composer and performer? The closing conference will investigate these and other questions, developing new knowledge about how to present poetry to contemporary international audiences.

Planned Impact

Impact Summary

Beneficiaries from the research include the following:

1. Users of the Poetry Library

The main UK non-academic partner will be the Saison Poetry Library at the South Bank Centre. With its substantial holdings of modern and contemporary poetry in English, as well as its comprehensive collection of poetry in translation, the Library caters to the specialist researcher as well as to the casual poetry reader and is the ideal partner for this network. As an institution that regularly engages with the public in a wide-ranging programme of poetry-related events, it is also fitting that the network use the Poetry Library for the first of its programme of events. The network will benefit the Poetry Library by exploring innovative ways of engaging the public in translation and enhancing the international dimension of the reading experience. Through sharing the outcomes of the project, these benefits will become available to other libraries with similarly energetic programmes of outreach, for example the Scottish Poetry Library.

2. Practitioners in the creative arts

The network will aim to develop and theorise new and emerging areas of practice that will enable poets, artists, musicians and translators to better understand each other's work and the complex ways in which interdisciplinary creation contributes to artistic and cultural life. It will develop new international connections, particularly between the UK and France. The relationship between the senses and language, which is core to the project's structure, is little understood. By considering visual and sound elements through the frame of translation, the network will resolve some of the misconceptions that sometimes make it difficult to work across art forms and provide a new language for collaboration.



3. International and bilingual audiences

The main non-UK partner is the Kunsthalle in Mulhouse, which will benefit from the development of an event designed to explore interfaces between poetry and the visual. The combination of practice and theorization in the seminar and performance will contribute to deepened understanding of how cross-artform interactions may be used productively in a multilingual context. The project will contribute to a longstanding collaboration between the Université de Haute Alsace and the Kunsthalle by bringing an external, international perspective to bear on it. Similar insights will be gained from the conference in Bangor, where the new Bangor University Arts and Innovation Centre, Pontio, will benefit from the exploration of poetry and sound in the bilingual context of north Wales. The involvement of partners involved with different arts venues (the South Bank, the Kunsthalle and Pontio) will enable exchange of ideas and an enhanced understanding of how audiences may be build across different areas of interest.

Organisations such as the Arts Councils of Wales and England will benefit from insights into cross-cultural collaboration that will facilitate the international dimensions of their work, and certain projects that they fund such as literature festivals. Better knowledge of how to present literature in translation and how to maximise audiences for performance events by combining art forms will be helpful in internationalizing the whole creative sector in the UK and raising aspirations for its future. Through contact with Literary Europe Live, the network will contribute to these ongoing aims.

Overall, the public will benefit from the creation of new and innovative works of art that address specific cultural contexts. Perceived barriers to the enjoyment of poetry from different languages will be challenged. The participatory element of the network, building in particular on activities at the Poetry Library, will allow members of the public to shape and interact with the research as it develops.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title A Rose for Rosa 
Description Poem commissioned for the centenary of the death of Rosa Luxembourg, published in Dale Holmes & Sharon Kivland (eds) THE GRAVESIDE ORATIONS OF CARL EINSTEIN. 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact It was performed at the Schiphorst Avant-Garde Festival in June 2019, in German translation, and translated into French for a reading in Paris in September 2019 (see Engagement). 
URL https://mabibliotheque.cargo.site/Dale-Holmes-Sharon-Kivland-eds-THE-GRAVESIDE-ORATIONS-OF-CARL
 
Title Footnotes to Water (Bridgend: Seren Books, 2019) 
Description A collection of poems exploring interactions between human and non-human lives in rural and urban spaces, with an emphasis on experimental translation. 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact The book was a Poetry Book Society Recommendation and featured in their bulletin. I was invited to StAnza, the Scottish poetry festival, to present it, and also launched it in Cardiff at the Seren Poetry Festival. 
URL https://www.serenbooks.com/productdisplay/footnotes-water
 
Title Frimaire 
Description A 'non-advent' calendar based on the French Revolutionary Calendar, with poems in each of the opening windows. Created in collaboration with the artist Sharon Kivland and published by Crater Press (Cratre 54). 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact I have subsequently been invited to contribute to further projects with the artist. 
URL http://www.craterpress.co.uk/
 
Title Performance of Footnotes to Water at Seren Cardiff Poetry Festival 
Description A reading from Footnotes to Water accompanied by sound artist Alan Holmes. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact There were some positive reactions on Twitter, but bad weather limited audience attendance at this event. 
URL https://cardiffpoetryfestival.com/event-18/
 
Title Reading and Light Show San Mineato al Monte, Florence 
Description I read my poems with Italian translation at an event celebrating the 1000th anniversary of the Basilica San Mineato al Monte, Florence, while the artist Marco Nereo Rotelli created a live light show in response to the texts. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact I discussed the possibility of future Expanded Translation events at a meeting with Marco Nereo Rotelli the following day. 
URL http://www.marconereorotelli.it/installazione-ad-verbum-lucis-a-firenze/
 
Description The motive for pursuing this research was that in the UK we do not think about translation enough, and that many of the issues relating to it are insufficiently considered. Translation is too important to be left to translators, or translation scholars: it has long been a staple of creative practice that concerns poets directly and relates to all the ways in which poetries of different languages might speak to each other. The project enabled us to find different ways of reading and talking about poetry between and across languages, not just to develop international relationships but also to recognise and value the multilingualism of poetry in the UK.

The first meeting of the network in April 2017, hosted by Chris McCabe at the National Poetry Library in the Southbank Centre, began with the question of rewriting or 'intralingual' translation, taking texts from the library that already contained an element of translation and reworking them collaboratively in a one-day workshop. This was because we wanted to look at how much translation already informs poetic practice, particularly within late modernist traditions. The participants were mainly from France, Wales and England, with some American-French and Trinidadian-Scottish transnational perspectives; some were translators, some critics; all were poets. Roman Jakobson's distinctions between interlingual, intralingual and intersemiotic translation were a starting point in discussing the different kinds of equivalence that a translation can produce. While some of the experiments undertaken (which can be read in this special issue of Poetry Wales) remained intralingual, collaboration brought several languages into play, including Welsh, Spanish and Catalan as well as English and French. A reading and discussion with Vahni Capildeo and Michael Zand explored the ways in which translation cuts through time and place. Zand noted, for example, that the velar fricative, a sound common in different forms of Persian through the ages, was once common in Middle English and Old English and Saxon. He described Ruby, his translation of the Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyam, as a process of drilling down through time to find unexpected connections that link languages and cultures.

The multilingual frontier town of Mulhouse provided a usefully non-metropolitan French vantage point for our second meeting in November 2017, when we met at the Université de Haute Alsace. Organised by Jennifer K. Dick with the involvement of Sandrine Wymann of arts venue La Kunsthalle, the conference focused on poetry, translation and the visual. This was an expansion of translation to consider its material forms, beginning with Olivier Gabrys's dance interpretations of poems, in which he sees the whole body as a vessel for language. Form as the moment of performance was the focus of Valentine Verhaeghe, friend and student of Henri Chopin, whose use of the body as source and amplifier of the poem is also strikingly visual and gestural. The materiality of the page was a central concern in Bénedicte Villegrain's discussion of Susan Howe's 'Melville's Marginalia' and Jennifer K. Dick's paper on Jacques Sivan. Ekphrasis was introduced as both a form and complication of translation in Agata Holobut's analysis of David Gascoyne's poem 'Salvador Dali', which considered its language operations in relation to audio descriptions of artworks, while Vincent Broqua used Duchamp's 'À bruit secret' to show recourse to the visual does not necessarily reveal or clarify, but can also create a space for the opacity of language that may not be understood or translated. Cole Swensen, on 'translating with power tools' explored the poetics of book sculptures by Guy Laramée, Su Blackwell, Susan Hoerth, and Brian Dettmer as a metaphorical and literal response to the future of recorded knowledge. Moving back and forth between visual art and poetry produced a range of approaches to of image and form. Margaux Van Uytyanck, for example, began with Marcel Broodthaer's sculpture made of a casserole full of mussel shells, looking at how it plays on the similarity of the French la moule (mussel) to le moule (mould). From here she went on to consider Mallarmé's 'Un coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard' as a refusal of clear image where the empty shell of form is a transformation of absence. Translation suffers from its images, Capildeo reminded us, such as in the phrase 'shine through', which suggests that an authentic face is mystically present and capable of projecting itself'. In imagining the page not as a field but as a leaf, a fragmentary repetition of other leaves, she provided a model for translation that allows it to have a multiplied non-human life of its own.

Refusal of the myth of textual origin is central to the work of Lawrence Venuti, a presiding figure for the project as a whole. In his keynote for Poetry and Sound in Expanded Translation, the April 2018 conference in Bangor, he unpicked the instrumentalist logic of translation proverbs, such as traduttore, traditore. Forget fidelity, he argued: think about equivalence. There is no invariant in translation; there are only interpretants. Don't respect the text: innovate. This is fighting talk in Wales, where many Welsh-language poets have resisted translation, particularly into English, as a threat to the integrity of a minority language. Yet what is being critiqued when Venuti attacks Robert Frost's attachment to 'the sound of sense' is not sense, or sound, but the assumption that Frost's own vernacular poetics is the only way to hear other cultures. How do we read what a translation is doing? When will translations be reviewed at last as translations, rather than as necessarily weak copies of 'original' texts? These relationships are different again when 'original' and translation are part of the same text, as they may well be in situations where people and identities are in movement.

Caroline Bergvall's keynote talk, titled 'Monolingualism is Dangerous', described how her work listens to minority languages and the communities they sustain. Gathering participants to talk about song traditions or greet the dawn, she demonstrates how the play of languages becomes a space of possibility, offering new patterns of living together. Listening to her perform, for example from her multimedia work Drift, the ear tunes and retunes to shifting languages as the very notion of the linguistic border is interrogated. How far is this already translation? How can a work be translated when it already navigates more than one language? A way forward was suggested by Canadian poet Erín Moure, discussing her translation of the Portunhol of Wilson Bueno's Paraguayan Sea, which slides between French and English, or 'Frenlish': the question becomes one of sound, and how language inhabits the shapes of co-existing languages in one mouth. Attending to sound in translation allows a thinking across frontiers, since sound bleeds through the edges and surrounds us, but the borders inevitably return, demanding a stretched attention as the ear is turned out towards another.

The interdisciplinary conference encompassed the insights of musicians and composers, such as Bangor's Professor Andrew Lewis, whose electro-acoustic piece LEXICON, based on a text by a twelve-year-old dyslexic boy, puzzled over the elusive triangulation between sign, sound and meaning to which poetry translation constantly returns. Sam Trainor used musical notation to articulate a 'contrapuntal' approach to translation, while composer Richard Hoadley, who collaborates with many other artists, sees translation as fundamental to his practice. Some of this sonic thinking was presented through performances (to be made available online in due course), including Rhys Trimble's and Nia Davies' ritual for destruction of poetry by air burial, Lisa Samuels' sound performance featuring local slate, or Lee Ann Brown's investigation of ballad forms that had the entire conference singing along.

Expanding translation means decolonising it. Through a structure that focuses on process and dialogue, Sophie Collins' important anthology Currently & Emotion: Translations (Test Centre, 2016) dismantles many of the hierarchies that often dominate translation. Her paper proposed the intimacy of Platonic friendship as a translation model to replace fidelity, drawing on translations of Kim Hyesoon by Don Mee Choi. Her encouragement to celebrate linguistic playfulness in translation touched on a recurring theme of the conference: how do we keep languages and poetries in play, as well as in dialogue? Her emphasis on extending translational listening towards non-European languages highlighted another direction in which the UK's translation-thinking could be further stretched and challenged. Nisha Ramayya, in her discussion of translation from Sanskrit via tantric practice, used Roland Barthes' utopian concept of idiorythmie to describe the relationship between source text and translation. If power always imposes its own drumbeat, how might texts live their different rhythms alongside each other? For Collins and Ramayya, as for many of the other speakers, the stakes in translation are high as they contest long histories of gendered and colonial relations. The cross-rhythms and reforging of relationships are evident within their texts, for example in Ramayya's remarkable reading, but they spill out beyond them into new forms of sociality and politics. Édouard Glissant, whose Poetics of Relation was a recurrent reference point during the conference, reminds us that the zone of contact between cultures is one of inequality and opacity as well as potential and transformation. Expanding translation revealed more ways to enter and inhabit these in-between spaces, and understanding the patterns and structures by which we might do this.

The Ouvroir de littérature potentielle (Oulipo), a famous group of writer-mathematicians, was referenced throughout the network activities. It was particularly influential on Atkins and Philip Terry in particular, whose work often 'translates' or adapts Oulipian techniques as much as it translates a source text from one language to another. Use of algorithmic process is another way of disrupting hierarchies, since the arbitrary constraint reveals the arbitrariness of all the daily and familiar constraints that have long since become imperceptible to us. Terry's reading in the Expanded Translation conference was from Exercises in Translation, which takes as its starting point Raymond Queneau's early proto-Oulipo text Exercices de style, a description of meeting a stranger twice by chance, retold in 99 different ways. What does it mean to translate a text already so dependent on its own rewriting? Terry's solution is to invent further constraints, so that translation and constraint merge into one. These eventually lead not into abstraction but a sharp and surprising realisation of the text's post-war context and its possible subtext relating to the suffering of the Jewish population in wartime Paris. Peter Riley notes that 'expanded translation' is a term often used in Biblical study to describe the addition of informative notes; this is what Terry's text does, among other things, as it marks the passage of a technique, as well as a text, from one language to another. Like so many of the readings and papers that were presented, it acknowledges the necessary complexity of that passage.
Exploitation Route Current projects arising from the research include a special issue of The Translator, which will present creative techniques in the context of Translation Studies, and a special issue of English that will present translation techniques in the context of creative writing.

The PI's monograph on poetry and sound is complete and will relate ideas about poetry translation to sound studies.

The PI has been invited to participate in the bilingual reading series Double Change in Paris, which will enable further connections to be forged between poetry in the UK and France.

The Penguin Book of Oulipo, edited by Philip Terry (2019), who was a member of the network, draws on contacts made through the network and includes work that was developed during network meetings.
Sectors Creative Economy,Education,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://poetrywales.co.uk/wp/3336/poetry-in-expanded-translation-an-update/
 
Description Collaborative practice-based research from the Translation as Rewriting Seminar in April 2017 has been published in the magazine Poetry Wales, which has a wide non-academic readership. There has been public discussion of expanded translation via the online journal Fortnightly Review and the blog of Poetry Wales. I have been invited to take part in round tables on poetry and translation at various international poetry festivals, including the StAnza Poetry Festival (March 2017). There have been requests for involvement in further events in Paris, Bratislava and Sheffield involving practitioners as well as academics. Philip Terry's The Penguin Book of Oulipo (2019) draws on contacts and events from the network in presenting the work of the Oulipo to a wide anglophone audience.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description International Opportunities Fund
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 91308 
Organisation Wales Arts International 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 07/2019
 
Description International Opportunities Fund
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 20170623 
Organisation Wales Arts International 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 07/2017
 
Description International Opportunities Fund
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 901345 
Organisation Wales Arts International 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 10/2019
 
Description International Opportunities Fund
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 20171068 
Organisation Wales Arts International 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 08/2017
 
Description International Opportunities Fund
Amount £1,606 (GBP)
Funding ID 20180029 
Organisation Wales Arts International 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 06/2018
 
Description International Opportunities Fund
Amount £1,050 (GBP)
Funding ID 6767 
Organisation Wales Arts International 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 11/2018
 
Description SCoRE Cymru
Amount £700 (GBP)
Funding ID SW19005 
Organisation Government of Wales 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2019 
End 12/2019
 
Description Performance at Mulhouse Kunsthalle 
Organisation The Kunsthalle
Country France 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The network brought a team of practice-based researchers to the Kunsthalle to explore innovative approached to visual art and translation.
Collaborator Contribution La Kunsthalle-Mulhouse provided venues for public performances, advertising and refreshments. The Director, Sandrine Wymann, spoke at the opening of the conference.
Impact Public performance of poetry and visual art on 8th November 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Poetry in Expanded Translation II: Text and Visual Transposition 
Organisation Multimedia Library of Mulhouse
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The project brought an international team of writers and artists together to discuss approaches to cross-artform practice.
Collaborator Contribution The library provided a venue for the day, and refreshments. They drew on the expertise of their librarians to create a book art exhibition as part of the conference.
Impact A full day of conference papers took place in the Library.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Poetry in Expanded Translation II: Text and Visual Transposition 
Organisation University of Upper Alsace
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The network brought an international team of writers, translators and scholars to a conference in Mulhouse 8th-10th November 2017 to discuss innovative approaches to translation and cross-artform practice.
Collaborator Contribution The UHA provided venues and refreshments, as well as a great deal of organisation, including liaising with their partners the Kunsthalle-Mulhouse and Mulhouse Library on our behalf.
Impact Performance at La Kunsthalle and outcomes from conference (ongoing).
Start Year 2017
 
Description Public Readings at National Poetry Library: Rewriting as Translation 
Organisation Southbank Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The project brought a team of international researchers to the library to explore innovative approaches to translation.
Collaborator Contribution The National Poetry Library provided a venue for the first seminar of Poetry in Expanded Translation, 9th-11th April 2017, and contributed to the payment of readers for this event as well as funding a public engagement postcard project.
Impact A public poetry reading and discussion took place on April 10th 2017, presenting creative outcomes from the seminar. These were subsequently published in a special issue of Poetry Wales in March 2018.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Article for The Conversation on Lynette Roberts 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This article draws on some of the themes of Expanded Translation in its discussion of language and the senses. There were comments via social media and 1,430 readers at the time of reporting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://theconversation.com/lynette-roberts-welsh-poet-who-fused-touch-and-sight-into-sound-105703
 
Description Expanded Translation Public Events in Bangor 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Expanded Translation Conference 4th-6th April 2018 brought together an international range of writers, artists, translators and academics to discuss innovative approaches to translation.

A series of three free public evenings of readings and performances featuring expanded translation took place as part of the conference. The first two evenings featured cross-artform multimedia performances and the third included a discussion with a publisher, followed by a book launch. All three included opportunities for local and international practitioners to discuss innovative approaches to translation with critics and translators, in a setting that included a mixture of academic and non-academic perspectives. Audiences were approximately 70 for each of the three evening events.

As a result of this event, further activities were organised in London and Paris in June 2018, and others have been planned in Montpellier (May 2019) and Paris-Est (September 2019).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://expanded-translation.bangor.ac.uk/conf/programme.php
 
Description International Poetry Festival of Buenos Aires 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Attending the FIP International Poetry Festival of Buenos Aires 6th to 10th June 2018
This was a well-organised, high profile event that brought together excellent poets from around the world in Buenos Aires' largest and most central arts venue, the Kirchner Cultural Centre as well as public spaces around the city. The readings were intense, well attended and listened to with great
concentration by over 1,000 people in total. As a consequence of my interest in French-English translation, Gaston Bellemare, director of the Trois Rivières festival, who was present, discussed the possibility of inviting me to Québec.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.accioncultural.es/en/fip-2018-buenos-aires-international-poetry-festival
 
Description International Poetry Festival of Medellín, Colombia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact International Poetry Festival of Medellín, 28th June - July 8th, 2019.

Attending this festival was unquestionably a landmark event in my career, if only because of the scale of the opening and closing readings, which were held in Medelliín's wonderfully named Parque de los Deseos (Park of Desires, which sounds like the title of one of my poems) and attracted audiences of over 2,000. They listened with rapt attention to poetry in many languages, with Spanish translation. This was only one aspect of the festival, however, as it also comprised hundreds of smaller readings in parks, libraries, educational and cultural institutions all over the region. At each one, I was accompanied by Berta Nelly Arboleda Ruíz, an actress who read the Spanish versions - there was no use of screens for translations and everything depended on the oral experience. Berta Nelly had prepared my poems for months, with the other readers, and even suggested small changes to the translations to make them read better. This level of attention to the work was truly impressive, and helped the poems to communicate in a culture that maintains a strong oral tradition. The excellent readings of the other poets' work also meant that I was generally able to understand poetry in other languages through the Spanish translation, which opened up whole new worlds of writing. There were outstanding performances from the German poet Anja Utler, whose work I already knew, and the Swiss sound poet Heike Fiedler, who also shared some of her looping techniques with me and recommended some useful gadgets for sound performance (I wasn't doing sound performance here but it's something I want to return to).


The main encounter of the festival was with Colombia, its poetry, its people and the hopes for peace and this pivotal moment in its history. What I gained was a deeper understanding of the role of poetry in healing and sustaining a culture, whether through listening to Colombian poets, or talking to them, or learning about the structure of the festival itself. There were many young poets, and I especially enjoyed reading with William Jiménez, whose work responds to explosive geographical and political landscapes, using volcanoes and earthquakes as metaphors, and Yubely Vahos, whose work, like my own, is particularly involved with sound, an area we continue to discuss. The festival itself is an exercise in making connections - the vast crowds at the opening and closing are there because of the many smaller events and contacts built up over many years. The festival is widely respected, and so able to make these connections where other organisations cannot. It receives money from the Government but also works with numerous left-wing social and cultural organisations and its main aim is to strengthen the cultural tissue of the country so that peace can be achieved. In Comuna 13, an area of the city with a famously violent history, I read alongside young rappers who are being encouraged towards futures that will give them an alternative to drugs, and a group of African-descended dancers from the Choco region. I went to Caucasia, to the north, and Sonsón, in the mountains, both towns struggling to recover from harrowing pasts. It is difficult to organise a festival that encompasses such places, but it was accomplished with great care and efficiency. I have returned with a new confidence in what poetry can do within difficult social relationships and a new understanding of what is needed to develop a cultural project of this type.

I also received a copy of Nuestra Tierra de Nadie, an anthology of Welsh poetry in both languages, including my own, which has been translated into Spanish by Víctor Rodríguez Núñez and Katherine Hedeen and previously published in Mexico. The Colombian edition is out now from Ladrones del Tiempo and was given to me by the editor Stéphane Chaumet, who was participating the festival. I was able to distribute copies of my Selected Poems in Spanish, published in Costa Rica last year, both through the festival book stalls and with other poets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.festivaldepoesiademedellin.org/en/Festival/29/29FIPM/
 
Description International Poetry Festival of Santiago, Chile 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave two readings in the centre of Santiago de Chile, one on a balcony overlooking an outdoor space, and another in an art gallery. I also read at the Centro Lecto Lo Barnechea, and the cultural centre in El Bosque. These readings were all well attended and there were opportunities for discussion with a wide range of people, from the poets in the festival to young people from the city and its environs. I heard a great deal of poetry from Chile and was able to discuss current ideas and concerns. The festival is ambitiously programmed, with many large events happening simultaneously. This gave it an impressive reach into different communities. There was good social media coverage as well as radio and TV. The publicity materials were beautifully designed, giving the event a presence and visual coherence across the city. The Goethe Institute was extremely supportive, sending representatives to the festival as well as supporting two German writers. I had a discussion with them about what they felt to be the key impact of the project, and their view was that the quality of engagement between invited writers and the public - rather than the numbers involved - was of central importance. They felt that as a high quality international event it was valuable for Chile. As is evident from the recent political unrest in Chile, this is a difficult environment in which to create and sustain large-scale arts activity such as a poetry festival. Although the festival received state funding, the government is not particularly supportive of the arts or education, so this event was happening against the grain, testing out the possibilities for cultural expression in public spaces and developing audiences for poetry. The organiser is from Lima, and Peru has a much more developed cultural infrastructure as well as an established poetry festival, which he used to work for. In Santiago he had a very loyal band of volunteer helpers, and had worked hard to develop links with a range of cultural and educational organisations. As well as participating in the festival, I was pleased to make contact with the Pontifical University, who hosted a seminar on connections between UK and Chilean experimental poetry, in which I contributed a talk. I was pleased to renew contact with colleagues in the international poetry world, such as Aurélia Lassaque from France and Jean Portante from Luxembourg. It was evident that the organiser had built up support from a range of institutions, all of them contributing in some way to this visible and significant event. From friends and family who offered practical help to venues and educational institutions across the city, there was a sense that good communication had created support for the festival and its aims across many communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://fipsantiago.com/
 
Description Participation in 55th Goran's Spring Poetry Festival, Croatia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact From March 20th-23rd I took part in Goran's Spring, an annual Croatian poetry festival celebrating the poet Ivan Goran Kovacic. My poetry was translated into Croatian for the event and I performed at events in Zagreb, Lukovdol, Rijeka and Pazina along with Nia Davies, another member of the Poetry in Expanded Translation network, and Rhys Trimble, a Welsh performer also involved in the final conference of Expanded Translation. The festival was organised in connection with the Versopolis platform, with which I discussed potential future collaboration. Audiences in total for the event were approximately 600.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.novilist.hr/Kultura/Knjizevnost/55.-Goranovo-proljece-Nagrada-za-pjesnicki-opus-Tonku-Mar...
 
Description Performance at Generations Festival, Aberystwyth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sound-based performance of my poem on Parisian urban space, Teint: For the Bièvre, to an audience of about 40.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.aberystwythartscentre.co.uk/festivals/generations-innovations
 
Description Poetry Reading at Double Change, Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I read new work on cities, translated by Jean Portante, in the long-running Double Change reading series in Paris that draws together radical poetry in French and English. The event was attended by approximately 60 people. As a consequence I was invited to participate in two further events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmrfVT0meVg
 
Description Poetry Readings and Translation Workshop in Inizjamed Literature Festival, Malta 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I took part in a four-day translation workshop with a group of international writers, and then participated in a three-day literature festival, giving readings of and interviews about my poems (with Maltese translation) as well as reading my own translations of other poets' work. The public readings were open-air in St Elmo's Fort, with an audience of several hundred.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://inizjamedmalta.wordpress.com/
 
Description Poetry Wales Blog Post 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A blog article for Poetry Wales responding to discussion of the Expanded Translation network in an online article. There was a positive response from the President of Welsh PEN, with whom it is hoped that future activities may be planned.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://poetrywales.co.uk/wp/3336/poetry-in-expanded-translation-an-update/
 
Description Poetry in Expanded Translation: A Day of Readings at Iklectik, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an intensive day of readings and lively discussion that continued the themes of the Expanded Translation conference for an audience of UK-based practitioners and the general public. There was an audience of approximately 80 in total.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://expanded-translation.bangor.ac.uk/news-and-events.php.en
 
Description Poetry readings at Luna de Locos Festival Pereira, Colombia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This was a very well organised and purposeful festival at which I participated in a total of ten events with other international poets, including readings and discussions. The venues ranged from schools, where the students had previously been given my poems to study, to arts centres, libraries, parks and public spaces across the region, culminating in an outdoor event in Pereira attended by several hundred people. Engaged discussion reflected a keen interest on the part of audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://lunadelocoselfestival.org/2015/
 
Description Presentation of Expanded Translation in Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The "Translating performance / performing translation" project at the The Laboratory of Excellence in Arts and Human Mediations in Paris invited the PI and Co-I of Poetry in Expanded Translation to give a public talk about the project. This was attended by members of public, students and practitioners. Future collaborations were discussed and are forthcoming in 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.labex-arts-h2h.fr/translating-performance-performing-1441.html?lang=fr
 
Description Public Readings at National Poetry Library: Rewriting as Translation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Network members spent a day improvising and working collaboratively in relation to texts selected by staff of the National Poetry Library. On April 10th, these were presented as an afternoon and evening series of readings and discussions on the theme of translation as rewriting. There was a lively audience of between 50 and 60. The project reached further members of the public through publication of recordings online and a project in which postcards were left in the library books to be filled in by visitors and then tweeted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://expanded-translation.bangor.ac.uk/news-and-events.php.en
 
Description Public readings in UC Berkeley and San Francisco 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A reading and panel discussion in UC Berkeley with Lyn Hejinian, Forrest Gander, Bhanu Kapil and James Byrne, attended by approximately 60 people, and a reading in Alley Cat Books in San Francisco with an audience of approximately 20. Themes from Expanded Translation were discussed and future collaborations planned, for example the visit of the poet and translator Forrest Gander to Bangor in 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.dailycal.org/2018/09/16/panel-atlantic-drift-literary-international/
 
Description Reading and Discussion at Schamrock Women's Poetry Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Schamrock Festival of Women Poets in Munich 26th-28th October 2018

The festival in Munich had an interesting focus on women writers. As well as giving a reading of my own work translated into German, I participated in a panel debate with Anne Waldman and others. One of the declared purposes of the festival was to bring together organisers of festivals, who present poetry in translation. I was able to give an account of my efforts to present international poetry via expanded translation in a Welsh context. The consensus of the discussion was that the poetry festival is often an extension of one's own poetic practice -the festival may be viewed as an extended collaborative poem that also feeds one's own work. I gathered a number of useful contacts for future projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.schamrock.org/Festival_2018/e/Poets/Skoulding_e.html
 
Description Reading at StAnza Poetry Festival 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reading of my own poems (with a city and translation focus) at Scotland's international poetry festival to an audience of 50-100 at my event and with significant reach on Twitter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Reading at launch for Atlantic Drift, Edge Hill University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I read from Teint: for the Bièvre, a work exploring urban space and translation, for an audience of over a hundred.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.edgehill.ac.uk/events/2017/11/23/atlantic-drift/
 
Description Reading at the Bluecoat, Liverpool 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a reading from my new book Footnotes to Water and took part in a Q and A on cities and translation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.thebluecoat.org.uk/events/view/events/4077
 
Description Readings and discussion at International Poetry Festival of Costa Rica 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact International Poetry Festival of Costa Rica November 4th-12th 2018

This festival is truly inspiring in terms of what it has achieved with young writers, who were present in and involved with all the events. Norberto Salinas, the Director, has spent years building up writing groups across the country, travelling relentlessly. This may have taken its toll, however, as he had a heart attack during the festival. The festival as a whole was a major feat of organisation, spanning the whole country.

There were well attended readings in a number of cultural centres in San José, including the Melico Salazar Theatre (audience 300), the Jade Museum (audience 200) and the Mexican Cultural Institute (audience 200), as well as a reading in the University of San José. We were then sent to different parts of the country for a programme of readings in each region. I was lucky enough to be taken to Monteverde, where I was escorted by local poets to a number of schools and cultural events. There were particularly responsive groups in the Quaker School (see below) and the Instituto Creativo, and I also did an evening reading with some outstanding Argentinian musicians who were part of the music festival that was running concurrently. For the final two days we went with a group of young poets to the Torguero nature reserve for more readings and discussions about poetry.

In the School visits I presented 'Expanded Translation' techniques to the students.

I would estimate that the total of all the audiences was about 1,000.

The festival published a book for each of the visiting writers, which is an extraordinarily generous thing to do. I now have a Collected Poems with facing-page translations in Spanish. It was priced cheaply with the express aim of reaching as many young people as possible, and makes my work available in an entirely new context.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.nodalcultura.am/2018/11/poesia-en-costa-rica/
 
Description Safi Poetry Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Safi Poetry Forum 28th March-2nd April 2018

This was a valuable opportunity to meet poets from several different countries, as well as poets in both French and Arabic in Morocco.
My work was translated into Arabic for the event, but as many of the population also speak French, I was able to share work in French translation
as well. My French translator Jean Portante was also present in the festival and we were able to give bilingual readings together in schools in the city. The Safi Poetry Forum included a discussion in the town library about the role of poetry in a troubled world. There was a fascinating range of perspectives, each speaker touching on the question of how to bring about change through moments of encounter through language. The location we were in became, in this festival, a site of confluence between Europe and Latin America. Islamic traditions of hospitality brought us together and allowed us to think and listen in new contexts. The overwhelming enthusiasm of the children in the schools we visited shows that poetry is a living and significant art form in Morocco.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Soirée lectures, performance et danse 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An audience of about 80 attended an informal 'Soirée lectures, performance et danse' on November 9th at the Maison de l'étudiant, UHA Campus Illberg, Mulhouse, featuring work from members of the network and local performers. There was lively discussion during and after the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://jenniferkdick.blogspot.co.uk/2017/10/poetry-in-expanded-translation-2-text.html
 
Description Soirée performances et lectures 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of 'Poetry in Expanded Translation II: Intersemiotic Translation-Between Text & Image', participants in the network performed alongside other local and international artists in a themed evening of readings and dramatic presentations, imaginatively staged in the gallery space. There was a large audience comprising members of the general public and students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://kunsthallemulhouse.com/evenement/soiree-performances/