Understanding the home as a source of infection of AMR bacteria carried by dust by exploring hygiene practices in different home environments in Ghana

Lead Research Organisation: Lancaster University
Department Name: Lancaster Inst for the Contemporary Arts

Abstract

The Dust Bunny project will apply design methods coupled with microbiological analyses to address issues of home-based infections in Ghana, particularly those carrying antimicrobial resistance, resulting in a reduction of infection and in positive increase of health outcomes.

Bacteria found in the natural and built environment (e.g. homes, schools, hospitals, etc.) are building up a resistance to drugs -changing to protect themselves against antibiotics. What this means is that in the not-too-distant future, something as simple as a minor cut infection could become life-threatening. This is such a concern that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now considered a global health crisis, far surpassing outbreaks of diseases such as Ebola and as real as climate change. This is even more evident and critical in developing countries in Africa, such as in Ghana, where there are a great number of deaths from infectious diseases.

Bacteria are made up of pathogens (bad germs) and non-pathogens (good germs) and are generally scattered across the home. Most surfaces in the home are covered to a certain degree with bacteria, but unlike fixed surfaces such as kitchen work surfaces and furniture, dust can move more easily around different parts of the home and therefore presents a major route for human exposure to bacterial infections.
Despite being clear evidence for microbial exposure and infection transmission within the home, there has been less research effort invested in understanding the home environment, due to difficulty of conducting detailed studies. Although the transmission routes by dust in the home environment are well known, what has not been studied is how to prevent bacterial infection at home and thereby reduce resistance.

Particularly in developing countries, such as Ghana, social inequalities mean a range of different quality and types of homes; this combined with often poor levels of domestic hygiene that is influenced by a number of economic, educational and religion factors, contributes to the spread of infectious diseases.

Although there are hygiene guidelines available for preventing infection in the home environment, these are targeted at hygiene professionals and do not reach the everyday household in Ghana. There is therefore a much-required and unmet need to identify, understand and develop domestic hygiene practices that are relevant to different home environments, educational and cultural backgrounds in developing countries, such as in Ghana, in order to reduce exposure to bacteria pathogens and thereby exposure to resistance forms.

Within this context, the Dust Bunny project aims at developing an understanding of the home as a source of infection of bacteria, resistant to antibiotics, found and carried by dust. This will be done by exploring hygiene practices across different home environments in Ghana, with the ultimate aim to reduce bacterial infection in the home environment thereby reducing AMR.

Understanding the hygiene practices in the household and interactions with airborne AMR bacteria will serve as a first step to designing appropriate education/information dissemination materials for various sections of the Ghanaian population as well as other low- and middle-income countries in Africa.

Dust Bunny, uniquely combines design research and microbiology to provide an informed assessment of societal practices in domestic cleanliness and novel solution to reduce infections in the home. The project team includes Imagination@Lancaster -an internationally leading research institution in design research- and the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research -a research centre of excellence and the prime biomedical research institution in Ghana, involved with the Ghana Health Service and Ministry of Health in providing the evidence to effect policy changes.

Planned Impact

Building on the 4 identified impacts in our Pathways to Impact document, here we expand on who we envisage benefiting from this research and develop further how they would benefit:

[IO1] Disseminating the findings: to academic and non-academic audiences in the UK and Ghana. Mechanisms, such as the project website, social media, regular dissemination trough the AHRC, ESRC AMR Champions and NERC AMR Programme Leader, academic (conference & journal papers) and non-academic publications (press releases/media briefings & newsletters via our partners, the Design Council, EPN/ReAct Africa, Zoomlion, Global Hygiene Council) will help in achieving this.

[IO2] Raising the profile: to engage appropriate stakeholders thereby bringing the research to the attention of a wider audience and solicit feedback as research insights emerge. Through our collaborators we will engage government and health policy makers who are actively involved in healthcare and AMR reduction such as the Ghanaian government, World health Organisation and United Nations Development programme. By engaging our governmental and non-governmental partners, the outcomes of this study will help to further inform Ghana's national antimicrobial resistance policy; and will further help inform future policy interventions to change the daily routine of hygiene practice to reduce bacterial pathogens and thereby exposure to antibiotic resistant forms which complicate and prevent effective treatment of diseases. Mechanisms for this include our advisory panel and project partners, co-design workshops with communities and expects in Ghana; a thought leaders workshop and development of personas of hygiene practices across different user groups.

[IO3] Engaging and co-developing: with the aim of ensuring shared ownership of the action plan, the research insights will be co-developed through engagement with key stakeholders and beneficiaries including discussions with key influencers at regional and national levels. We will engage wider society/community, usually via a relatively small group of change makers within communities, to inform and be informed by research, and so to co-design and implement the 'smart solutions' that are appropriate to the domestic environment on a range of social scales. To this end, the project will feed information and possible changes to Ghana's government-driven goal of reducing antimicrobial resistance, which uses the React toolbox incorporating into React Ghana's (one of our project partners) national AMR policy through its national AMR policy. Mechanisms for achieving this includes community engagement in Ghana through seminars, workshops, flyers in schools, churches, mosques and other relevant community access points; development of storyboards & other dis/nation material of co-designed hygiene practices; follow-on GCRF bid scoping workshop in Ghana.

[IO4] Capacity building and Knowledge Exchange: on hygiene practices, design-based and AMR based research in low and middle income countries in the African continent, such as in Ghana (for UK and Ghanaian researchers). Building capacity to deliver strategic development goals (3: Good health and well-being; 11: Sustainable cities and communities) from research in science & technology, which here encompasses microbiology and design, requires more than just research and training in those disciplines. It also demands research and training in the social and management sciences that maximises the capacity for translation to life influencing design in wider communities to shape the design, development and exploitation of this project. Our strategy is to build capacity and capability is fundamentally interdisciplinary. Mechanisms for this include our project partners (Design Council, EPN/ReAct Africa, Zoomlion, Global Hygiene Council), research exchange and training of the UK & Ghanaian researchers of the project and capacity building and knowledge exchange workshops to be held in the UK & Ghana.
 
Description As the project is still ongoing we currently have preliminary findings from the design ethnography.

The Dust Bunny project seeks to develop an understanding of the home as a source of infection of AMR bacteria carried by dust, by exploring hygiene practices across different home environments in Ghana, with the ultimate aim to reduce bacterial infection in the home environment thereby reducing AMR. The design ethnography was intended to give researchers a closer understanding of the cleaning practices and the perceptions of cleanliness and hygiene, in relation to dust, of householders and the people who regularly clean homes as part of, and for, households in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. In addition, it sought to gain insights into the physical actions undertaken and the range of cleaning agents and cleaning tools used as part of those actions.

During the review of the data fifteen recurrent themes emerged.
1. Religion, superstition and traditional practice
2. Individual creed over religious practice
3. Social judgement
4. Taught knowledge and situated practice
5. Negotiated practice
6. Cleaning styles are often tacit practices
7. Repetition
8. Different brooms for different rooms
9. Walking dirt in and sweeping dirt out
10. New and old or new for old
11. Chemical storage and safety practices, strong smells and mitigations
12. Dusting, sweeping, scrubbing and mopping
13. Tools
14. Waste disposal
15. Seasonal Variation

To examine the domestic microbiome and its antimicrobial resistance carrying capacity household dust samples were taken from the same volunteer households (n=12) for analysis. We tested the bacteria for resistance to a number of commonly used antibiotics and found that about 35% of those tested carried resistance to at least one antibiotic and some carried resistance to more than one. Some of antibiotic resistant bacteria were identified and no were found to be disease-causing but the majority were opportunist pathogens and could cause disease in people who were already suffering from infectious or non-infectious diseases. The most common bacterium found was a non-pathogenic bacterium found in soil but even so it carried a number of resistance which could pass to antibiotic sensitive pathogens making their treatment more difficult. Although the sample size was relatively small it showed us that although the dust was a low risk to health with respect to infectious disease, it provides a pool of antibiotic resistance that could compromise future infections.

The process, findings and insights were anonymised and visualised to provide the material for co-designing cleaning practices, that were effective, easy to communicate and specific to the communities in question. Specifically, four scenarios were generated from an economic segmentation of the survey data, 50 ethnographic insights were 'presented' and descriptions of 12 bacteria, that represented the 125 identified species found in the dust samples, were presented to the participants in a codesign workshop. Additionally, a brief introduction to bacteria and AMR was filmed. A codesign workshop (n=7) took place at NMIMR, Accra, Ghana, with LU planning and directing the facilitation and two researchers from NMIMR supporting the delivery of the workshop. Finally, an intervention, a new regime of cleaning practices agreed through the codesign workshop and practiced for thirty days, was made in (n=7) households and another round of microbiological sampling (n=12) and analysis conducted to ascertain any impact on the domestic microbiome.

Additional work is still ongoing to analyse the 2nd microbiology sampling analysis following the cleaning interventions being tested across the homes.
Exploitation Route These are already been taken forward in a range of conference, journal and other publications. A number of stakeholder workshop events have taken place in Ghana to disseminate the findings and engaging professionals and communities in adopting new ways of cleaning their homes to reduce the introduction and spread of bacteria. An information and education leaflet is currently being developed to address this and will be distributed across 4 districts in greater Accra in April 2020. Two video documentaries have already been independent produced by journalists in Ghana and broadcasted at Ghana TV, the national Ghanaian broadcaster) reaching hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians. An article at The Africa Conversation has also reported on the project and helped disseminate its findings across Africa and Ghana. The lessons learnt from combining interdisciplinary research between design research and microbiology has already been documented and published in open outlets, which will inform new and young researchers who wish to conduct interdisciplinary research. Furthermore a range of tools for data gathering in this area have been made freely available through the project website for researchers and professionals. Future research is currently being developed to take the work further.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Healthcare

URL https://dustbunny.global/
 
Description Although the project is still ongoing with two months left, there is non-academic impact already appearing. More precisely, the two video documentaries of the project and its initial findings as well as its information on the importance of cleaning homes to reduce infections, is generating interest in the wider public. the first documentary appeared on Ghana TV (the official broadcaster in Ghana) several times in June/July 2019 and the second in October and November 2019 for more than 15 times and was seen by several thousands of viewers. Following these, our project partners at the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research at the University of Ghana have been receiving phone call from members of the public who want to find out more about the project and how to protect their households and families from infections through more robust cleaning practices.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Healthcare
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Accelerating the adoption of circular sanitation demonstration systems for improved health outcomes (ACTUATE)
Amount £704,276 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T015608/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 03/2021
 
Description GCRF GIAA Growth Fund
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lancaster University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 03/2019
 
Description WASHable: Participatory design and community engagement Network on WASH in Lusophone and Francophone African Countries
Amount £54,643 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/T008482/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2020 
End 01/2022
 
Title Molecular and classical microbiology of dust in sub-Saharan domestic dwellings 
Description We have used molecular and classical microbiology to describe the bacterial diversity in dust from homes of differing economic status. In addition we have assess the antimicrobial resistance in cultured isolates. These methods are not innovative but the innovation lies within the design part of the project as the participants allowed baseline analysis of diversity to be carried out, they were then exposed to microbiological data and also involved in workshop regarding hygiene practices in the home and new ways of cleaning. This was then applied to the homes and the microbiology re-assessed. The novelty is combining microbiology with design in participatory workshops. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact To be determined as the project progresses 
 
Title Bacterial DNA sequences from dust obtained from houses of differing economic status in Accra, Ghana 
Description 1.3M 215 bp sequences denoting identification to the level of genus from 12 houses comprising 4 replicates of 3 houses). This will be repeated generating an additional 4M 215 bp sequences from pre- and post-interventions. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This will tell us the burden of pathogens in houses and whether interventions reduce their presence. 
 
Description Arts, AMR and Global Health: Getting Creative with Superbugs in Nepal 
Organisation HERD International
Country Nepal 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Participation by Tsekleves as a result of the award in a consortium event on A cross-discipline analysis of the Community Engagement for Antimicrobial Resistance Conference. The 3-day event was organised by the University of Leeds and HERD International aimed at investigating the scope of community engagement methods to tackle antimicrobial resistance. From an epidemiology and public health perspective, combining knowledge from multiple sources presents the best opportunity to adequately address public health concerns, such as in the case of AMR. The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Dust Bunny project I lead demonstrates that the use of a design research approach (that allows us to understand complex human behaviour and turn that into actionable insights) to address antimicrobial resistance management at the household level can provide insights into behavioural challenges, which is key to changing behaviour that contributes to global health challenges. Using a design research approach is a practice that adds more value to the microbiology and public health aspects of the project, which would typically not engage further with households after sampling has been completed. As the design research community, along with other research communities, are called upon to tackle the complex global challenge of improving health and wellbeing, our research efforts should focus on co-producing with partners from the Global South strategies for promoting health and preventing illbeing of population.
Collaborator Contribution The value of transdisciplinary research and in particular participatory design in this context was well echoed in the Community Engagement for Antimicrobial Resistance conference I participated in late June 2019. The insights gained from combining design and microbiology in the Dust Bunny project, as well as from the aforementioned event suggest that there are still challenges to address in enabling and supporting such transdisciplinary collaborations. Furthermore, there is still work to be done on enhancing other disciplines' understandings of the role and function of design in such specialist medical areas. There are, however, several opportunities arising in embedding design in health research, such as developing a better understanding of the health context and the individual, social and household drivers, and promoting best practices for public health implementation by engaging communities of citizens and professionals.
Impact Collaborative bid to the GCRF Challenge Clusters entitled: Developing Community-Led Solutions to Antimicrobial Resistance: Building a One Health Approach in Low and Middle Income Countries. Awaiting results.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Arts, AMR and Global Health: Getting Creative with Superbugs in Nepal 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation by Tsekleves as a result of the award in a consortium event on A cross-discipline analysis of the Community Engagement for Antimicrobial Resistance Conference. The 3-day event was organised by the University of Leeds and HERD International aimed at investigating the scope of community engagement methods to tackle antimicrobial resistance. From an epidemiology and public health perspective, combining knowledge from multiple sources presents the best opportunity to adequately address public health concerns, such as in the case of AMR. The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Dust Bunny project I lead demonstrates that the use of a design research approach (that allows us to understand complex human behaviour and turn that into actionable insights) to address antimicrobial resistance management at the household level can provide insights into behavioural challenges, which is key to changing behaviour that contributes to global health challenges. Using a design research approach is a practice that adds more value to the microbiology and public health aspects of the project, which would typically not engage further with households after sampling has been completed. As the design research community, along with other research communities, are called upon to tackle the complex global challenge of improving health and wellbeing, our research efforts should focus on co-producing with partners from the Global South strategies for promoting health and preventing illbeing of population.
Collaborator Contribution The value of transdisciplinary research and in particular participatory design in this context was well echoed in the Community Engagement for Antimicrobial Resistance conference I participated in late June 2019. The insights gained from combining design and microbiology in the Dust Bunny project, as well as from the aforementioned event suggest that there are still challenges to address in enabling and supporting such transdisciplinary collaborations. Furthermore, there is still work to be done on enhancing other disciplines' understandings of the role and function of design in such specialist medical areas. There are, however, several opportunities arising in embedding design in health research, such as developing a better understanding of the health context and the individual, social and household drivers, and promoting best practices for public health implementation by engaging communities of citizens and professionals.
Impact Collaborative bid to the GCRF Challenge Clusters entitled: Developing Community-Led Solutions to Antimicrobial Resistance: Building a One Health Approach in Low and Middle Income Countries. Awaiting results.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Women's Economic Imperative 1st conference in Edinburgh, Scotland 
Organisation Women's Economic Imperative
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Tsekleves was invited to participate in the Women's Economic Imperative 1st conference in Edinburgh, Scotland (www.weiforward.org/conference/). The conference focused on the economic empowerment of women and the importance of health in this, especially in a Global South context. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) framework serve as the organizing frame for the current global development agenda. Specific goals such as Goal 3 - Good Health and Wellbeing Goal 5 - Gender Equity, Goal 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth, and Goal 10 - Reduced Inequalities - serve as action points for focusing on the health of women in sub-Saharan Africa as an economic value for the robust development of communities, municipalities, and cities. In many developing countries, including many in Africa, health services and care are not always available to everyone who needs it. I was invited to make a contribution by presenting the role of health in gender and participate in a workshop for the design of an online dashboard for the health and economic empowerment of women, which will be launched within 2020.
Collaborator Contribution It is essential that we focus on interventions at the level of social and health policy, the community, and systems of health care delivery and female representation in the health care professions, research and policy making. In many African countries, even the most basic health care is unavailable to the majority of women and children. Investments must target the inequities that prevent access to care, for example, by removing financial barriers and providing social health protection. Unless that happens, the SDG targets will not be reached. Furthermore, the partners and networks developed in the conference are now participating as external advisors in new research project where the role of gender is a critical component.
Impact Members from the WEI consortium participate in the external advisory committee of GCRF related project that I hold, advising on gender and women empowerment.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Co-design of home cleaning Interventions in Accra, Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact In September 2019 the Dust Bunny team run a co-design workshop with several of the households participating in the project. The aim of the workshop was to co-design interventions that householders will take back and implement. The households were representative of the 4 socio-economic groups found in Ghana.
The one-day workshop included several creative activities and tools which were designed to elicit response and engagement from participants. Some of the tools and activities placed participants in mock-up versions of different types of households and presented in visual ways the bacteria found in households form the microbiological analysis and their potential impact to health.They then explored the different cleaning hotspots where they believed bacteria are found in their homes and developed cleaning agreements that each household would take back home and test for a month.Participants were deeply engaged with the data, especially the findings from the microbiological analysis of dust. They wanted to know the number of different bacteria found and from which socioeconomic groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://dustbunny.global/2019/10/22/dust-bunny-households-co-design-home-cleaning-interventions/
 
Description Community and experts pave the way for new Global Health project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact In a co-design workshop run in February in Accra, representatives of the communities participating in the Dust Bunny project and experts (public health, epidemiology, behavioural psychology, etc) came together to co-develop an interdisciplinary research project addressing infectious disease in the home environment in Ghana.

Through a series of creative and interactive activities, workshop co-designers identified the key health challenges faced by communities as well as the barriers to conducting research with communities in Ghana. These included the role of cleaning and hygiene practices in the transmission of infectious disease in the home and the impact of cultural and religious beliefs on them. Furthermore, attention was paid to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Ghana in light of the national action plan on AMR.

In terms of the challenges of conducting research with local communities, these included access to communities and establishing trust, use of technology for recording data (i.e. cameras, audio recorders) and sampling of microbiological material, such as dust. Again the role of culture and religion featured on these discussions.

Workshop participants, led by community members provided ways of mitigating these challenges and set aims and objective fo a new and impactful project that would tackle these. Examples included working with schools (primary and junior), religious groups (churches, mosques) and other social groups. This led to discussion and a set of research methods that would work well with the identified communities, including citizen science and research endorsed, carried and promoted by different communities.

Following this and working in groups, workshop participants were invited to think and discuss about what they would hope to learn knowledge from project such as this, what is important about that knowledge, how might it impact Ghana and the world. This led to the identification of several research outcomes as well as pathway to impact for the project.

What became clear from this co-design workshop was the value of engaging the community along with experts in the research planning process and in defining the wider contexts of infectious diseases , as well as the research methods, outcomes, stakeholders and pathways to impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://dustbunny.global/2019/02/26/community-and-experts-pave-the-way-for-new-global-health-project...
 
Description Engage community and experts to develop directions for a new Global Health project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In a co-design workshop run in February in Accra, representatives of the communities participating in the Dust Bunny project and experts (public health, epidemiology, behavioural psychology, etc) came together to co-develop an interdisciplinary research project addressing infectious disease in the home environment in Ghana.

Through a series of creative and interactive activities, workshop co-designers identified the key health challenges faced by communities as well as the barriers to conducting research with communities in Ghana. These included the role of cleaning and hygiene practices in the transmission of infectious disease in the home and the impact of cultural and religious beliefs on them. Furthermore, attention was paid to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Ghana in light of the national action plan on AMR.


Workshop participants, led by community members provided ways of mitigating these challenges and set aims and objective fo a new and impactful project that would tackle these. Examples included working with schools (primary and junior), religious groups (churches, mosques) and other social groups. This led to discussion and a set of research methods that would work well with the identified communities, including citizen science and research endorsed, carried and promoted by different communities.

Following this and working in groups, workshop participants were invited to think and discuss about what they would hope to learn knowledge from project such as this, what is important about that knowledge, how might it impact Ghana and the world. This led to the identification of several research outcomes as well as pathway to impact for the project.

What became clear from this co-design workshop was the value of engaging the community along with experts in the research planning process and in defining the wider contexts of infectious diseases , as well as the research methods, outcomes, stakeholders and pathways to impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://dustbunny.global/2019/02/26/community-and-experts-pave-the-way-for-new-global-health-project...
 
Description Engagements with Ghana Broadcasting TV for developing a video documentary about the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Initial interaction and interview of team members by Ghan Broadcasting (TV) with the aim of producing a documentary about the project and research conducted by the team in Ghana.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engaging with community and experts in Accra 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Dust Bunny team run engagement workshops in the second week of February in Accra, Ghana. The workshops engaged with members of the community who are participating in the project as well as Ghanian external to the project public health experts and researchers.

It presented the preliminary findings (from the design ethnography and first round of microbiology analysis) and provided a space for feedback and debate. It also presented some of the challenges faced by the research team in conducting design-led research in Ghana and invited workshop participate in brainstorming sessions aimed at generating solutions .

Themes that emerged from the workshop related to the influence of cultural, religious practices and beliefs of different communities in the cleaning and hygiene practices employed across a range of households. Furthermore, there was discussion around the importance of establishing trust and rapport with household research participant prior to the fieldwork, especially given the morally bound nature of the research. In addition to this, the tables were turned with workshop participants asking questions to the research team and making suggestions for maximising the dissemination of findings.

Lastly, community members and experts alike were provided with dissemination material to take back to their respective communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://dustbunny.global/2019/02/19/engaging-with-community-and-experts-in-accra/
 
Description Engaging with community and experts in Accra 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Dust Bunny team run engagement workshops in the second week of February in Accra, Ghana. The workshops engaged with members of the community who are participating in the project as well as Ghanian external to the project public health experts and researchers.

It presented the preliminary findings (from the design ethnography and first round of microbiology analysis) and provided a space for feedback and debate. It also presented some of the challenges faced by the research team in conducting design-led research in Ghana and invited workshop participate in brainstorming sessions aimed at generating solutions .

Themes that emerged from the workshop related to the influence of cultural, religious practices and beliefs of different communities in the cleaning and hygiene practices employed across a range of households. Furthermore, there was discussion around the importance of establishing trust and rapport with household research participant prior to the fieldwork, especially given the morally bound nature of the research. In addition to this, the tables were turned with workshop participants asking questions to the research team and making suggestions for maximising the dissemination of findings.

Lastly, community members and experts alike were provided with dissemination material to take back to their respective communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://dustbunny.global/2019/02/19/engaging-with-community-and-experts-in-accra/
 
Description Impact refocusing during the International Forum on Health and Wellbeing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lancaster University in collaboration with Lancaster University Ghana and with funding from the UKRI and the Global Challenges Research Fund, has organised the International Forum on Health and Wellbeing, with the main objective of creating impact on existing research among academics in the areas of social health, medicine, environment, sustainability, water and food availability. The Forum took place in the Lancaster University Ghana between the 21-22 March 2019.

Following the Forum the Dust Bunny team explored how to achieve maximum impact and genuine, embedded change for the better across Ghana and wider Africa. The project team along with several experts from Ghana and Africa discussed how the outputs of the project research can be applied, disseminated, adapted and further developed in order to achieve maximum benefit in African countries. The team also discussed some of barriers to change in this area as well as some of the opportunities that might arise from combining the results of multiple, related work to tackle key issues.
Lastly everyone engaged in a discussion on local, national and continental issues in the area of health and wellbeing more broadly and how research can be applied in the right way to meet these challenges in the most effective way.

Apart from achieving wider dissemination of the Dust Bunny through the Forum, This also led to new collaborations and the development of a revised Impact strategy and pathway for the Dust Bunny project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://dustbunny.global/2019/03/27/dust-bunny-maximises-impact-during-the-international-forum-on-he...
 
Description News Article on Conversation Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article entitle "New ways to clean homes may help in Ghana's fight against bacterial disease" was published on the 11th of February 2020 in Conversation Africa, reaching several thousands readers.

The article was also feature by other media outlets:
Ghana: New Ways to Clean Homes May Help in Ghana''s Fight Against Bacterial Disease
https://allafrica.com/stories/202002120173.html
Reach: 59840

New ways to clean homes may help in Ghana''s fight against bacterial disease
Modern Ghana (Web), 11/02/2020, Unattributed
https://www.modernghana.com/news/984085/new-ways-to-clean-homes-may-help-in-ghanas-fight-against-ba.htmlKeyword : Lancaster University
Reach: 2014

Play Video
Modern Ghana (Web), 11/02/2020, Unattributed
analysing the findings from these.The key message is that citizens can do as much as scientists to fight drug-resistant bacteria and keep homes healthy.Emmanuel Tsekleves is an Associate Professor at Lancaster University. He has received funding from the https://www.modernghana.com/news/984085/new-ways-to-clean-homes-may-help-in-ghanas-fight.html
Reach: 2014

New ways to clean homes may help in Ghana''s fight against bacterial disease
Citifmonline (Web), 11/02/2020, Unattributed
https://citinewsroom.com/2020/02/new-ways-to-clean-homes-may-help-in-ghanas-fight-against-bacterial-disease/
Reach: 8367
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://theconversation.com/new-ways-to-clean-homes-may-help-in-ghanas-fight-against-bacterial-disea...
 
Description Video documentary of project activities on Ghana TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Following the popularity of the first video of the project on Ghana TV in June/July 2019, a new video documentary has been created about the Dust Bunny project by the journalist Peggy Ama Donkor (Journalist of the Year 2005 award).

The new video documentary features the co-design workshop held by the Dust Bunny researchers in Accra, on September 2019. It also includes interviews from the research team and workshop participants.

The video was aired on Ghana Today Television (the national public broadcaster of Ghana, run by the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation) in in October and November 2019 for more than 15 times and was seen by several thousands of viewers. It is also available to view on Facebook , where it was posted on the 31st of January 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10157306901006678&id=725321677&sfnsn=mo