Gendering the smart city: A subaltern curation network on Gender Based Violence (GBV) in India

Lead Research Organisation: King's College London
Department Name: Geography

Abstract

This two-year research network interweaves urban studies, feminist geography and digital humanities to critically engage with the smart city agenda on women's safety and gender based violence (GBV). It is timely and innovative in approach by bringing together a multidisciplinary collective of feminist and urban geographers, ICT initiatives, feminist NGOs and media artists from UK and India. It shifts the debates around smart urban futures in the global north by focusing on highly marginalized and invisible subaltern citizens of the global south - GBV survivors living in slums and informal settlements of Delhi and Bengaluru. It identifies and addresses the faultlines in current smart city agendas, which seek to resolve key societal challenges of GBV through the technocratic rationality of crowdsourced safety apps.

This network draws upon urban studies debates to move away from a 'one size fits all' (Kitchin 2015) critique to examine the diversity of 'actually existing smart cities' (Shelton et. al. 2014) in India. It draws upon feminist geography debates on GBV as 'a form of political, institutional and economic violence' (McIllwaine 2013, 66) and combines the liminality of cyberspace with that of everyday corporeality (Madge and O'Connor 2005) to enable an embodied and gendered approach to the smart city. It uses digital humanities methods to develop the notion of a 'data body' (Critical Art Ensemble 1995) - a virtual entity that is unencumbered by the real and imagined boundaries which structure and control women's everyday experiences with GBV.

The network activities will be delivered through two city stakeholder workshops in Delhi and Bengaluru which will share knowledge, build capacity and explore how their smart city agendas of creating safe and sustainable cities can be gendered through the voices, experiences and digital practices of GBV survivors. In particular, each workshop will explore how the existing big data on GBV collected from different sources can be creatively curated. The focus of each workshop will be an interactive digital installation on the gender smart city, co-produced by digital artists and GBV survivors. The network will culminate in a symposium and exhibition in London to foster long-term international collaborations on gendering the smart city across UK and India.

Through these activities, the network will answer three research questions.
1: How are smart city agendas addressing challenges of safe cities? We will examine smart city visions, policies, projects and technologies of Delhi and Bengaluru to understand how they aim to address GBV across public and private spaces and deliver on NUA and SDG goals on Gender Equality and New Technologies.

2: What are the 'hotspots' and 'blindspots' of gendered big data on GBV? We will work with our societal partner, to examine the social and spatial unevenness of the gendered big data in their Safetipin app. This currently stands at crowdsourced safety audits of over 50,000 geolocations in Delhi and 10,000 in Bengaluru. We will focus particularly on the invisibility of this data in slums and informal settlements in both cities. in order to understand the reasons behind this we will engage with a range of stakeholders from smart city experts, law enforcement to grassroots GBV organisations.

3: How can the data-driven smart city be gendered by GBV survivors? Through our networks in NGOs we will work with GBV survivors in slums by using digital humanities methods (such as networked narratives, garment testimonials, campaign hashtags and augmented mapping) to build specific capabilities for freedom as fundamental rights of all citizens (Nussbaum 2006).

The network outcomes will include a project website for knowledge exchange supported by regular social media engagements. Academic outputs include a special issue in a high-impact refereed journal and the development of long term collaborations through a larger research grant application.

Planned Impact

This project lies at the intersection of a number of UN policies on ICT4development, SDG and NUA commitments, Safer Cities (See ODA compliance statement) and its main beneficiaries are GBV survivors in informal settlements. It seeks engagement with five distinct communities of interest, namely: 1). Inter/Government departments/agencies, 2). third-sector organisations, 3). ICT and Cultural industries; 4) Built environment professionals and 5) GBV survivors. Each of these communities is directly involved and impacted by the research project either through informing the design, delivery and involvement in the city workshops and/or in the production of the digital art installation.

1) Inter/Government depts. and agencies (UN Women, Delhi Women and Child Development; Delhi Commissioner for Women; Karnataka State Commission for Women): Stakeholders in this group often see GBV survivors at best as passive victims worthy of state policy and interventions and at worst as those complicit in their own experience of GBV. The smart city agenda has reinforced this through the use of crowdsourced digital technology as a means to address GBV and create safe cities, which has sidelined key challenges in institutional forms of victim blaming. The workshops will provide a space to these stakeholders to debate and confront in a mutually respectful environment, the diversity of ways to address GBV within the smart city agenda.

2) Third sector organisations, grassroots collectives and NGOs working with GBV survivors (Jagori; Sangat South Asian Feminist network; Breakthrough, Vimochana): The network will provide a way to connect to other stakeholders through the workshops and the digital installations. It will provide a space for collaboration, knowledge exchange, advocacy and policy influence in addressing GBV.

3) ICT and Creative industries (Safetipin, Revue, Blank Noise): the network will include them as multidisciplinary collaborators, leading on various aspects of the pathways to impact (see document). Their involvement will bring arts and humanities approaches to work with ICT to shift societal perceptions on GBV. The network will also provide them with information on the disconnect between the nature of gendered big data on GBV and the actually existing experiences and complexities of GBV in public and private spaces. It will provide a multidisciplinary space and platform to address complex global problems of GBV through creative practice.

4) Built environment professionals, architects and planners will find the network useful as a way to understand the scope and limitations of design in creating safe cities. There is a common assumption within this sector that crime prevention in the context of GBV is a design problem, hence solutions from this sector has tended to propose street lighting, placemaking, public toilets and so on as pathways to reducing GBV. The network will highlight the interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach required to address GBV in both private and public spaces, where design is only one aspect of a complex array of forces required to tackle GBV. It will provide a space to confront and debate the role of design of smart cities in shifting societal attitudes towards GBV.

5) GBV survivors: the network will provide ethical and confidential space to GBV survivors to speak in their own voice, claim agency and transform their identity from victimhood to rights claiming citizens. It will provide a supportive and confidential environment to work with digital technology and art to co-create installations that will give confidence and creative agency to claim a gendered right to the smart city. It will also provide them the opportunity to participate in the supportive environment of the stakeholder workshops to draw attention to the complex temporal and spatial marginalisations that frame their experiences in the future smart city.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title #AanaJaana ESRI Storymap 
Description #AanaJaana story map is the online legacy of the physical exhibition in Delhi's metro station from 1-31 January 2019. It tells the story of women's everyday lives in the urban peripheries. It shows how they negotiate the 'freedoms' of coming [aana] into online space with the 'dangers' of going out [jaana] into the city, or the restrictions of entering [aana] online space with the freedom of leaving [jaana] home for the city. It combines data from the WhatsApp diaries by participants with the photo essay and Safetipin ArcGIS map data to create stunning visual analysis of the Delhi fieldwork. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact There have been several invitations to host the story map in DAC countries - India and Pakistan. Our partner NGO is looking at ways to host the storymap in their website. The PI has also received invitation from the Karachi urban lab to discuss the storymap alongside screening of the music video via videoconferencing. in Karachi and Portland, OR Embedding in the website of partner NGO 
URL https://arcg.is/1ivreP
 
Title #AanaJaana exhibition in Delhi's Mandi House Metro Station from 1-31 January 2019 
Description The #AanaJaana: Curating Women's Digital Stories of the City' exhibition presented different perspectives of a digital age by young women living in Delhi's urban peripheries - resettlement colonies, urban villages and border towns. Using visualisations of selected data - participatory maps, photographs, videos and WhatsApp diaries maintained by these women over a period of 6 months, #AanaJaana curates women's everyday stories of comings and goings in the city. It explored how women on the margins view, understand, and ultimately navigate the city through information and communication technologies (ICT) accessed from their mobile phones. It provokes us to think what mobility means in a context where social media provides real time information on the dangers and freedoms located in the metro, bus, auto rickshaw, and walkways as well as the opportunity to express this in creative and poignant ways. It showed us how women living on the urban peripheries negotiate the 'freedoms' of moving (aana) in online space with the 'dangers' of going out (jaana) into the city, or the constraints of entering (aana) online space with the constant control over their bodies even when they leave (jaana) home for the city. Through a convergence of art, digital media and architecture, this exhibition demonstrated the potential of urban technology to reveal new gendered inclusions and exclusions in the urban peripheries. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact Our exhibition was featured in Outlook Magazine, Times of India, the largest selling English-language daily in the world, Dainik Jagran, India's largest Hindi-language daily, the King's College London Faculty of Social Science and Public Policy 'News and Events Bulletin' on 8th January 2019, the King's College London Department of International Development official Twitter account, the King's College London Department of Geography official Twitter account, the King's India Institute official Twitter account, on the Jagori official Facebook account and official Twitter account and the King's College London Geography Department News Bulletin Issue 2019/1. The exhibition was located in the Mandi House metro station main foyer, with a footfall of 3,51,862 people from 1-31 January 019 and daily average was 11350 people passing through the foyer (Source: Dept of Operations, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation). This therefore had immense impact on the general public who frequently tweeted images from the exhibition using the #aanajaana hashtag on twitter. The feedback from the audience was unanimously positive and transformative with people commenting that it was a 'unique research study' and the heightened interest in topics of gender safety and mobility. 
URL https://gendersmartcity.com/exhibitions-and-workshops/aanajaana-exhibition/
 
Title 'Khadar ki Ladkiyan' hip-hop music and video 
Description Khadar Girls is a hip-hop song written, sung and performed by women living in Madanpur Khadar - a slum resettlement colony in Delhi's urban peripheries. It shows how they are excluded from the city while riding the tide of India's digital urban age. The song charts their personal stories of mobility and movement - forced eviction from slums to resettlement colonies in the peripheries, as well as their daily struggles with poor infrastructure, transportation and gender based violence in the home and the city. The song co-produces with the women, an alternate visual language and rhetoric that uses digital technologies to speak back and gender the future Indian smart city. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact CO-PRODUCTION WITH URBAN POOR WOMEN IN DAC COUNTRY - INDIA The video on YouTube clocked 4500+ views since it was released on 1 January 2019. The main impacts were noticed on the research participants as follows with quotes. 1. "This project did not feel like a 'project' from the start". The Khadar girls are frequent recruits in various gender sensitization projects by NGOs. They felt they had enough training on gender and did not want to be part of another project where important messages on gender were 'delivered' to them. Participants said that the project gave them the chance to 'speak', gave importance to their stories and made them count. 2. "Although this project was about gender, it was new and innovative in its methods since we could direct its course. It started as WhatsApp diaries, where we could express our feelings and experiences in a closed supportive environment". When the participants started the diaries, they said they never realised this would turn into a music video. This unexpectedness was new and exciting for them, and all of them highlighted this as the best part of their involvement. 3. The music co-production was transformative since it enabled them to "learn about each other, talk about ourselves, and give a message to others". They found the short pieces they wrote on different themes (such as Hawa [wind], Andhera [darkness], Ujala [light], Rang [colour], Mera Shahar [my city] etc) very interesting, especially when some of these proses turned into song lyrics. They said, "The music upheld our feelings as valid and made us reflect on some of our personal relationships with family members." 4. Participants said that shooting the video made them feel like 'celebrities'. They felt sad when the last shot was filmed and it was all over. They said, "While otherwise people in Khadar do not necessarily listen to women's opinions, filming this on the streets itself was transformative when a bunch of resident children began following us around singing with us - 'Yeh Sheher humara aapka, nahi kisi ke baap ka [This city is for you and me, this city is no one's property]". It made participants feel that although they might have considered their stories insignificant, they could tell it to the world and bring change in others' lives. 5. Although initially some of them felt awkward, they nevertheless said they "took pride in the filming when neighbours started asking what we were doing, when so many onlookers began watching that we had to engage in crowd control, when friends and family wanted to join the project, when our parents asked relatives in their village to watch the video on Youtube, and most significantly when people in Khadar began to recognise us on the streets as 'Khadar ki Ladkiyan'." 6. This project made them violate all norms of time with personal and professional relationships in order to participate. Although they all wanted desperately to be part of the project, they found it incredibly hard to be regular participants in all the workshops. They all went through several challenges in their employment and family duties in order to attend the co-production sessions. They all wished they could have given more time to the project to make the song and video even better. 7. Co-production and participation were inherently transformative. It made them feel and express solidarity towards one another, it made them feel safe in expressing their feelings, it made them feel as if they could make a difference and most of all they said this was the most 'fun' project they have worked on. 
URL https://youtu.be/7d6awx1E1J8
 
Title Creation of a Wikipedia page by research participants 
Description One of the most significant gaps in Wikipedia's India-related content is information about neighbourhoods and localities, which cannot be accurately represented nor mapped without first hand experience. The young women who are all brought up in Madanpur Khadar share a wealth of local knowledge regarding their neighbourhood. Through the activity of a Wikipedia editathon supported by the students from the School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi we drew on the womens' authoritative knowledge of the area and co-created and published an Wiki article on Madanpur Khadar, thus putting it on the map, so to speak. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact There have been 1752 page views so far. 31 editors from the Wikipedia community have contributed to editing the page for grammar, style, prose and clarity. The impact has been felt across the academic and non-academic community online. While the academic community gained from the substantial visibility and informations of the resettlement colony on Wikipedia, the Wikipedia community has also gained immensely because the page upholds the ethos of democratising information from the margins. 
URL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madanpur_Khadar_JJ_Colony
 
Title Curation in IAWRT Film festival in Delhi 
Description Khadar ki Ladkiyan music video was curated inside a bioscope and showcased in the foyer of the 2019 IAWRT Film Festival in Delhi from 5-7 March 2019. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact The film festival was widely attended, and since the bioscope was kept inside the main foyer, there was huge interest from the general public in watching the film. The public was asked to write their thoughts and pin it on the board kept next to the bioscope. The feedback and comments from this general audience was unanimously positive. Audience commented that the film was 'beautiful', 'a very well thought out concept, very refreshing. The song was very creative and empowering'. 'such an innovative and wonderful experience'. One audience member who was an international tourist saw it and was moved to tears. 
URL https://www.iawrt.org/news/15th-iawrt-asian-womens-film-festival?fbclid=IwAR2bA09MOWSwhmeHD_M2DJfG8S...
 
Description Key Findings:
1. The project has so far identified that SDGs #5 and #11 can only be addressed if we understand that the boundaries between digital and physical spaces are completely blurred, and therefore violence has a continuum across these two sites. From the WhatsApp diary method, it was clear that young women use their phones constantly to navigate the routes between their homes and the city. In doing so, friendships, solidarities and networks spill over from digital to physical spaces and vice versa. It is also clear that online violence is becoming a significant issue, and this violence emerges often from their home or public transport or public spaces in the city and then moves into network spaces through cyber bullying, online stalking and so on.
2. For those in the margins, technology can be a tool of empowerment and medium to speak back to the city. Our research participants use their mobile phones to witness, curate and speak back to the city in our WhatsApp diaries. They show that even with use of cheaper android mobile phones, technology now has a role to play in documenting marginal lives and experiences of the city.
3. Art and music can be a form of expression for the poor to draw attention to the issues left neglected by the city authorities. The co-production of the hip-hop music video illustrated the immense impact that cultural and artistic practice can have in drawing attention to issues that have been neglected for a very long time. Since the circulation of the hip hop video, there has been increased attention paid by the media and third sector in campaigning for infrastructural provision in the peripheries as well as paying attention to issues of gender safety and violence.
4. The project highlighted the disjunctures between the rationality and efficiencies in time that the smart city promises, and its continuous tensions with the temporality and precarity of life in the margins. While the smartphone offers speed and the luxury of time to the middle-classes, the women in the peripheries continuously struggle for and against time. they suffer from huge time poverties and keeping up with time in the absence of infrastructure is a new inequality of the margins.
5. The project has found that in order to address the SDGs #5 and #11, more attention needs to be paid to addressing inequalities in the urban peripheries. On the one hand the peripheries are marked by lack of access to infrastructure - water, sanitation, energy, public transport and so on. On the other hand, their network connectivity through mobile phone makes them part of a wider network of knowledge and information which ultimately makes young women aware of their gender rights and entitlements from the state. This leads to increased consciousness and rights claims for infrastructure and gender safety.
6. In order to address SDG#5, it is important to understand how technology is used, rather than counting mere access to technology by women. Most of the women we worked with had mobile phones, but their use of the phone and capacity to access knowledge and information through the phone was considerably different from other middle-class groups. They often used the phone for creating networks and solidarities through social media, yet were unable to access browsers or government schemes which would give them benefits or services. Claims making from the government or municipality was not through city e-governance portals, rather through face-to-face protests or campaigns.
Exploitation Route 1. Delhi masterplan 2041: Our NGO partners and research participants have already been consulted on the impending Delhi masterplan. The project partners Safteipin and Jagori are exploring options to take this forward to policy and government officials to feed into a gender sensitive masterplan in the future.
2. This project has immense promise for arts based initiatives to bring about transformative change in the grassroots. It has particular resonances with methods of using digital spaces for co-production of artefacts. The screening and discussion of the film and exhibition across the arts and cultural sector hold promise for how new digital enhanced methods of narrative storytelling may evolve.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://gendersmartcity.com
 
Description This project has had significant impacts on India, which is a DAC country. The impact has been across two scales - transforming the strategies, aims and practices of third sector organisations and the lives of the research participants. Transforming the work of third sector organisations, particularly that of our project partner Jagori (a feminist NGO) 1. The project deepened their analysis and articulation of feminist activism and campaigning, giving a 'new lease of life' to long standing work with young women in Madanpur Khadar, a slum resettlement colony in Delhi's edge. 2. It strengthened their understanding of the potential of partnerships between academics, technology and activism 3. Jagori is now expanding the multi-dimensional approach taken in the project to other communities where they work, in particular adopting the WhatsApp method to crate personal experiences of violence among women in other resettlement colonies. 4. The project helped Jagori build a wider dissemination strategy working with media professionals, electronic and social media. Transforming the lives of women in Delhi's slum resettlement colonies and empowering them. 1. The project gave young women living in the urban margins the opportunity to 'speak' through technology, gave importance to their stories and made them count. In doing so, it also gave them confidence and empowered them to clam their rights from their families, from the city as well as from the state. 2. The project highlighted the absence of spaces of leisure for young women from poorer neighbourhoods. The data from WhatsApp diaries and Safetipin method articulated this gap thus giving space to women to claim their right to a city for pleasure and not just for work. Through the project women travelled to different parts of the city for workshops and invariably these workshop days became days of heightened excitement and activity and ultimately the awareness that these spaces were unavailable to the women. 3. "The methods used in the research were safe and supportive of women's everyday experiences. The WhatsApp diaries, did not demand too much digital capacity yet was flexible enough to accommodate a diversity of media (text, audio, video and photos) for communication across a closed group. When women shared their everyday stories in the closed WhatsApp group they felt a strong sense of solidarity and support knowing they were not alone in facing these struggles. 4. The music co-production was transformative since it enabled them to "learn about each other, talk about themselves, and give a message to others". The music upheld their feelings as valid and made them reflect on some of they own personal relationships with family members, and seek to change them. 5. While otherwise people in slum resettlement colonies do not necessarily listen to women's opinions, filming the music video on the streets itself was transformative for gender power relationships in their families and community. People began to identify them on the streets and when national newspapers reported on their hip hop song, neighbours and acquantainces approached them to say how proud they were. It made participants feel that although they might have considered their stories insignificant, they could tell it to the world and bring change in others' lives. 6. Although initially some of their parents were hesitant for them to join in the video, the transformative change in families was apparent when their parents asked relatives in their village to watch the video on Youtube. 7. Co-production and participation in the project were inherently transformative at all levels. It made the participants feel and express solidarity towards one another, it made them feel safe in expressing their feelings, it made them feel as if they could make a difference and most of all they said this was the most 'fun' project they have worked on.Most importantly, they felt committed and engaged with its transformative ethos since, they felt they were directing its course. As frequent recruits in various gender sensitization projects by different NGOs, they felt this was the first project where important messages on gender were not directed at them. Rather they were directing what messages they said from their life experiences to others. Participants said that the project gave them the chance to 'speak', gave importance to their stories and made them count. The project has given the participants increased visibility and legitimacy to their stories and rights claims to infrastructure. Recently they were consulted on Delhi Masterplan 2041 where they gave inputs for gender sensitive masterplanning,
First Year Of Impact 2018
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Research participants consulted on Delhi Masterplan 2041
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Title Co-creating and co-publishing knowledge using Wikipedia 
Description While creating contributions to Wikipedia as knowledge production and dissemination is now fairly commonplace, the method that was used in the Gendering the Smart City editathon was that of co-creation and co-authorship of a Wikipedia entry, which was enriched by insights into the local, embodied experience of the city contributed by the young women who are part of the project, and are the "experts" on their neighbourhood, Madanpur Khadar. This method allows for an enriching of the digital research infrastructure, as it is currently challenges Google's monopoly on geographic data and challenge how it forces most of us to see the city, and allows for an enriching of metadata through the use of Wikidata in multiple languages. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The use of this method addresses one of Wikipedia's biggest issues till date: that of fair representation, especially of marginalised communities and women - Wikipedia has suffered from a lack of balanced representation of knowledge from the global south, given that majority of its contributors are often white, male, and from the US and the UK. What this method allows is to correct the lopsided nature of knowledge creation by co-creating resources that can be accessed by anyone in the world. The editathon at which this method was introduced drew on conversations about the difference between opinion and fact (due to Wikipedia's neutral point of view policy) and this was particularly significant for the young women in the workshop whose digital encounters are overwhelmed by the phenomenon of fake news: the workshop thus introduced them to Wikipedia as well as to tools for fact-finding, especially in the face of multiple sources. 
URL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madanpur_Khadar_JJ_Colony
 
Title Safety walk and audits with Safetipin App 
Description We used the Safetipin app method to collect participant experiences and feelings of safety in the neighbourhood. Safetipin app's safety audit score presents data on a range of parameters from personal vulnerability to crime in the city, along with infrastructure and basic amenities available in a place. Safety Audits are conducted on the basis of a set of nine parameters (Lighting, Openness, Visibility, People Density, Security, Walk Path, Transportation, Gender Diversity, Feeling) that together contribute to the perception of safety. Safetipin App is developed from the 'Safety walk' method - a participatory tool that is used for collecting and assessing information about perceptions of safety in public spaces. It is a process that brings people together to walk through a physical environment, evaluate how safe it feels, and identify ways to make it safer. This methodology, based on the premise that the users of a space are experts in understanding the space, was developed in Toronto, Canada (1989), by METRAC and has been adapted and used in over 40 cities around the world. In the project, we conducted a Safety walk with the group of women participants in Delhi who are residents of the neighbourhood and are therefore familiar with an area. With the support of the NGO partner Jagori, we involved women from diverse groups in the community, in terms of class, age, disability, cultural or ethnic background and status, etc. In addition, a few local officials, police and others who are key stakeholders of the area we also involved and consulted. A checklist is prepared on the different factors that have an impact on the feeling of safety and this is filled out during the walk. The safety walk was conducted in a range of different public spaces. In a neighbourhood it would include the streets, areas around residences, parks, market spaces, gathering areas, bus stops and other public transport points, outside schools and educational institutions, hospitals, community centres etc. A Safety walk is usually conducted in the evening just before and after the area turns dark. The reason for this is that public spaces often become more unsafe for use at night. This also allows us to measure the level of light in the area. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Benefits to DAC Country - India. The findings of the safety walk and audit from the neighbourhood was uploaded onto the Safetipin App and analysed alongside data from WhatsApp diaries and interviews. It was represented in the #AanaJaana Storymap here https://arcg.is/1ivreP Women participants in Delhi reported an increased awareness of their neighbourhood and its spaces as a result of the Safety walk. Interview with participant below. "There are many areas that I had not visited even in our neighbourhood. So through the audit we did for Safetipin, we got to know about the situation in those areas, that people stay in these conditions etc." [Interview with participant, 2018] Safetipin App has been commissioned by the Delhi Government in 2019 to do a city scale audit of their streets. This is to feedback into the Delhi Masterplan 2041. 
URL http://www.safetipin.com
 
Title WhatsApp diary method 
Description The basic purpose of the WhatsApp diaries is to share experiences of safety, discomfort, pleasure and risk with each other in the form of audio recordings, pictures and videos from the city as participants navigate the city everyday. This built a thick narrative of the city from the perspective of marginalised participants who suffer from the poverty and are unable to contribute time towards other qualitative methods like ethnography or semi-structured interviews. As mobile phones have become an intrinsic part of our lives, one had to think of ways to 'involve' the medium actively in this research project. Many engagements and conversations took place through the phone WhatsApp diaries - from access to public services to job opportunities, to discovering and finding new friends, to narratives of discomfort in these interactions. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The WhatsApp diaries contributed to the energising and new direction for the NGO partner Jagori. in particular, Jagori is now using this research method and as a way to reenergise their work with other communities in Delhi's peripheries. The WhatsApp diary was a platform where the girls' ordinary, everyday experiences were articulated and valued which was attractive medium to work with marginalised communities to help them make their voices heard in a supportive and safe environment. Jagori is now considering extending this method to other difficult to reach communities across India. For the research participants, the WhatsApp diaries improved digital awraeness and capacity, and they started exploring digital spaces - Twitter, WhatsApp, Facebook with much more ease. 
URL https://gendersmartcity.com/2018/09/25/curating-the-gendered-city-with-whatsapp/
 
Description Partnership with SPA, Delhi 
Organisation School of Planning and Architecture Delhi
PI Contribution Our research team facilitated the partnership by introducing the students in SPA, Delhi to the field site, and to the research participants. We continuously collaborated in sharing information and analyses across the two teams so that the collaboration could yield rich results.
Collaborator Contribution The Center for Urban Design Innovation (CUDi) is the applied research and innovation wing of the Department of Urban Design within the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (SPA). In November-December 2018, the Urban Design students chose their field project as the site of our research field site. They did a thorough field research and proposed interventions for gender sensitive design of the public spaces in the slum resettlement colony.
Impact The project facilitated training and building of research capacity of postgraduate students in India, a DAC country. The students of Urban design put together a set of design interventions to transform public spaces in the field site to make them gender sensitive and safe for women. This not only built pedagogic tools, but also enhanced their capacity as future urban designers to become more sensitive to issues of gender safety, digital urbanism and gendered infrastructure.
Start Year 2018
 
Description #AanaJaana exhibition reported in Dainik Jagran newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact #AanaJaana exhibition which took place in Delhi' Mandi House Metro station was reported for the first time in India's largest Hindi news daily 'Dainik Jagran' It reached national audiences, and then was picked up by several english language newspapers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://epaper.jagran.com/epaper/package.php
 
Description #AanaJaana exhibition reported in Times of India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The #AanaJaana exhibition was reported in India's largest English new daily - Times of India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/art-in-delhi-metro-chronicles-of-commuting-photograph...
 
Description 'Khadar ki Ladkiyan' music video reported by Indian news paper Hindustan Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact India's major national newspaper Hindustran Times reported on the video in an article 'Girls from Delhi's resettlement colony demand safe public places through video' which included interviews with PI and the research participants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.hindustantimes.com/delhi-news/girls-from-delhi-slum-claim-dignity-access-to-safe-public-...
 
Description Article in The Conversation UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wrote an article in the ConversationUK titled - #MeToo has arrived in India, and it's changing how technology is used to fight injustice. The article had over 15,000 views, 65 tweets, and 275 shares on facebook. I received several invitation thereafter for media interviews and to engage with policy audiences. It was republished by several international media channels such as Scroll.in, Firstpost, Quartz and The Independent.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://theconversation.com/metoo-has-arrived-in-india-and-its-changing-how-technology-is-used-to-fi...
 
Description Article in The Conversation UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wrote and article for The Conversation UK titled - Indian women from the outskirts of Delhi are taking selfies to claim their right to the city. the article received over 13,000 views, was tweeted 132 times, and shared 241 times on facebook. It was also republished by several international media channels such as Scroll.in, Firstpost, and Quartz.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://theconversation.com/indian-women-from-the-outskirts-of-delhi-are-taking-selfies-to-claim-the...
 
Description Engagement through project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact The website has garnered huge interest among international audiences. It has had 1175 unique visitors in 2018 and since the engagement activities and outputs were released in January, it has already had 1458 unique visitors in the first three months of 2019.
The audience for the website is mainly from India, followed by UK and USA. They come mainly from academic, activist and policy sectors in India and internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL http://gendersmartcity.com
 
Description Invited talk at "Imagine a Feminist Internet: South Asia", hosted by Point of View and the Internet Democracy Project, Negombo, Sri Lanka 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact "Imagine a Feminist Internet: South Asia" was a workshop organised by Point of View and the Internet Democracy Project, both of which are not for profit organisations that work to amplify and address the needs of the marginalised in the space of the digital, with a particular emphasis on gender. The talk included work done as part of the Gendering the Smart City project as a case study: in particular, the use of Wikipedia, and the creation of a Wikipedia entry on Madanpur Khadar informed by the local expertise of the young women who have been participating in the project -- which led to a fruitful conversation regarding the need for improved digital infrastructures, such as decentralised servers for communities, in particular with representatives from the Association for Progressive Communications, who were co-sponsoring the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://medium.com/@povindia/imagine-a-feminist-internet-research-practice-and-policy-in-south-asia-...
 
Description Invited talk to MA Publishing students, University College London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was an invited talk on ethics presented to the MA in Publishing at University College London, and included work done as part of the Gendering the Smart City project as a case study: in particular, the use of Wikipedia, and the creation of a Wikipedia entry on Madanpur Khadar informed by the local expertise of the young women who have been participating in the project. This was used particularly to demonstrate how the definition of "publishing" is rapidly altering in the digital age, and how participatory knowledge production is an ethical and inclusive approach to knowledge making. The students were particularly interested in hearing more about the project and were intrigued by the music video that has been produced as one of the outputs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk, Digital Scholarship Centre, University of Edinburgh, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an invited talk exploring how the design of knowledge infrastructure on our devices and of the Web are built to discriminate and perpetuate non-feminist approaches, and how it is essential that feminist activism challenges this by suggesting alternative ways to structure our interactions with knowledge and information in the digital space. The lecture included work done as part of the Gendering the Smart City project as a case study: in particular, the use of Wikipedia, and the creation of a Wikipedia entry on Madanpur Khadar informed by the local expertise of the young women who have been participating in the project. The audience for the talk were academics (largely from the digital humanities), archivists, professionals from the GLAM sector, and PhD students and there was a very lively conversation afterwards, about both the Gendering the Smart City project as well as the larger premise of the talk itself.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Keynote lecture, Christ College, Bengaluru, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact This was a keynote lecture delivered at Christ College,Bengaluru, introducing students to the digital humanities and how it might shape their own scholarship. The lecture included work done as part of the Gendering the Smart City project as a case study: in particular, the use of Wikipedia, and the creation of a Wikipedia entry on Madanpur Khadar informed by the local expertise of the young women who have been participating in the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Keynote lecture, Rama Devi Women's University, Bhubaneswar, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was a keynote lecture delivered at a regional university in India, Rama Devi Women's University, entitled "The Future (of the internet) is Female: Feminist Methods in the Digital Humanities." The lecture included work done as part of the Gendering the Smart City project as a case study: in particular, the use of Wikipedia, and the creation of a Wikipedia entry on Madanpur Khadar informed by the local expertise of the young women who have been participating in the project. This approach, both in terms of methodology and practice, was largely unfamiliar to many in the audience, students and faculty included, and resulted in a lively conversation and an impromptu Wikipedia entry writing session, thus familiarising this audience with new ways of working with the digital.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.odishabytes.com/one-day-national-seminar-cum-workshop-on-literature-and-digital-humanitie...
 
Description Khadar ki Ladkiyan reported in Delhi newspaper Patriot 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Delhi local newspaper Patriot reported on Khadar ki Ladkiyan and the WhatsApp diary method, including interview with PI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.newslaundry.com/2019/01/19/khadar-ki-ladkiyan-rap
 
Description Khadar ki Ladkiyan reported in Firstpost, online national newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Firstpost- a major Indian online Newspaper reported on the Khadar ki Ladkiyan video in an article 'Khadar ki Ladkiyan: Girls from rap video on everyday struggles, dreams for bringing about social change'. Included interview with the research participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.firstpost.com/living/khadar-ki-ladkiyan-girls-from-rap-video-on-everyday-struggles-dream...
 
Description Khadar ki Ladkiyan reported in Quint 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Quint - another online national newspaper reported on the Khadar ki Ladkiyan video in an article 'These Gully Girls From Delhi Are Rapping For Safe Public Spaces'. Included interviews with the research participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.thequint.com/neon/gender/these-girls-from-madanpur-khadar-in-delhi-are-using-rap-to-talk...
 
Description Khadar ki Ladkiyan reported in the Tribune 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Tribune newspaper (online and print) reported on Khadar ki Ladkiyan in an article titled 'Gully girls: Women of a slum resettlement colony in Delhi sing about their life in a hip-hop music video' Included interview with research participants and PI
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/trends/gully-girls/722329.html
 
Description Live performance by research participants on OBR (One Billion Rising) day in Delhi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Over 100 people came to watch this event in the heart of Delhi's business district (Connaught Place), which sparked huge interest in the project and in the 'Khadar ki Ladkiyan' music video. it sparked questions and debate from audience and increased views on YouTube.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description London Transport Museum 'Race for Space' lightning talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On the evening of 22 November 2018, the PI presented a 'lightning talk' in the London Transport Museum late debate event 'Race for Space'. She was joined by over 200 guests and contributors in debating the future of the expanding city.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ltmuseum.co.uk/assets/downloads/Late_Debate_Race_for_Space_Programme.pdf
 
Description Organisation of Stakeholder workshop in Delhi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact DELHI WORKSHOP: GENDERING THE SMART SAFE CITY
13th December 2018, India International Centre, New Delhi
The Delhi phase of the 'Gendering the Smart City' project culminated in a day-long workshop, where the project team shared and presented the outlines and the key findings with the many stakeholders such as academics, art practitioners, urban planners, architects and community organisers. The workshop engaged with many diverse concerns and issues around questions of gender, mobility, ICT, safety and urban futures. The highlight of the day was the launch of the artistic co-production, 'Khadar Ki Ladkiyan', a hip-hop music video made by the research participants and a Q&A panel with the audience. The participants shared the challenges they faced from their families, neighbourhood and community through the course of the project, how they had overcome these challenges and what impact this had in their lives.

Participants said that being in the workshop made them feel like 'chief guests' when they saw that their faces were on the workshop flyer. They had not realized that they were the focus of the workshop, and the fact that the workshop had given them the platform to talk without time restrictions made them feel legitimate workshop attendees. Telling their story in a panel solely dedicated to 'Khadar ki Ladkiyan' was described as 'awesome'.


The workshop participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with the days proceedings, including an interest interest in the project and its findings. The audience also reported an interest in adopting the conceptual and methodological innovations made by the project.

The research participants reported transformative change in their self-esteem and confidence. They said they felt like 'celebrities' during the workshop since they had not imagined that their stories would be legitimate and interesting for anyone. They reported a change in their relationship with their family and community because they would have the confidence to speak up and participate in public activities.

The workshop was listed on eventbrite and was sold out with 60 participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://gendersmartcity.com/exhibitions-and-workshops/gendering-the-smart-safe-city/
 
Description Panel presenter on International Women's Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact PI was part of a panel during the launch of the exhibition 'Visualising the Margins' which presented the (audio)visual work of seven women academics at different stages of their career at King's College London, including that of the PI. The exhibition investigates the relationship between home, gender and marginality in different settings: from the Peruvian Andes, to the mountains of Tajikistan, from the physical urban spaces of Delhi to the virtual spaces opened through queer film.
This event also launched a new network - VEM: Visual and Embodied Methodologies for the Social Sciences in King's College London. This network aims to promote the use of visual and embodied methodologies in academic work in/for the social sciences. The exhibition 'Visualising the Margins' is also part of this greater effort; making visible the liberatory impact and potential of visual and embodied work in and for research, researchers as well as research participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.facebook.com/events/630635840718356/
 
Description Presentation organised by NGO partner Jagori, with support from Oxfam India with research participants 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Research participants presented their work in the #AanaJaana Exhibition at Mandi House Metro Station and the Khadar ki Ladkiyan video to their peers from Delhi's resettlement colonies - Bawana, Madanpur Khadar and Badarpur. Oxfam opened up its office space to enable this meeting and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.facebook.com/jagori.delhi/posts/1423847577752832
 
Description Twitter engagement via @GenderSmartCity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact We have had continuous engagement with international audiences throughout 2018-19. We have seen an increase in engagement with our work through a total of 1165 followers so far.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/GenderSmartCity