Medieval English (ca600-1500) in a multilingual context

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Sch of English Communication and Philos

Abstract

Multiculturalism and multilingualism have been part of British culture since the island received its name in classical times and continue to be key components in perceptions of British identity. During medieval times, understood here as the period from ca600 to ca1500, Britain saw the interaction of peoples speaking languages belonging to different branches of Indo-European, the most important for the purposes of the history of English being, besides English itself, various Celtic languages, Latin, French, Old Norse (the language of various groups of Scandinavian marauders and settlers) and other continental Germanic languages.

The main objective of this network is to reassess the impact that language contact during the medieval period had on the evolution of the English language in terms of both its vocabulary and its formal structure, and to explore what medieval texts can tell us about how our medieval ancestors understood and dealt with multilingualism in their everyday lives. Methodological advances in the various fields of historical linguistics and literary criticism, and the recent realisation of the significance for the study of historical multilingualism of non-literary documents, as well as present-day heritage languages and urban vernaculars developed in multilingual contexts make this reassessment particularly timely.

The network will facilitate the interaction between scholars working on various fields related to the study of the linguistic features and textual cultures of medieval English; we will also enable dialogue with scholars researching the linguistic effects of modern multilingualism. This will allow us to:

1. Share the outcomes of methodological advances, thanks to the fact that the network will include scholars working on past and current projects which have themselves revolutionised our understanding of language contact between English and other languages (e.g. the Gersum Project: The Scandinavian Influence on English Vocabulary, www.gersum.org; and A Bilingual Thesaurus of Everyday Life in Medieval England, soon to be publicly available online; The Oxford English Dictionary, www.oed.com).

2. Re-evaluate complex linguistic changes which can only be explained through the detailed understanding of the linguistic features of English and the various languages it came into contact with, and analyse the linguistic and sociolinguistic impact of such contact. Vocabulary is the level of linguistic analysis where the influence of language contact is often clearer but the formal structure of English also changed at a dramatic pace as a result of language contact. A fourteenth-century English speaker would not have been able to understand a tenth-century text, while a twenty-first-century reader can make sense of a text by Shakespeare or even Chaucer with relative ease.

3. Challenge the 'text-book account' of the nature and impact of language contact on medieval English, in terms of the extent of the impact of medieval multilingualism on the linguistic structure of English, speakers' perception and strategic use of foreign linguistic material in English, and the sociolinguistic status of the various languages. While accounts in textbooks in other areas of linguistics (e.g. first and second language acquisition) have evolved significantly in the last thirty years, that is not the case for textbooks focusing on the history of the English language because the atomisation of the field does not facilitate the integration of results arising from new linguistically and culturally informed research.

4. Explore in further detail the multifaceted nature of how the effects of multilingualism were represented in both literary and non-literary texts (such as legal texts and administrative records) by bringing together scholars working on a wide-range of areas, including the study of manuscripts, spelling and writing practices, legal and administrative language, literary style and socio-cultural networks.

Planned Impact

We aim to disseminate our work to a wide range of audiences and, at the same time, engage with them in mutually beneficial dialogue. All the activities outlined below have been agreed with the relevant stakeholders.

PUBLISHERS AND LEXICOGRAPHERS

Through Durkin, Pagan and Nijdam, our activities will inform the lexicographic work being undertaken by the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) for its 3rd edition, the Anglo-Norman Dictionary and the Old Frisian project of the Fryske Akademy. These are key resources for the study of the lexical impact of medieval multilingualism on English and are widely available, either freely on the internet or through research / public libraries (in the case of the OED). Engaging with lexicographers will also allow us to co-produce knowledge by sharing methodological advances.

ARCHIVES AND MUSEUMS

Our partnership with The National Archives (TNA), through Tompkins, will enable us to gain a better understanding of the documents available for the study of the manifestations and effects of medieval multilingualism and current views about how best to engage a twenty-first century audience with such texts. This knowledge will be very helpful for the development of hands-on activities for a family day to be held at TNA and to be prepared and delivered in collaboration between TNA staff and members of the network (Sylvester and the network administrator).
Foster Evans and Fulton will deliver a public lecture on multilingualism in medieval Wales organised in conjunction with National Museum Cardiff; the lecture will contribute to the Museum's ongoing research into the medieval court at Anglesey.

CIVIL SOCIETIES AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC

Recent socio-political events (e.g. the EU referendum) indicate that there is currently great interest amongst the British public in multilingualism and multiculturalism, and their relationship to identity. Various media appearances by members of the network similarly suggest that there is general appetite for non-technical discussions regarding their impact on English. Through the activities outlined in this section we aim to increase awareness of the socio-cultural value of multilingualism and multiculturalism, unite communities by celebrating diversity, and giving a sense of empowerment to often marginalised members of society. These activities (particularly the school visits, the workshop at Glasgow's West End Festival and our social media presence) will also enable us to form communities of practice, where different perspectives, knowledge and personal experiences will inform discussions about past and present multilingualism.

Through well-established engagement strategies at Cardiff University, Pons-Sanz will deliver a lecture as part of the Exploring the Past free lecture series, and, together with Foster Evans, will facilitate two one-afternoon sessions on past and current multilingualism through the 'SHARE (viz. School of History, Archaeology and Religion) with Schools' initiative, which works with secondary schools in some of the most deprived and culturally diverse communities in Cardiff; creative writing activities will be a key element of these sessions.

Russell will deliver a public lecture on the linguistic and literary effects of multilingualism in medieval Wales as part of the public lecture series organised by the Honourable Society of the Cymmrodorion.

Hough and Kopaczyk will lead a workshop on the interaction between Scots and English at Glasgow's West End Festival, Glasgow's largest cultural event, engaging a wide range of audiences.

We will also disseminate the outcomes of the network's discussions through new media: Facebook and Twitter accounts, and a blog hosted by Wordpress.com.

As noted above, many key members of the network are already involved in other projects and networks; accordingly, this network's work will feed further into their impact agendas.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This network aimed to bring together scholars working in a wide range of closely related but yet different fields in an attempt to investigate the impact of multilingualism on medieval English: different (sub)disciplines in linguistics (English, Scots, Germanic, French and Celtic historical linguistics; onomastics; lexicology and lexicography; modern and historical sociolinguistics; contact linguistics; psycholinguistics and stylistics), and literary and socio-cultural studies (English, French, Welsh and Scots literary criticism; editorial theory; reception studies; palaeography; and legal history).

The three workshops (on vocabulary, morphosyntax and textual manifestations of multilingualism) and final conference (which brought together the three strands of the network) have enabled us to explore a number of topics from different perspectives, with particular focus on:
- Methodology and problems in the identification of loans in medieval English (given the multilingual sociolinguistic context and the closeness of some of the languages involved: English and Norse; French and Latin); a number of scholars agreed to discuss further possibilities for collaboration in relation to the identification of words that have been described as 'translingual' because their origin cannot be easily established.
- Problems associated with establishing whether morphosyntactic changes can be explained by reference to English alone or one needs to consider language contact as well;(and, if the latter, which language could best explain the changes). Besides the individual work being conducted by the members of the network, two scholars working on lability (the phenomenon by which the same verb can take an agent and a patient, or only a patient: e.g. 'He burned the house down' and 'The house burned down') from different perspectives (as a result to Anglo-French contact and as a purely native process) have started to collaborate in an attempt to find the best way to explain the significant increase in labile verbs from Old to Middle English.
- The similarity of past and current linguistic changes (e.g. code-switching practices, subject-verb agreement patterns like the so-called Northern Subject Rule, etc.) and hence the need for historical linguists and sociolinguists to work together in order to explain language change. The network has facilitated the collaboration between a historical syntactician and an expert in heritage languages in order to explore whether the latter theoretical framework can explore some of the morphosyntactic features of Norn, a variety of Old Norse spoken in the northern islands of Scotland for many centuries.
- The challenges associated with editing medieval multilingual texts, as code-switching can be explored through many different aspects of textual manifestation and different audiences have different (at times contrasting views).
- The significance of considering textual transmission, not only connection with the impact that translation and use by different cultures have on the text, but also in relation to establishing connections between particular texts and their direct exemplars in order to conduct thorough linguistic work on the process of translation itself. There are a number of members of the network interested in this, so they have agreed to continue discussing ways to collaborate in order to achieve this aim (possibly by creating a publicly available database of medieval English translations and direct sources).
Exploitation Route The network was put together to facilitate communication between scholars working on different fields and its events have been open to any interested scholars. In the meeting that we held after the conference (8th January 2020) we agreed to:
1. Work on the development of a multi-authored edited collection, which will include co-authored overview chapters presenting the state of the art for various aspects associated with the the impact of multilingualism on the development of English, as well as individual case studies (co-)produced by scholars working on different areas of research. This collection will therefore provide an excellent resource for those interested in the topic of the network and how to advance our knowledge in this field.
2. Organise sessions / workshops at relevant conferences (e.g. International Conference on English Historical Linguistics) in order to continue our discussions about how best to collaborate to move our fields forward. These sessions will also enable us to open our discussions more broadly to other scholars who are interested in the topic but could not come to our meetings.
Sectors Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://memc1500.wordpress.com/latest/
 
Description The various public engagement activities delivered by the members of the network have been listed elsewhere in this submission. These activities, which fulfil the commitment expressed in the application, have been very much welcomed by members of the general public, who have expressed very positive opinions towards the effect that the events have had in enabling them to understand the richness of the English language and the significance that contacts with many other languages throughout its history (particularly during medieval times) have had on shaping it. The activities that we have organised have enabled us to engage with public audiences of many different ages and social backgrounds (including young children in the Family Day organised at The National Archives, teenagers in the secondary school visits by Pons-Sanz and Foster Evans and adults in the various public lectures organised in conjunction with the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, the Learned Society of Wales, Cardiff University and Glasgow's 2019 West End Festival). Various historical dictionaries (the Oxford English Dictionary, the Anglo-Norman Dictionary and the Old Frisian dictionary currently being compiled by the Fryske Akademy) have also benefited from the discussions facilitated by the network as a result of the fact that their editors (Philip Durkin, Heather Pagan, Han Nijdan) are part of the network and have been able to feedback issues of particular relevance (e.g. how best to handle 'transllingual' words or advances in our understanding of the various types of code-switching). Finally, The National Archives and St Fagans National Museum of Wales have benefited from our activities both indirectly (our events have attracted visitors) and directly (as noted elsewhere, collaboration arising from the network has been fundamental for the development of a successful application by Sara Pons-Sanz, Ad Putter and Paul Dryburgh for a collaborative doctoral award (AHRC-funded DTP) which will lead to better understanding of the language of some of the texts held at The National Archives and, consequently, the workings of medieval government.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Grant by the Learned Society of Wales to cover catering costs for the knowledge exchange event held at St Fagans on 9/11/2019
Amount £138 (GBP)
Organisation Learned Society of Wales 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 11/2019
 
Description 1st workshop of the network, focused on lexis and held at the University of Westminster on the 1st of May 2018 
Organisation University of Westminster
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As stated in the application, the first workshop was attended by the following network members: Richard Dance Philip Durkin Anthony Grant Carole Hough Richard Ingham Heather Pagan David Parsons Sara Pons-Sanz Louise Sylvester Laura Wright Unfortunately, Susan Fox, Ad Putter and Han Nijdam could not attend the workshop. Arjen Versloot (U. of Amsterdam) attended instead of Nijdam and Putter in order to provide input about Old Frisian and Dutch. Given our aim to open our meetings to other researchers, the workshop was also attended by the following scholars, who represent different stages in the career progression, from PhD students to retired professors: Elzbieta Adamczyk Charles Farris Nik Gunn Emily Reed Jane Roberts Amanda Roig-Marín Herbert Schendl Annina Seiler Megan Tiddeman
Collaborator Contribution This workshop focused on the impact of multilingualism on the vocabulary of medieval English, with particular emphasis on the following topics: a) the identification of the source language of a term and the contribution that the study of other languages closely related to English (mainly Old Frisian) and neighbouring disciplines (e.g. onomastics, palaeography and graphology) can make to such decisions; b) the difficulties that the blurred lines between code-switching and borrowing create for monolingual dictionaries in terms of assessing whether a word can be said to be part of the lexicon of that particular language (as well as the help that code-switching theory can provide to analyse the way in which medieval speakers would have understood such 'translingual' words); c) the impact that loans had on the lexico-semantic structures of English in terms of the specific fields affected by borrowing as well as the hierarchical levels within each field, a topic that is closely connected to the interaction between borrowing and technical language; d) the sociolinguistic uses of the various languages in interaction and the role that particular speakers had on the introduction and spread of loans in English (e.g. artisans, preachers, speakers of the higher social classes whose mother tongue would have originally been French); e) the need to be aware of the differing features, aims and needs of various registers; f) the comparability of the impact that medieval multilingualism had on English vocabulary in relation to the outcome of similar situations of language contact (e.g. the influence of Low German on the Scandinavian languages).
Impact The workshop brought together specialists working on a wide range of disciplines: lexicography; lexicology; English, French, Frisian and Welsh historical linguistics; historical pragmatics; onomastics; glossography; palaeography; etc. The workshop has led to further discussions on the way in which our research can inform other colleagues' work in order to gain a better understanding of the make-up of medieval English. Particular synergies were found between: - Durkin, Sylvester and Wright, who are currently exploring the possibility of collaboration in order to create 'full stories' of particular words attested in the various languages spoken in medieval England. - Dance, Pons-Sanz and Tidderman, who are currently exploring the possibility of applying the Gersum taxonomy (www.gersum.org) to the identification of loans between other languages closely related, particularly medieval French and Italian. They also hope to involve Putter in their discussions so as to explore the interaction between medieval English and Dutch. His recent award to explore such linguistic and cultural interactions (https://www.bristol.ac.uk/news/2018/april/grant-anglo-dutch.html) is particularly relevant in this respect.
Start Year 2018
 
Description 3rd workshop of the network, focused on literary manifestations of medieval multilingualism and held at the University of Bristol on the 15th of July 2019 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As stated in the application, the first workshop was attended by the following network members: Venetia Bridges, Philip Durkin, Helen Fulton, Mareike Keller, Joanna Kopaczyk, Heather Pagan, David Parsons, Sara M. Pons-Sanz, Ad Putter, Peter Stokes, Louise Sylvester, Jaclyn Rajsic, Unfortunately, Jenny Benham, Dylan Foster Evans,Carl Phelpstead, Paul Russell and Laura Wright could not attend the workshop. Ms Laura Tompkins could not attend either because she has left her job at The National Archives; Paul Dryburgh (Principal Record Specialist) has taken her place in the network. Given our aim to open our meetings to other researchers, the workshop was also attended by the following scholars, who represent different stages in the career progression, from PhD students to professors: Marianne Ailes (U. of Bristol), Eneas Cano (U. of Seville), Anna Havinga (U. of Bristol), Judith Jefferson (U. of Bristol), Imogen Marcus (Edgehill U.), Elisa Ramirez Perez (Cardiff U.), Emily Reed (U. of Sheffield), Megan Tiddeman (U. of Westminster) and Edward Williams (U. of Exeter) .
Collaborator Contribution In this workshop we discussed matters related to the following questions: how did the economics of cultural production and contemporary attitudes towards multilingualism influence its textual representation in relation to language choice, spelling and paleographical practices, code-switching and the stylistic exploitation of loans? How did contemporary audiences interact with multilingual texts or texts written in a different vernacular language? How can we best edit multilingual medieval texts?
Impact The workshop brought together specialists working on a wide range of disciplines: medieval English, Welsh, Scottish, French and Dutch literature; historical pragmatics; palaeography; cultural networks, etc. The workshop has led to further discussions on the way in which our research can inform other colleagues' work in order to gain a better understanding of the make-up of medieval English. Particular synergies were found between: Pons-Sanz and Keller, who discussed the possibility on collaborating so as to explore to what extent code-switching can explain the retention of inflectional endings in various Norse-derived terms; Reed and Dryburgh, who discussed the possibility of collaboration between Reed and The National Archives for her postdoctoral work; Reed and Williams, who work on related topics of medieval Anglo-French literature (they had a chance to meet face to face for the first time and discuss their doctoral work.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Doctoral co-supervision of student funded by the South, West and Wales (SWW4) AHRC-funded Doctoral Training Partnership 
Organisation The National Archives
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Dr Paul Dryburgh (The National Archives), Dr Ad Putter (University of Bristol) and I have been awarded a Collaborative Doctoral Award by the AHRC-funded DTP SWW4 in order to supervise a PhD student on the project 'French Influence on the English Legal Language of the Chancery in the First Half of the Fifteenth Century'. The value of the award is £58,000 (tuition fees + maintenance grant) + £13,000 (in-kind contribution from TNA in Dr Dryburgh's time). The impetus behind this collaboration and the expression of interest came as a result of working together as part of the network. We are currently in the process of recruiting the student.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Dryburgh will provide guidance to the student in terms of the documents held at The National Archives (this will constitute the student's corpus), will co-supervise the student (providing in particular expertise about the workings of the medieval government) and will facilitate the student's access to the researcher training programme offered by The National Archives.
Impact The collaboration will lead to the completion of a doctoral dissertation in due course.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Final conference of the Medieval English in a Multilingual Context network (6-7th January 2020) and post-conference meeting (8th January 2020) 
Organisation University of Westminster
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This final event brought together the formal members of the network as well as other colleagues, many of whom had attended one or more of the workshops that we had celebrated as part of the workshop. This is the list of the participants: Dr Sara Pons-Sanz Cardiff University Dr Annina Seiler University of Zurich Miss Elisa Ramírez Pérez Cardiff University Ms Emily Reed University of Sheffield Miss Ellie Bristow Cardiff University Dr Anna Havinga University of Bristol Dr Susan Fox University of Bern Prof. Richard Ingham University of Westminster Prof. Carl Phelpstead Cardiff University Prof. Marianne Ailes University of Bristol Prof. Ad Putter University of Bristol Dr Mareike Keller University of Mannheim (Germany) Prof. Louise Sylvester University of Westminster Prof. George Walkden Universität Konstanz Dr Heather Pagan University of Westminster Dr Laura Arman Cardiff University Dr Roderick McDonald Emu Forge Dr. Kristin Bech University of Oslo Prof. Carola Trips University of Mannheim Prof. Helen Fulton University of Bristol Dr Enti Arends Windesheim University of Applied Sciences Ms Juliane Elter University of Mannheim Dr Megan Tiddeman University of Westminster Dr Judith Kaup University of Cologne Dr Monika Kavalir University of Ljubljana Dr Kari Kinn University of Bergen Ms Maria Lydia Rupprecht University of Bristol Mr Max Fincher University of Bristol Prof. Peter Stokes École Pratique des Hautes Études - Université PSL Prof. Anthony Grant Edge Hill University Dr Melody Pattison Cardiff University Mr Vigneshwaran Muralidaran Cardiff University Ms Vishnupriya Srinivasan Public Dr David Callander Prifysgol Caerdydd Dr Paul Dryburgh The National Archives Prof. Carole Hough University of Glasgow Dr Jenny Benham Cardiff University Dr Julia Fernández Cuesta Universidad de Sevilla Prof. Arjen Versloot Universiteit van Amsterdam Dr Elzbieta Adamczyk Bergische Universität Wuppertal Dr Philip Durkin Oxford English Dictionary Dr Marcelle Cole Universiteit Utrecht Dr Christopher Langmuir Universidad de Sevilla Dr Thomas Hinton University of Exeter Dr David Parsons University of Wales
Collaborator Contribution The two-day conference included nineteen papers by both official members of the network and other scholars on topics related to the three main strands of the network (lexis, morphosyntax and textual manifestations); two these papers arose as a results of collaborations fostered by the network. We also held a half-day post-conference meeting in order to discuss the edited collection which we hope to publish as a result of the network (it will include co-authored and single-authored papers on the various topics discussed during our meetings) and possibilities for future collaboration and funding applications. The volume is unlikely to be published until 2021/2022, i.e. once the funded phase of the network has already finished. The conference programme and abstracts can be found on the network's site. The link is provided below.
Impact See above under the description of the collaboration.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Medieval Murmurings: Family Day at The National Archives. Led by Prof. Louise Sylvester and Dr Charles Farris (network's administrator & Historic Royal Palaces). National Archives, Kew; Saturday 7 September 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This family day, sponsored by The National Archives, aimed at giving the general public an insight into the linguistic diversity of medieval England and the role of The National Archives in curating the documents that enable us to explore it. The day had a wide range of activities and workshops aimed at different ages:
- Workshops on decoding the language of Domesday Book (2 workshops of 45 minutes each). These sessions introduced the audience to the languages of medieval England and engaged them in palaeographic and codicological exploration.
- Storytelling (3 sessions of 30 minutes each). This was led by a professional storyteller, kindly paid for by the University of Westminster. The sessions focused on Chaucer's England: the storyteller presented herself as keeper of the customs of the port of London to imagine a round-the-world trip that the merchants would have gone on, and explained some of the things on board, like wine and cheese, dyes and spices. The sessions mixed sensory experiences with verbal interaction.
- Craft club: there were two separate activities (one making swords and crowns, and the other making photo frames using stencils of Secretary and Italic hand
- A dressing-up booth and selfie stand

Over 100 families booked for the event. These are some of the comments that they gave as feedback:
- 'First visit, very impressed- well thought out activities, super helpful people, cool space.'
- 'inspiring.'
-'gripping.'
-'enlightening.'
-'there is something for all age groups.'
- 'I came out with a lot of new knowledge and used previous knowledge I never thought I would need. Also came out with an indenture that will help improve my everyday life and my family. Very glad and grateful I came here today.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://memc1500.wordpress.com/events/
 
Description Public Lecture: Digging for Linguistic Treasure: Scandinavian Words in English. Talk was part of the Exploring the Past free lecture series organised by Cardiff University's Continuing and Professional Education Dept and School of History, Archaeology and Religion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 40 people attended this public lecture, where I spoke about my research into the impact of Norse vocabulary on the lexicon of medieval English, both generally and in connection with the Gersum Project. This talk is the first of our planned engagement activities aimed at highlighting the role of multilingualism in the shaping of medieval and current structures of English. The audience was asked to fill in a questionnaire at the end of the talk and they reported its benefit in terms of allowing them to discover an element of the history of English they were not aware of, e.g.:
'It was very interesting and yes it has made me view the language I use differently.'
'Didn't know anything about Old Norse before today.'
'V. interesting, v. informative and entertaining. Much of the info was new to me, but well explained.'
'Very interesting & engaging. Yes, I didn't know about Yorkshire 'mum' coming from Old Norse. + pleased to hear the argument against it being an 'incorrect' version of must!'
'A fantastic talk, really engaging and informative. Really made me think about where words come from in English generally, and those from Norse specifically'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.cardiff.ac.uk/events/view/digging-for-linguistic-treasure-scandinavian-words-in-english
 
Description Public lecture delivered in Cardiff by Prof. Paul Russell (Cambridge University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof. Paul Russell, a member of the network, delivered a talk on 'Bilingualisms and Multilingualisms in Medieval Wales' on the 11th of December 2018. As indicated in the application, the talk was hosted by The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. Given the significance of the topic and the speaker, the Society decided to make this talk the annual lecture that they co-host with The Learned Society of Wales.
There were about 30 people in the audience, which comprised members of the general public as well as Society of Cymmrodorion members, fellows of The Learned Society of Wales, the current National Poet of Wales and university students (undergraduate and postgraduate). The lecture sparked a lengthy series of questions and discussion around the various topics discussed by Prof. Russell and the audience informally reported that they had significantly increased their knowledge of the intricate multilingual relations existent in medieval Wales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.cymmrodorion.org/event/bilingualisms-and-multilingualisms-in-medieval-wales/
 
Description Public lecture on 'The Vikings in our Past: Tracing and Classifying the Scandinavian Heritage of English Words' delivered by Dr Sara M. Pons-Sanz at the Cartshed, Winterbourne 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 35 people attended this lecture (the event was sold-out). It aimed to inform the general public about the impact of Anglo-Scandinavian contacts during the early Middle Ages on the vocabulary of medieval and modern English, while helping to raise funds for the restoration of the medieval barn in Winterbourne, South Gloucestershire. The talk sparked many questions from the audience afterwards, including both questions directly related to the topic and other questions more generally associated with the history of the English language. The audience was invited to fill in a questionnaire about the event. These are some typical answers: "Interesting talk; learned more about origin of words, impact of Old Norse"; "Fantastic talk. Pitched wonderfully for a non-linguist! Enthusiastic and animated - it was contagious"; "Very interesting. Learnt lots. Want to learn more!". Most members of the audience asked for further talks about the history of English and this is something that I am currently discussing with the organisers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ticketsource.co.uk/whats-on/bristol/the-cartshed-winterbourne-medieval-barn/lecture-the-...
 
Description Public workshop on online lexicographic resources for the study of (Old) Scots delivered by Prof. Carole Hough and Dr Joanna Kopaczyk as part of Glasgow's Science Festival on the 11th of June 2019. Title: 'Get Your Scots Wirds Oot and Caa Awa!' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 20 people attended this workshop, whose aim was to introduce the general public to the wealth of online resources available for the exploration of modern Scots and past stages of the language. Hough and Kopaczyk run the same session twice. Because of the reduced size of the group, participants had the chance to ask questions not only about the specific materials covered in the workshop but also about the history of the language and its interaction with English more broadly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.gla.ac.uk/events/sciencefestival/glasgowsciencefestival2019/adult/headline_403268_en.htm...
 
Description Various lectures on 'Exploring Medieval Wales: Power, Language(s) and Literature' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This event was held at St Fagans National Museum of Wales in the afternoon of November 9th 2019. It was tied to Llys Llywelyn, the reconstruction of the thirteenth-century royal court of the Princes of Gwynedd in north Wales. It brought together Mr Dafydd Wiliam, the principal curator of the museum's historic buildings, who gave the audience a tour of the reconstructed site and spoke inside the Llys itself about the process of reconstruction; Dr Dylan Foster Evans (Cardiff University), who delivered a lecture delineating the linguistic and sociohistorical context of medieval north Wales, with emphasis on Branwen, one of the literary texts depicted in the tapestries that decorate the Llys's walls; and Prof. Helen Fulton (University of Bristol), whose lecture focused on the language of the praise poetry composed to two fifteenth-century lords, the Welsh William Herbert and the English Richard Neville (Earl of Warwick) by Welsh and English poets. The various talks were aimed at enabling the audience to link the sociopolitical context of the royal court with the linguistic and literary manifestations of medieval multilingualism in north Wales and the March of Wales.

The approx. 30 participants reported very positive views on the event in general and the various talks in particular. For instance, when asked whether the event had changed their views on the historical and cultural context of medieval Wales and Anglo-Welsh contacts, all the participants gave a positive answer and some elaborated further, e.g.
"Yes, I have a greater understanding of the role of the Welsh poets"
"Very much so. It has made me want to read more about the subject"
"I have definitely learnt some things from this event and would be interested to know more, as it is not really an area I had much expertise in"

As noted in one of the quotations, the participants also requested further information on historical and linguistic issues for a future event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://memc1500.wordpress.com/events/
 
Description Visit to Cathays High School (Cardiff) by Drs Dylan Foster Evans and Sara M. Pons-Sanz on the 1st of July 2019 to discuss past and present multilingualism in Wales with Year 9 pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Cathays High School is an English-medium secondary school in Cardiff. The purpose of the visit, organised in collaboration with Cardiff University's SHARE with Schools project and Mr Gareth Taylor (a teacher at the school) aimed at engaging a group of Year 9 pupils (approx. 20) in discussions about past and present multilingualism in Wales, with particular attention to the status of the Welsh language and its sociolinguistic interactions with English. Pupils had a chance to reflect on their own multilingual practices and to compare and contrast them with past attitudes and practices, including those of people who lived in the same area in the 19th century and people who taught in the same school in the early 20th century. Students reported informally that the event had made them think carefully about their own practices and the situation of the Welsh language. Mr Taylor, their teacher, also reported that the materials we used were very useful for his own teaching about the modern history of Wales at GCSE level and asked us to have a copy so that he could use these materials in the future in his classes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Visit to Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Plasmawr (Cardiff) by Dr Dylan Foster Evans on the 12th of July 2019 to discuss past and present multilingualism in Wales with Year 7 pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Plasmawr is a Welsh-medium secondary school in Cardiff. The purpose of the visit, organised in collaboration with Cardiff University's SHARE with Schools project, aimed at engaging a group of Year 7 pupils (approx. 55) in discussions about past and present multilingualism in Wales, with particular attention to the status of the Welsh language and its sociolinguistic interactions with English. Pupils had a chance to reflect on their own multilingual practices and to compare and contrast them with past attitudes and practices, including those of people who lived in the same area in the 19th century and people who taught in the same school in the early 20th century. Students reported informally that the event had made them think carefully about their own practices, feelings about using Welsh in a wide range of communicative situations, and the sociolinguistic situation in Wales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019