NEWTON - Cultural heritage in landscape: planning for development in Turkey

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Sch of History, Classics and Archaeology

Abstract

As defined in the European Landscape Convention (now signed and ratified by Turkey and the UK), the concept of 'landscape' provides a way to bring cultural and natural heritage together in mutually-supportive ways. Landscape offers a global frame to address social and environmental challenges and to exploit the social, economic and environmental values of different types of heritage for social benefit. Landscape perspectives can be local and universal, personal and collective; they embrace both tangible and intangible heritage and have strong cross-sectoral connections to areas such as urban planning.

Landscapes underpin sense of place and identity: with careful management, they can transform people's quality of life. Although landscapes change constantly as a result of human actions and natural processes, researchers have not yet created spatial models at a large scale that provide detailed insights into historic landscape change. Such models could be used to understand fundamental issues such as the links between historical changes, intensification and climate change, and to inform planning for the future.

To do so, this project will develop emerging landscape characterisation methods that can be used across and between disciplines to address the challenges of environmental and social change through landscape. Leading specialists from
Turkey and the UK will work together with a team of Early Career Researchers (ECRs) to identify and address challenges facing societies in both countries through cultural heritage in landscape.

During the research programme the team will develop innovative practical methods to create positive impacts within 5-10 years. This is especially urgent in Turkey as quickening economic development and social change create unintended negative impacts including loss of landscape character and poor-quality landscapes. The partners will promote research using Historic Landscape Characterisation (HLC), an interdisciplinary technique developed in the UK and first piloted in Turkey by members of the team with the aim of informing positive landscape planning and management.

The project will be organised into five Work Packages (WPs) to develop and demonstrate the value of characterisation using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) for historic landscape research, public participation and landscape planning. The research programme will be focussed around two case-studies in Turkey in the regions of Izmir on the Aegean coast and Mersin on the Mediterranean. Each case-study will include detailed analysis of a large region (including all available modern/historic cartography, remote sensing and aerial photographic data), with targeted ecological and archaeological fieldwork (WP2); public engagement and participation to underpin interpretations of landscape value (WP3); and GIS-based modelling of scenarios informed by historic character analysis to develop methods for visualising and planning future landscapes (WP4).

The project will address these two fundamental challenges in the Turkish context:
1. To identify and implement effective methods for advocating positive landscape change based on a well-understood and clearly presented base of evidence that includes cultural heritage;
2. To create effective relationships between landscape researchers in different scientific disciplines, landscape planning policy and practical implementation in landscape management.

Targeted dissemination actions will promote the project's results to relevant audiences. Two conferences in Turkey are planned during the project's lifetime for delegates including landscape architects, landscape planers, archaeologists, academics, local government officials, and national government ministries and authorities. The tools we develop will also be applicable beyond Turkey in the UK, Europe and beyond: the team will promote their use through their international networks, publications and online communications.

Planned Impact

Both (a) the social and economic potential of landscape as cultural heritage, and also (b) the implementation of key international conventions and directives (especially the European Landscape Convention, but also the Faro Convention on
the Value of Cultural Heritage to Society, and the European Environmental Impact Assessment Directive) are currently inhibited by two major challenges:
-- To identify and implement effective methods for advocating positive landscape change based on a well-understood and clearly presented base of evidence including cultural heritage;
-- To create effective relationships between landscape researchers in different scientific disciplines, landscape planning policy and practical implementation in landscape and heritage management.

This project will address these challenges in the Turkish context and promote the results to relevant audiences who will be able to implement the practical 'toolkit' of methods we develop in (1) integrative historic landscape characterisation, (2) public participation in landscape heritage, and (3) scenario modelling to inform future planning. Key beneficiaries will include landscape professionals and public agencies concerned with heritage management and planning. They will be involved in the project directly through two major conferences planned for 2017 and 2018. Delegates will include landscape architects, landscape planners, archaeologists, local government officials, and national government ministries (e.g. representatives of the Ministries of Forestry and Water Affairs, Environment and Urbanization, and Culture and Tourism).

The active participation of early career researchers (ECRs) in the project both as junior researchers and through the project conferences (which will include training sessions) will enable the research team to train a group of future practitioners to use the methods we develop in Turkey and beyond.

The project will also benefit a wider group of citizens by developing effective participatory methods to enable local communities to have their say about the value of cultural heritage and landscape and contribute their views to landscape planning. In the short term (during the project), this work will take place within the case-study areas, engaging with local communities through open public workshops (with accompanying print and online media) that promote knowledge exchange relating to landscape as cultural heritage. The new knowledge about the history of landscapes that is created during the project by the research team will be fed back to local communities through appropriate channels (e.g. through lectures and online). In the longer term, the implementation of the methods we develop will enable local communities to feed their views into landscape strategies and development consultations.

In order to maximise the ongoing benefits of the project, the toolkit of methods we develop will be archived and made publically accessible for free download in perpetuity via the UK Archaeology Data Service (ADS). Original datasets created by the team will also be made available from ADS and via appropriate web sources, e.g. OpenStreetMap. This will enable potential future researchers and professionals to identify examples of good practices to guide their own application and development of integrative HLC methods.

The tools developed during the project will be equally applicable in contexts outside Turkey, and the team will promote them to landscape professionals in the UK, Europe and beyond through international networks (e.g. via their involvement in COST actions, JPI Cultural Heritage projects), international conferences, publications and online communications.
 
Description The project was designed to address two basic challenges in the Turkish context:
1. To identify and implement effective methods for advocating positive landscape change based on a well-understood and clearly presented base of evidence that includes cultural heritage;
2. To create effective relationships between landscape researchers in different scientific disciplines, landscape planning policy and practical implementation in landscape management.

The project successfully developed and implemented landscape characterisation methods that can be used across disciplines to address environmental and social challenges through landcae. Landscape archaeologists from the UK and Turkey worked with landscape architects and ecologists from Turkey with a team of Early Career Researchers (ECRs) to develop methods for combined approaches to cultural heritage in landscape, its planning and future management.

During the research the team developed innovative practical methods, specifically the adaptation of Historic Landscape Characterisation (HLC), an interdisciplinary technique developed in the UK. HLC was first piloted in Turkey as part of an AHRC-funded project in 2007, and the current project enabled its applicability to be expanded to a wider interdisciplinary audience.

The project successfully developed the characterisation methodology and demonstrated the value of characterisation using GIS (Geographical Information Systems). As planned, the research programme was focussed on two case-studies in Turkey in the regions of Izmir on the Aegean coast and Mersin on the Mediterranean. Each case-study included:
- detailed analysis of a large region (including all available modern/historic cartography, remote sensing and aerial photographic data), with targeted ecological and archaeological fieldwork (WP2).
- public engagement and participation was designed to underpin interpretations of landscape value (WP3), carried out through >150 interviews.
- Experimental GIS based modelling of scenarios informed by historic character analysis was undertaken to develop new methods for visualising and planning future landscapes (WP4).
An additional outcome, not envisaged in the project design but added during the fieldwork phase in the Mersin case study, was characterisation and dating of historic earthworks using a new scientific method (OSL-PD) which provided a wholly original understanding of the historic evolution of the landscape under investigation.

The project was successful in addressing its aims. Targeted dissemination actions were carried out to promote the project's results to relevant audiences. A launch event and final conference took place in Turkey during the project's lifetime for delegates including landscape architects, landscape planers, archaeologists, academics, local government officials, and national government ministries and authorities. The tools we developed will also be applicable beyond Turkey in the UK, Europe and beyond: the team hopes to continue to work together to promote their use through their international networks, publications and online communications.

A series of publications are in preparation.
Exploitation Route In Turkey training delivered in the framework of this project and three other Newton-funded projects (2014-19) has already begun to influenced practice by Turkish landscape architects and heritage professionals. Workshops in landscape characterisation have reached more than 100 Turkish early career researchers from 34 institutions, including a week-long 'Researcher Links' workshop for 40 people in 2016. This led directly to implementation of HLCs for landscape management, for example work reported at the CHiLaT project final conference around the UNESCO candidate World Heritage Site (WHS) at Arslantepe in 2019.

We envisage that future applications of the methods developed may include not only further academic and professional use of the methods, but also influence on policies for landscape management.
Sectors Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

 
Description The team presented the project's developing methods through a conference and workshop which brought together researchers and landscape practitioners in Mersin, Turkey (Nov 2017). The event considered and debated issues of methodology, policy and practice relating to the historic landscapes of southern Turkey. Speakers and participants came from Turkey, Denmark and the UK. The workshop enabled development of new relationships between stakeholders which led to development of a revised strategic agenda for research on the region's historic landscapes; this is being prepared for publication. The event also led to the creation of new research collaborations and subsequent submission of new funding proposals. In September 2019, 100 delegates from industry, government and academia attended a 2-day conference organised by the project in Izmir. The project team shared methods and results with the conference, and international speakers shared experiences from other European countries. Workshop debate during the conference included development of ideas for policy change with delegates from local government and central government ministries. Papers presented by researchers and practitioners from outside the project testified to impacts of the project which have already begun, for example implementation of a new HLC for landscape management around the UNESCO candidate World Heritage Site (WHS) at Arslantepe (Turkey) in 2019.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Policy & public services

 
Description Follow-on funding for impact and engagement
Amount £80,536 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/P014453/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2018
 
Description Newton Advanced Fellowship
Amount £102,500 (GBP)
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2019
 
Description Ege University 
Organisation Ege University
Department Department of Landscape Architecture
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The CHiLaT project is a collaboration led by Newcastle University and Ege University. Prof. Engin Nurlu at Ege is PI in Turkey, leading a team comprising members from Ege University (Izmir) and other universities including Mimar Sinan (Istanbul), Adnan Menderes (Izmir), Bitlis Eren (Bitlis).
Collaborator Contribution Our partners at Ege University are leading specific research activities in a number of areas on the project.
Impact The project began formally in November 2016 with a kick-off meeting in Newcastle. A subsequent consortium meeting was held in Istanbul in February 2017.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Heriland 
Organisation Bezalel Academy of Art and Design
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are beneficiary partners in the H2020 MSCA ITN project 'Heriland' (total funded value EUR 4 million), coordinated by VU Amsterdam
Collaborator Contribution VU Amsterdam are coordinators. With them, 5 other beneficiary partners and 20 other consortium members we are involved in supervision and training of 15 early stage researchers carrying out a programme of research in landscape and heritage-related planning.
Impact Heriland masterclass, various locations in the Netherlands, 4-8 November 2019 Public seminar, VU Amsterdam, 6 November 2019
Start Year 2019
 
Description Heriland 
Organisation Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are beneficiary partners in the H2020 MSCA ITN project 'Heriland' (total funded value EUR 4 million), coordinated by VU Amsterdam
Collaborator Contribution VU Amsterdam are coordinators. With them, 5 other beneficiary partners and 20 other consortium members we are involved in supervision and training of 15 early stage researchers carrying out a programme of research in landscape and heritage-related planning.
Impact Heriland masterclass, various locations in the Netherlands, 4-8 November 2019 Public seminar, VU Amsterdam, 6 November 2019
Start Year 2019
 
Description Heriland 
Organisation Free University of Amsterdam
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are beneficiary partners in the H2020 MSCA ITN project 'Heriland' (total funded value EUR 4 million), coordinated by VU Amsterdam
Collaborator Contribution VU Amsterdam are coordinators. With them, 5 other beneficiary partners and 20 other consortium members we are involved in supervision and training of 15 early stage researchers carrying out a programme of research in landscape and heritage-related planning.
Impact Heriland masterclass, various locations in the Netherlands, 4-8 November 2019 Public seminar, VU Amsterdam, 6 November 2019
Start Year 2019
 
Description Heriland 
Organisation Roma Tre University
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are beneficiary partners in the H2020 MSCA ITN project 'Heriland' (total funded value EUR 4 million), coordinated by VU Amsterdam
Collaborator Contribution VU Amsterdam are coordinators. With them, 5 other beneficiary partners and 20 other consortium members we are involved in supervision and training of 15 early stage researchers carrying out a programme of research in landscape and heritage-related planning.
Impact Heriland masterclass, various locations in the Netherlands, 4-8 November 2019 Public seminar, VU Amsterdam, 6 November 2019
Start Year 2019
 
Description Heriland 
Organisation University of Gothenburg
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are beneficiary partners in the H2020 MSCA ITN project 'Heriland' (total funded value EUR 4 million), coordinated by VU Amsterdam
Collaborator Contribution VU Amsterdam are coordinators. With them, 5 other beneficiary partners and 20 other consortium members we are involved in supervision and training of 15 early stage researchers carrying out a programme of research in landscape and heritage-related planning.
Impact Heriland masterclass, various locations in the Netherlands, 4-8 November 2019 Public seminar, VU Amsterdam, 6 November 2019
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collegio Ghislieri, University of Pavia, Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on work in progress to members of Collegio Ghislieri in Pavia. Attendees expressed interest in adopting similar methods and a new collaborative project is consequently at the planning stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Consell insular de Menorca 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Consultation on methods and techniques for landscape analysis in support of UNESCO WHS nomination for Talayotic Menorca - contribution to workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cultural Heritage in Landscape: Planning for Development in Turkey 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 100 delegates from industry, government and academia attended a 2-day conference organised by the project in Izmir in September 2019. The project team shared methods and results with the conference, and international speakers shared experiences from other European countries. Workshop debate during the conference included development of ideas for policy change with delegates from local government and central government ministries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.izmiredair.com/peyzaj-da-kulturel-miras-turkiye-de-planlama-gelisimi-konferansi/19881/
 
Description Digital Approaches to Landscape Analysis, Istanbul 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This Workshop focussed on the use of recent and newly emerging digital tools in the analysis of historic landscapes. The workshop brought together academic research who employ and develop digital tools and technologies in the analysis of landscapes, including historic landscape characterisation and geographical information systems, laser scanning and digital photogrammetry, integrated spatial databases and 3D modelling. The round-tables engaged participants and audience in critical evaluation of digital approaches. Meanwhile a day-long early career researchers' training workshop delivered training in (a) processing laser scanning and photogrammetry data, and (b) reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) for landscape applications for 12 selected early career researchers from universities and cultural heritage bodies in Turkey. Collaborative relationships made or reinforced at the Workshop led to subsequent submission of several new funding applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description HS2 open fields workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Participation in strategy workshop relating to the development of historic environment strategy for HS2 project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Historic Landscapes: character, assessment and visualisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This Workshop took place at Faculty of Architecture, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir, Turkey in June 2017. The papers and round-table discussion addressed a range of issues in assessing and visualising historic landscapes in Turkey and Europe, including both methodological and theoretical issues related to sustainable cultural heritage management. The Workshop included students and early career researchers who were introduced to new perspectives. Participants reported significant interest including several requests for future collaboration with members of the research team.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Workshop on Landscape Characterisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The team's researchers co-organised this workshop in Brussels with the Government of Flanders. 200 government officials, professionals and researchers attended the workshop in October 2019 on on implementation of the ELC and tools for landscape management. The workshop influenced the inclusion of integrated landscape characterisation in the Flanders government's official policy programme for 2019-2023.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description New approaches to recording, understanding and conserving historic landscapes in a global context - session at Chartered Institute for Archaeologists conference, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference session at UK's main annual event for professional archaeologists. Session included papers developing out of and/or informed by work of CHeriScape and CHiLaT projects. Discussion and new collaborations developed during the session led to a series of actions including collaborative projects with industry and consultations on major infrastructure projects (e.g. HS2).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop: Archaeological and cultural landscape studies in Rough Cilicia, Mersin, Turkey 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop brought together researchers and landscape practitioners to consider and debate issues of methodology, policy and practice relating to the historic landscapes of southern Turkey. Speakers and participants came from Turkey, Denmark and the UK. The workshop enabled development of new relationships between stakeholders which led to development of a revised strategic agenda for research on the region's historic landscapes which is now being prepared for publication. The event also led to the creation of new collaborations and subsequent submission of new funding proposals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017