The Wicked Problem of Plastics and the Discourse Surrounding its Governance

Lead Research Organisation: University of Surrey
Department Name: School of Law

Abstract

This research network will look at the discourses about the problem of pollution from solid waste plastic materials - especially those with a short service life - and how these narratives translate into regulation, other governance initiatives and voluntary approaches - in other words, action. It will look at the way in which the story about plastics waste is told and how that leads to policy and regulation. Despite the popular call towards a 'no-plastics' future, a world without plastics is unimaginable. The challenge is to deal with the escape of waste plastics in a way which does not allow waste to escape into the environment but enhances a circular economy in plastics - a closed-loop system where end-of-service-life plastic objects become a resource and thus reduce waste plastics to as near zero as possible. The use of plastics since their rise in popularity over the past 50-60 years has now presented the world with what can only be described as a 'Wicked Problem' - a problem combining technical and social complexity where traditional solutions do not work and which are not solvable by any single discipline. Take, for example, the problem of wet wipes which are the cause of 93% of sewage blockages. A simple regulatory solution would be to ban them as in the recent UK ban on micro-plastic beads in cosmetics. But this would lose a valuable and useful commodity as shown by the example of bans on plastic bags which have been implemented in a number of African and other developing countries. Seeking a multidisciplinary solution which combines technical solutions, such as using a different material with all the properties of current wet wipes, driven by regulatory sanctions and changes in consumer behaviour can achieve a long-lasting result which has environmental advantages as well as societal gains. It is only through a truly multidisciplinary approach that a 'zero' plastic waste solution can be approached. It is the case that some reactions to the problem of single-use plastics and the way they affect the environment as graphically displayed, for example, in the BBC series, Blue Planet II, have been to ban plastics and to replace them by other materials which may also be abandoned once used and may be just as harmful to the environment in the long term. So why are some countries seeking solutions which miss the heart of the problem? The danger from such a reactive approach is to transfer the problems caused by our consumption and production patterns down the line while thinking that the problem of waste in the environment has been solved. Bans on the importation of certain plastics waste by DAC-listed countries may control the problem in the interim but not solve it for the future. Yet, at the same time, the public awareness escalated by such imagery on the media is good in that it raises the attention of policymakers and legislators to the need to find solutions. What is a problem about it is that it may cause such groups of regulators to take quick and easy steps which appear to solve this wicked problem. So this project intends to investigate the way in which the message about plastics pollution is being delivered around the world, especially in DAC-listed countries where particular problems arise from importation of plastics waste from high consuming countries, and how that translates into regulatory and governance action so that lessons can be learned as to how to deal effectively with such wicked problems as plastics waste. The network will share knowledge and experiences on the analysis of the way in which the message about plastics waste is developed and delivered so as to contribute to the long-term solution of this wicked problem.

Planned Impact

This proposal will have direct relevance to international development policy and practice by demonstrating the way in which communication of the message about the problems caused by plastics pollution influences both governance and consumption habits. Sharing knowledge about the cultural ways in which communication of a global challenge takes place, and the way this can affect outcomes, will highlight the need for good practice to deal with the problem. LMICs are particularly impacted by the plastic waste problem as major importers of waste. Their responses to the problem are changing the way in which international trade in this resource operates. Examining the ways in which they develop a response to the problem and which factors have most impact on their decision-making will illuminate the issues surrounding this global challenge. International trade feeds into international development directly so changes in the supply chain will impact directly the businesses and workers (mainly women) involved. This will have economic, health and welfare effects. This proposal will engage with the network established under EPSRC/GCRF Plastics Pollution Governance Framework Network (REF EP/T003529/1) as a base and develop from there incorporating expertise on communications, culture, media and theory of governance. So, engagement with stakeholders in the plastics and waste industry, government (local and central), advocacy groups and NGOs and academics has already been made. Organisations include: the Kenyan Association of Manufacturers, Client Earth, the Product Life Institute, UK Environmental Law Association, UN Environment, The Ocean Foundation amongst others. Starting with this core of activists, the project will build the network and establish clear channels of communication to build a firm foundation for future growth and a clear pathway to impact in terms of meeting the global health challenge posed by the extensive use of plastics. Impact will be achieved by inclusion of key stakeholders in the network which, in the 2 years, will be the primary pathway to impact. The network will grow by bringing key players into membership so that channels of communication are opened within and across nations and regions. Key aspects of the work of the PI and Co-Is will be to engage key stakeholders facilitated by the 2 Co-ordinators in the global North and South. These stakeholders will have real-life examples to share and will also provide access to these organisations' networks of policy contacts. We plan targeted publications including industry journal articles and on-line materials and an instructional video on our website which present our findings in a format that is accessible to policy-makers. We will use the network to build 'champions' who will be in a position to engage in advisory roles, such as to government inquiries, reports, panels and committees. The general public is also an important group as ultimate actors to eliminate plastics waste. Through their behaviours such as consumer choice, waste management, and political voice, individuals have a vital role on the uptake and implementation of any intervention. Consequently, the general public will be involved by using social media. Schools and local colleges will be included so as to engage young people who are already highly committed worldwide to issues around climate change. We expect to be able to engage them in our network. Academic impact will be achieved through multidisciplinary team working alongside non-academic stakeholders to achieve excellence in advances in understanding, method, theory and application in communication theory linked with the theory of regulation and governance. Surrey's Environmental Regulatory Research Group, led by PI Malcolm, and Special Interest Group on Plastics in the Environment led by Advisory Board member, Prof Murphy will disseminate results using media, academic, professional and industrial contacts to maximise impact.
 
Title Governing Plastics Network video series 
Description Since July 2020 the Governing Plastics Network has been producing weekly short videos disseminated via social media and other channels. These feature a range of experts with diverse perspectives on plastics pollution, including academics, activists, professional practitioners and representatives of government departments, private sector and NGOs from a wide range of countries. This included, in 2021, a special series of videos made by several youth groups who work as waste pickers in deprived areas of DAC countries expressing their own views on plastic pollution and how to fight it. The videos can be found on the network's social media feeds (Twitter and Facebook both @plasticsgov). Some of these videos are now being featured on the You Tube Channel of Earth Ambasssdeurs, (https://youtu.be/UDA47j7zvJM), an education-based volunteer organisation based in Jamaica. There are now 67 videos available in the main series in addition to 3 special presentations, all accessible via the facebook page @plasticsgov. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact The videos have received view, likes comments and further engagement from a wide range of people across the world, enabling engagement with wider groups that would be reached by other mediums such as conference presentations, academic publications and blogs. 
URL https://fb.watch/bNvX8dslwA/
 
Description Over the duration of this 2-year project a significant network of partners has been built across 7 DAC-listed countries (Ethiopia, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda). These include universities, research institutes, government bodies, non-governmental organisations, professional and trade membership bodies and private law firms. In addition 186 individuals have registered their interested in the project by signing up to the Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network). The network has also expanded across the EU with three Universities partnering on the project: the Universities of Bayreuth, Germany; Lund, Sweden; and, Copenhagen, Denmark. The network is currently active on every continent on the planet, with the exception of Antarctica. These are providing supporting facilities and input to the project. A network of around 12 research assistants have produced case studies in each of the DAC-listed countries on the topic of the project: 'how has the story told about plastics impacted on its governance?'. Social media outlets (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov) also host a range of video and audio clips on the topic of the wicked problem of plastics.

Our key learnings include the fact that even in countries which successfully introduce well-developed legal frameworks on plastic there typically emerge two main implementation problems: 1) Cultural adherence - the difficulty of changing actual behaviour and the beliefs and habits underlying it; 2) Law enforcement - a lack of well-funded and well-supported infrastructure to police compliance and reward or penalise as required.
The project identified two types of communication campaign that worked well no matter the national context:
1) campaigns driven by national or regional entrepreneurs or activists who demonstrate the ability to influence and engage different stakeholder groups using strategically tailored means of communication to educate and persuade as necessary, becoming key plastic celebrities;
2) campaigns driven by international NGOs that generate attention and debate focused on refusing plastics, promoting alternatives and encouraging entrepreneurship ideas. Such ideas might include privately run waste management that can compensate for the under-resourced and underfunded public sector and limited recycling infrastructure. These organisations have the prestige, reach and connections to act as a nexus for building multi-sector stakeholder alliances capable of addressing all aspects of the plastic cycle.
Exploitation Route The network has been well established and the exchange of information is still occurring even after the term of the grant has ended though regular meetings, case study conferences and webinars - this attests to the strength of what has been created, the network taking on a life of its own. The results of the case studies were reported in a sandbox meeting last Easter 2021 and further disseminated through a series of round table events, policy briefs shared widely with stakeholders, as well as refereed publications, reports and other media.

These events have helped inform stakeholders from the private, public and NGO sectors in the 7 DAC countries and beyond in many ways, as attested to in a letter of endorsement from the Kenya Association of Manufacturers. It has helped to stimulate these organisation's interactions, generate new debates and enable them to work more knowledgeably both internally and with their peers in developing multi-sector responses to the challenges of plastic pollution that are genuinely informed by a greater understanding of what communication strategies and policies work, which don't, and why. The invitation to present this research further to the UNEA 5.2 meeting in Nairobi on 28th February 2022 offered a platform to share this knowledge at the highest of levels. It is expected the learnings generated by the project will be highly relevant in informing the way in which messages are given around the story of plastics and their impact on the governance of plastics.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network
 
Description The findings of this research project have been reported through the various organs of the Governing Plastics Network, which have been extensively developed over the 2 year course of the project. The establishment of the Governing Plastics Network in collaboration with the University of Nairobi, Kenya, and working in parallel with the GCRF Plastics Pollution Governance Framework Network, has been a key outcome, attracting 186 members who have signed up through the website: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network. The research has built a rich and multi-dimensional picture of the governance of plastics and the discourse around plastics in the 7 DAC-listed countries which are partners on the project. We have attracted a range of members to the Governing Plastics Network from myriad sectors, disciplines and national backgrounds who are sharing communications on the topic of the project. This knowledge enhancing activity is currently being developed through the building of a number of case studies from each of the partner countries which allowed us to analyse this wicked problem. These findings have been shared outside the academic sphere via social media, blogs engaging with topical issues and events such as COP 26 and UNEA 5.2, a continuously updated website and weekly short videos on different plastic related topics aimed at a general audience. These videos even allowed us to showcase the hard work and creativity of waste-picker youth groups in deprived areas of Kenya, who presented their perspectives in their own words. Within academia and the world of plastic stakeholders our findings have been disseminated via a number of national round table events and a series of policy brief documents addressing the issues raised by the case studies in each country. This enabled us to feed back to stakeholders in all sectors our findings and allow them in turn to input into the recommendations to be disseminated in the project's final reports, published articles and presentations, many of which are already out in the world and generating new and fruitful debate. Ultimately we have tried to convey that achieving a global circular economy requires each country to forge its own path to a sustainable future, but with the hard-won lessons from Jamaica, Kenya, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda disseminated in our research they will now not have to reinvent the wheel. This project has endeavoured to play its part in helping to disseminate this knowledge, grow these relationships and provide a timely reminder that truly wicked problems can only be overcome by truly collaborative solutions. It is our hope that by widely sharing these findings our research can help inform implementation on national and regional levels of the multi-sectoral solutions required to meet the terms of the new draft Global Plastics Pollution Treaty accepted by the UN at the UNEA 5.2 meeting in February 2022.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Governing Plastics Network Combined Policy Brief
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Jamaica National Policy Brief Reporrt
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Kenya National Policy Brief report
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Letter of Support from Kenya Association of Manufacturers
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact They said that as result of this research and dialogue engagements, they have: • Increased the national-county level collaborations in the development of critical solid waste management policy and legal frameworks such as the Model County solid waste management bill and policy developed in partnership with citizen associations, the draft Extended Producer Responsibility Regulations, National Sustainable Waste Management Policy 2021 and Bill all developed in partnership with Government Environment Institutions. Improved the waste value chain collaborations through their communication messaging on shared responsibilities in addressing plastic pollution including by citizen groups, thereby creating formal consultations. • Enhanced their knowledge and strategies to combat plastics pollution national and regionally based on the comparative national dialogue round table meetings organized by the GPN with other African countries.
 
Description Rwanda National Policy Brief Report
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Uganda National Policy Brief Report
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description 'Rethinking Plastics Pollution post-Pandemic: no virus, no plastics waste'
Amount $40,000 (USD)
Organisation UGPN 
Sector Academic/University
Start 08/2020 
End 07/2022
 
Description Building collective ownership of single-use plastics waste in youth communities: case studies from Kenya, Jamaica and Malawi
Amount £86,000 (GBP)
Organisation United Kingdom Research and Innovation 
Department Global Challenges Research Fund
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2021 
End 07/2021
 
Description UKRI COVID-19 Grant Extension Allocation in respect of the AHRC / GCRF project: The Wicked problem of Plastics and the Discourse surrounding its Governance
Amount £13,455 (GBP)
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2021 
End 09/2021
 
Description UKRI COVID-19 Grant Extension Allocation in respect of the ESPRC/GCRF project: GCRF Plastics Pollution Governance Framework Network (RG2018).
Amount £11,266 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2021 
End 09/2021
 
Title Governing Plastics Network document online repository 
Description The project has developed an online document repository resource available online of documents related to plastic governance in relevant countries n=139 documents (https://plasticsdb.surrey.ac.uk/search/). This is a valuable resource containing easily searchable and downloadable policy documents and published articles available to all, 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This has proven a valuable point of reference for those seeking information on the development of plastic legislation in DAC countries in particular. 
URL https://plasticsdb.surrey.ac.uk/search/
 
Title Governing Plastics Network qualitative data archive 
Description The project has amassed a large dataset of interview, questionnaire, published document and other types of data which has informed the development of the project's outcomes. This data remains confidential and available only to authorised team members. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Though not publicly available, this dataset has informed many outcomes from the project including presentations, workshops and disseminated articles, reports and policy briefs, always safely anonymised to protect the original participants. 
 
Description Governing Plastics Network (EU partners) 
Organisation Lund University
Department International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team has contributed to the links between these EU partners and the DAC-listed partners. It has increased knowledge and the potential for cross-impacts to occur.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have brought knowledge about the governance of plastics in their own countries to share across the network. They have contributed a podcast to the Facebook page.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: law, communications, business, ecology, biology, zoology. Broadcasts / podcasts have been lodged by the Danish and Swedish members on the Governing Plastics Network.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network (EU partners) 
Organisation University of Bayreuth
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team has contributed to the links between these EU partners and the DAC-listed partners. It has increased knowledge and the potential for cross-impacts to occur.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have brought knowledge about the governance of plastics in their own countries to share across the network. They have contributed a podcast to the Facebook page.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: law, communications, business, ecology, biology, zoology. Broadcasts / podcasts have been lodged by the Danish and Swedish members on the Governing Plastics Network.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network (EU partners) 
Organisation University of Copenhagen
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team has contributed to the links between these EU partners and the DAC-listed partners. It has increased knowledge and the potential for cross-impacts to occur.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have brought knowledge about the governance of plastics in their own countries to share across the network. They have contributed a podcast to the Facebook page.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: law, communications, business, ecology, biology, zoology. Broadcasts / podcasts have been lodged by the Danish and Swedish members on the Governing Plastics Network.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Addis Ababa University
Country Ethiopia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Caribbean Maritime University (Jamaica)
Country Jamaica 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Catholic University of Malawi
Country Malawi 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation College of African Wildlife Management
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation FB Attorneys
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM)
Country Kenya 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Makerere University
Country Uganda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Makerere University
Country Uganda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Tanzania Wildlife Management Authority (TAWA)
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation University of Nairobi
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation University of Rwanda
Department Centre for Legal Aid and Mediation (CLAM)
Country Rwanda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation University of Rwanda
Country Rwanda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation University of West Indies
Country Jamaica 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Broadcast (video and short talk) on Governing Plastics Network website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This talk by Professors Malcolm (Surrey) and Oguge (Nairobi) announced the launch of the Governing Plastics Network and the two linked projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Building Bridges webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Building Bridges webinar had two elements. First there was a debate around the documentary: The Story of Plastic, the link to which had been circulated in the previous 48 hours. Contributions were made by the partners and then a debate across the floor which raised interest around a number of issues concerning the management and governance of plastics. Secondly there was a workshop comprising the DAC-listed and EU partners in the project to discuss the Research Plan. This served to refine the plan and the programme for the development of case studies in the DAC-listed countries was confirmed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://eur02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fsurrey-ac.zoom.us%2Frec%2Fshare%2F...
 
Description Continuous Governing Plastics Network Facebook and Twitter presence 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The network's twitter and facebook pages are continuously updated, spreading plastic related news and opinions and promoting events and engagement activities by the network, its members and its partners and allies across the world. The social media accounts also provide a platform for the network's weekly short videos (currently numbering 67) commenting on different aspects of the fight against plastic pollution from the perspectives of different experts in various fields, many of them based on DAC countries.

The twitter and facebook pages can be found via @plasticsgov and are accessible from the network website (address below.)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021,2022
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Development of website and Facebook pages 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Governing Plastics Network website has a link where visitors can join the network and receive regular updates. Over 100 visitors to the website have joined.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Governing Plastics Network Jamaica National Roundtable online event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 15th September 2021 the Jamaica national roundtable event, conducted via zoom due to pandemic-related restrictions, aimed to enhance knowledge on plastic pollution governance and build a common understanding towards an effective plastic pollution governance framework among the stakeholders including academic experts, private sector organisations, government representatives, environmental activists and NGOs. Run in harmony with the Governing Plastics Network Network Framework project, A GCRF Global Engagement Network, and hosted by the national partner team, the key objectives were to disseminate the key findings of the case study research on the intersection between communication processes and plastic pollution governance, initiate a policy dialogue for the national stakeholders to share experiences and develop a road map for plastic pollution governance and also strengthen networking among partners and stakeholders. The key outcomes were information, ideas and experiences acquired and shared on plastic governance, as well as clear and practical recommendations agreed upon to guide the development of a roadmap for plastic pollution governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Governing Plastics Network Kenya National Roundtable online event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 11th August 2021 the Kenya national roundtable event, conducted via zoom due to pandemic-related restrictions, aimed to enhance knowledge on plastic pollution governance and build a common understanding towards an effective plastic pollution governance framework among the stakeholders including academic experts, private sector organisations, government representatives, environmental activists and NGOs. Run in harmony with the Governing Plastics Network Network Framework project, A GCRF Global Engagement Network, and hosted by the national partner team, the key objectives were to disseminate the key findings of the case study research on the intersection between communication processes and plastic pollution governance, initiate a policy dialogue for the national stakeholders to share experiences and develop a road map for plastic pollution governance and also strengthen networking among partners and stakeholders. The key outcomes were information, ideas and experiences acquired and shared on plastic governance, as well as clear and practical recommendations agreed upon to guide the development of a roadmap for plastic pollution governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Governing Plastics Network Malawi National Roundtable online event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 3rd November 2021, the Malawi national roundtable event, conducted via zoom due to pandemic-related restrictions, aimed to enhance knowledge on plastic pollution governance and build a common understanding towards an effective plastic pollution governance framework among the stakeholders including academic experts, private sector organisations, government representatives, environmental activists and NGOs. Run in harmony with the Governing Plastics Network Network Framework project, A GCRF Global Engagement Network, and hosted by the national partner team, the key objectives were to disseminate the key findings of the case study research on the intersection between communication processes and plastic pollution governance, initiate a policy dialogue for the national stakeholders to share experiences and develop a road map for plastic pollution governance and also strengthen networking among partners and stakeholders. The key outcomes were information, ideas and experiences acquired and shared on plastic governance, as well as clear and practical recommendations agreed upon to guide the development of a roadmap for plastic pollution governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Governing Plastics Network Rwanda National Roundtable online event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 29th September 2021 the Rwanda national roundtable event, conducted via zoom due to pandemic-related restrictions, aimed to enhance knowledge on plastic pollution governance and build a common understanding towards an effective plastic pollution governance framework among the stakeholders including academic experts, private sector organisations, government representatives, environmental activists and NGOs. Run in harmony with the Governing Plastics Network Network Framework project, A GCRF Global Engagement Network, and hosted by the national partner team, the key objectives were to disseminate the key findings of the case study research on the intersection between communication processes and plastic pollution governance, initiate a policy dialogue for the national stakeholders to share experiences and develop a road map for plastic pollution governance and also strengthen networking among partners and stakeholders. The key outcomes were information, ideas and experiences acquired and shared on plastic governance, as well as clear and practical recommendations agreed upon to guide the development of a roadmap for plastic pollution governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Governing Plastics Network Uganda National Roundtable online event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 13th October 2021, the Uganda national roundtable event, conducted via zoom due to pandemic-related restrictions, aimed to enhance knowledge on plastic pollution governance and build a common understanding towards an effective plastic pollution governance framework among the stakeholders including academic experts, private sector organisations, government representatives, environmental activists and NGOs. Run in harmony with the Governing Plastics Network Network Framework project, A GCRF Global Engagement Network, and hosted by the national partner team, the key objectives were to disseminate the key findings of the case study research on the intersection between communication processes and plastic pollution governance, initiate a policy dialogue for the national stakeholders to share experiences and develop a road map for plastic pollution governance and also strengthen networking among partners and stakeholders. The key outcomes were information, ideas and experiences acquired and shared on plastic governance, as well as clear and practical recommendations agreed upon to guide the development of a roadmap for plastic pollution governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Governing Plastics Network online video series (70 short videos at time of submission) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Since July 2020 the Governing Plastics Network has been producing weekly short videos disseminated via social media and other channels. These feature a range of experts with diverse perspectives on plastics pollution, including academics, activists, professional practitioners and representatives of government departments, private sector and NGOs from a wide range of countries. This included, in 2021, a special series of videos written, filmed and edited by youth groups who work as waste pickers in deprived areas of DAC countries expressing their own views on plastic pollution and how to fight it. The videos can be found on the network's social media feeds (Twitter and Facebook both @plasticsgov). Some of these videos are now being featured on the You Tube Channel of Earth Ambasssdeurs, (https://youtu.be/UDA47j7zvJM), an education-based volunteer organisation based in Jamaica. There are now 67 videos available in the main series in addition to 3 special presentations, all accessible via the facebook page @plasticsgov.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021,2022
URL https://fb.watch/bNviL2ZPJs/
 
Description Governing Plastics Network virtual sandbox event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 9th June 2021 the Governing Plastics Network organised an online workshop event designed to bring together the teams in Surrey and Nairobi with the national partners and their researchers in Ethiopia, Jamaica, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Each nation in turn presented on the state of plastic plastic pollution governance in their own nation and the challenges currently being faced, which resulted in a robust discussion and debate about how to address these challenges, helping shape research directions and concrete plans for the future development of the network. The event was held online, via zoom, as travel was at that point impossible due to a global pandemic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Influencing Plastics Legislation and Policy: Law and Communications Perspectives; Society of Legal Scholars Annual Conference 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Rosalind Malcolm and Dr Noreen O'Meara jointly presented the project's findings at the Society of Legal Scholars Annual Conference 2021, Durham University (1 September 2021) 'Influencing Plastics Legislation and Policy: Law and Communications Perspectives'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.legalscholars.ac.uk/conference/
 
Description Influencing Plastics Legislation and Policy: Law and Communications Perspectives; presentation at the European Environmental Law Forum Annual Conference 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Rosalind Malcolm and Dr Noreen O'Meara jointly presented the project's research at the European Environmental Law Forum Annual Conference 2021 (9 September 2021) title - 'Influencing Plastics Legislation and Policy: Law and Communications Perspectives'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/about/our-faculties/faculty-science-technology/our-departments/departm...
 
Description Influencing Plastics Leglisation and Policy: law and communications perspectives 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Nicholas Oguge was invited to present research based on the project, and work conducted as part of the Governing Plastics Framework Network project, at a session of the UN Environmental Assembly 5.2 in Nairobi on 28/02/22.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Launch of Governing Plastics Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This podcast launched the Governing Plastics Network explaining the projects which were running as part of that network. It comprised two contributions from Prof Oguge (Nairobi Co-I) and Prof Malcolm (Surrey PI). It attracted a number of the audience to join the Governing Plastics Network and follow its activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://eur02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Ft.co%2Fopt8AQbUvK%3Famp%3D1&data=0...
 
Description Presentation by Prof Rosalind Malcolm at "Future of Plastics" Workshop, The Oxford Martin Programme on the Future of Plastics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation by Prof Rosalind Malcolm at "Future of Plastics" Workshop, The Oxford Martin Programme on the Future of Plastics, University of Oxford, 14-15 October 2021

https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/content/oxford-martin-programme-future-plastics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/content/oxford-martin-programme-future-plastics
 
Description Presentation to representatives of the US Department of Agriculture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Governing Plastics network team presented their research to representatives of the United States Government Department of Agriculture on the 1st of October 2021, US delegation was led by Andrew Stephens, Senior Policy Advisor, Foreign Agricultural Service. Meeting was a result of USDA participation at previous roundtable event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Presentation to the Ocean Plastics Leadership Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 4th February 2022 various members of the Governing Plastics Network and Wicked Problem of Plastic Pollution projects presented their research to the Ocean Plastics Leadership Network (key contact: Erin McClusky) leading to a decision to collaborate on future funding bids and other related endeavours.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Presentations at Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Surrey workshop on the use and Governance of Plastics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations by several members of project team at the Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Surrey workshop on the use and Governance of Plastics, 28th-29th June 2021 https://www.ias.surrey.ac.uk/event/use-and-governance-of-plastics/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL http://www.ias.surrey.ac.uk/event/use-and-governance-of-plastics
 
Description Presentations at YHYS 2021 Colloquium Sustainable welfare: States and capabilities of transformation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations at YHYS 2021 Colloquium Sustainable welfare: States and capabilities of transformation, Aalto University, Finland, 25th-26th November 2021, https://www.aalto.fi/en/sustainable-welfare. Several members of the project team presented on aspects of the projects findings.. Presentations were made virtually via zoom as global pandemic made travel difficult.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.aalto.fi/en/sustainable-welfare
 
Description Press -release: Plastic Pollution Governance Framework Network to be co-lead by Professor, Rosalind Malcolm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release 6th May 2020 "Plastic Pollution Governance Framework Network to be co-lead by Professor, Rosalind Malcolm" https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/plastics-pollution-governance-framework-network-be-co-lead-professor-rosalind-malcolm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/plastics-pollution-governance-framework-network-be-co-lead-professor-r...
 
Description Press release: Governing Plastics Network Forum meet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release 14th September 2020 "Governing Plastics Network Forum meet" https://www.uonbi.ac.ke/news/governing-plastics-network-forum-meet. Designed to raise awareness of project by reporting on Building Bridges meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.uonbi.ac.ke/news/governing-plastics-network-forum-meet
 
Description Press release: Plastic celebrities" and entrepreneurial businesses appear crucial to reducing plastic pollution in East Africa and the Caribbean 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release 22nd September 2021 ""Plastic celebrities" and entrepreneurial businesses appear crucial to reducing plastic pollution in East Africa and the Caribbean" https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/plastic-celebrities-and-entrepreneurial-businesses-appear-crucial-reducing-plastic-pollution-east. Designed to disseminate the outcomes of the Kenya and Jamaica national roundtable events and raise awareness of upcoming events in Rwanda, Uganda and Malawi,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/plastic-celebrities-and-entrepreneurial-businesses-appear-crucial-redu...
 
Description Press release: Surrey launches network to analyse the governance of plastic pollution in Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release 3rd July 2020 "Surrey launches network to analyse the governance of plastic pollution in Africa" https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/surrey-launches-network-analyse-governance-plastic-pollution-africa - intended to raise awareness and encourage future engagement with this project and the wider Governing Plastics Network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/surrey-launches-network-analyse-governance-plastic-pollution-africa
 
Description The Governing Plastics Network Blog - Updates and insights from the war against plastic in seven developing nations 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Experts in different aspects of plastic pollution from across the network teams contributed 16 blogs offering diverse perspectives, opinions and commentary on topical plastic related issues, such as Glasgow's COP-26 meeting in 2021 and 2022's UNEA 5.2 in Nairobi. This has resulted in considerable engagement by linking to other aspects of the network's work and eliciting blog comments from diverse users.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021,2022
URL https://blogs.surrey.ac.uk/governing-plastics-network