The Wicked Problem of Plastics and the Discourse Surrounding its Governance

Lead Research Organisation: University of Surrey
Department Name: School of Law

Abstract

This research network will look at the discourses about the problem of pollution from solid waste plastic materials - especially those with a short service life - and how these narratives translate into regulation, other governance initiatives and voluntary approaches - in other words, action. It will look at the way in which the story about plastics waste is told and how that leads to policy and regulation. Despite the popular call towards a 'no-plastics' future, a world without plastics is unimaginable. The challenge is to deal with the escape of waste plastics in a way which does not allow waste to escape into the environment but enhances a circular economy in plastics - a closed-loop system where end-of-service-life plastic objects become a resource and thus reduce waste plastics to as near zero as possible. The use of plastics since their rise in popularity over the past 50-60 years has now presented the world with what can only be described as a 'Wicked Problem' - a problem combining technical and social complexity where traditional solutions do not work and which are not solvable by any single discipline. Take, for example, the problem of wet wipes which are the cause of 93% of sewage blockages. A simple regulatory solution would be to ban them as in the recent UK ban on micro-plastic beads in cosmetics. But this would lose a valuable and useful commodity as shown by the example of bans on plastic bags which have been implemented in a number of African and other developing countries. Seeking a multidisciplinary solution which combines technical solutions, such as using a different material with all the properties of current wet wipes, driven by regulatory sanctions and changes in consumer behaviour can achieve a long-lasting result which has environmental advantages as well as societal gains. It is only through a truly multidisciplinary approach that a 'zero' plastic waste solution can be approached. It is the case that some reactions to the problem of single-use plastics and the way they affect the environment as graphically displayed, for example, in the BBC series, Blue Planet II, have been to ban plastics and to replace them by other materials which may also be abandoned once used and may be just as harmful to the environment in the long term. So why are some countries seeking solutions which miss the heart of the problem? The danger from such a reactive approach is to transfer the problems caused by our consumption and production patterns down the line while thinking that the problem of waste in the environment has been solved. Bans on the importation of certain plastics waste by DAC-listed countries may control the problem in the interim but not solve it for the future. Yet, at the same time, the public awareness escalated by such imagery on the media is good in that it raises the attention of policymakers and legislators to the need to find solutions. What is a problem about it is that it may cause such groups of regulators to take quick and easy steps which appear to solve this wicked problem. So this project intends to investigate the way in which the message about plastics pollution is being delivered around the world, especially in DAC-listed countries where particular problems arise from importation of plastics waste from high consuming countries, and how that translates into regulatory and governance action so that lessons can be learned as to how to deal effectively with such wicked problems as plastics waste. The network will share knowledge and experiences on the analysis of the way in which the message about plastics waste is developed and delivered so as to contribute to the long-term solution of this wicked problem.

Planned Impact

This proposal will have direct relevance to international development policy and practice by demonstrating the way in which communication of the message about the problems caused by plastics pollution influences both governance and consumption habits. Sharing knowledge about the cultural ways in which communication of a global challenge takes place, and the way this can affect outcomes, will highlight the need for good practice to deal with the problem. LMICs are particularly impacted by the plastic waste problem as major importers of waste. Their responses to the problem are changing the way in which international trade in this resource operates. Examining the ways in which they develop a response to the problem and which factors have most impact on their decision-making will illuminate the issues surrounding this global challenge. International trade feeds into international development directly so changes in the supply chain will impact directly the businesses and workers (mainly women) involved. This will have economic, health and welfare effects. This proposal will engage with the network established under EPSRC/GCRF Plastics Pollution Governance Framework Network (REF EP/T003529/1) as a base and develop from there incorporating expertise on communications, culture, media and theory of governance. So, engagement with stakeholders in the plastics and waste industry, government (local and central), advocacy groups and NGOs and academics has already been made. Organisations include: the Kenyan Association of Manufacturers, Client Earth, the Product Life Institute, UK Environmental Law Association, UN Environment, The Ocean Foundation amongst others. Starting with this core of activists, the project will build the network and establish clear channels of communication to build a firm foundation for future growth and a clear pathway to impact in terms of meeting the global health challenge posed by the extensive use of plastics. Impact will be achieved by inclusion of key stakeholders in the network which, in the 2 years, will be the primary pathway to impact. The network will grow by bringing key players into membership so that channels of communication are opened within and across nations and regions. Key aspects of the work of the PI and Co-Is will be to engage key stakeholders facilitated by the 2 Co-ordinators in the global North and South. These stakeholders will have real-life examples to share and will also provide access to these organisations' networks of policy contacts. We plan targeted publications including industry journal articles and on-line materials and an instructional video on our website which present our findings in a format that is accessible to policy-makers. We will use the network to build 'champions' who will be in a position to engage in advisory roles, such as to government inquiries, reports, panels and committees. The general public is also an important group as ultimate actors to eliminate plastics waste. Through their behaviours such as consumer choice, waste management, and political voice, individuals have a vital role on the uptake and implementation of any intervention. Consequently, the general public will be involved by using social media. Schools and local colleges will be included so as to engage young people who are already highly committed worldwide to issues around climate change. We expect to be able to engage them in our network. Academic impact will be achieved through multidisciplinary team working alongside non-academic stakeholders to achieve excellence in advances in understanding, method, theory and application in communication theory linked with the theory of regulation and governance. Surrey's Environmental Regulatory Research Group, led by PI Malcolm, and Special Interest Group on Plastics in the Environment led by Advisory Board member, Prof Murphy will disseminate results using media, academic, professional and industrial contacts to maximise impact.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description In the first year of this 2-year project a significant network of partners has been built across 7 DAC-listed countries (Ethiopia, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda). These include Universities, research institutes, government bodies, non-governmental organisations, professional and trade membership bodies and private law firms. In addition over 150 individuals have registered their interested in the project by signing up to the Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network). The network has also expanded across the EU with three Universities partnering on the project: the Universities of Bayreuth, Germany; Lund, Sweden; and, Copenhagen, Denmark. These are providing supporting facilities and input to the project. A network of around 12 research assistants are working on case studies in each of the DAC-listed countries on the topic of the project: 'how has the story told about plastics impacted on its governance?'. Social media outlets (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov) also host a range of video and audio clips on the topic of the wicked problem of plastics.
Exploitation Route The award is still underway and approaching the half-way mark. The network has been well established and the exchange of information is occurring though regular meetings, case study conferences and webinars. The results of the case studies will be reported in a sandbox meeting after Easter and it is expected they will be highly relevant in informing the way in which messages are given around the story of plastics and their impact on the governance of plastics.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network
 
Description The findings of this research project which is still underway have been reported through the Governing Plastics Network established in the first few months. The establishment of the Governing Plastics Network is a key outcome to date of the project. It has attracted over 150 members who have signed up through the website: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network. The research is currently building a picture of the governance of plastics and the discourse around plastics in the 7 DAC-listed countries which are partners on the project. We have attracted a range of members to the Governing Plastics Network who are sharing communications on the topic of the project. This knowledge enhancing activity is currently being developed through the building of 3 case studies from each of the partner countries which will provide the material to analyse this wicked problem. The case studies will provide focused and detailed material to be shared around the network in the next 12 months of the project.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description 'Rethinking Plastics Pollution post-Pandemic: no virus, no plastics waste'
Amount $40,000 (USD)
Organisation UGPN 
Sector Academic/University
Start 09/2020 
End 07/2021
 
Description Building collective ownership of single-use plastics waste in youth communities: case studies from Kenya, Jamaica and Malawi
Amount £86,000 (GBP)
Organisation United Kingdom Research and Innovation 
Department Global Challenges Research Fund
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2021 
End 07/2021
 
Description Governing Plastics Network (EU partners) 
Organisation Lund University
Department International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team has contributed to the links between these EU partners and the DAC-listed partners. It has increased knowledge and the potential for cross-impacts to occur.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have brought knowledge about the governance of plastics in their own countries to share across the network. They have contributed a podcast to the Facebook page.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: law, communications, business, ecology, biology, zoology. Broadcasts / podcasts have been lodged by the Danish and Swedish members on the Governing Plastics Network.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network (EU partners) 
Organisation University of Bayreuth
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team has contributed to the links between these EU partners and the DAC-listed partners. It has increased knowledge and the potential for cross-impacts to occur.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have brought knowledge about the governance of plastics in their own countries to share across the network. They have contributed a podcast to the Facebook page.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: law, communications, business, ecology, biology, zoology. Broadcasts / podcasts have been lodged by the Danish and Swedish members on the Governing Plastics Network.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network (EU partners) 
Organisation University of Copenhagen
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team has contributed to the links between these EU partners and the DAC-listed partners. It has increased knowledge and the potential for cross-impacts to occur.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have brought knowledge about the governance of plastics in their own countries to share across the network. They have contributed a podcast to the Facebook page.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: law, communications, business, ecology, biology, zoology. Broadcasts / podcasts have been lodged by the Danish and Swedish members on the Governing Plastics Network.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Addis Ababa University
Country Ethiopia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Caribbean Maritime University (Jamaica)
Country Jamaica 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Catholic University of Malawi
Country Malawi 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation College of African Wildlife Management
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation FB Attorneys
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM)
Country Kenya 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Makerere University
Country Uganda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Makerere University
Country Uganda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation Tanzania Wildlife Management Authority (TAWA)
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation University of Nairobi
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation University of Rwanda
Department Centre for Legal Aid and Mediation (CLAM)
Country Rwanda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation University of Rwanda
Country Rwanda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Governing Plastics Network - DAC-listed countries 
Organisation University of West Indies
Country Jamaica 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team has created opportunities to expand the research activities of this partner by developing a research plan to conduct case studies on the topic of the project. The Governing Plastics Network (https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-network) and linked Facebook page: (https://www.facebook.com/plasticsgov/?view_public_for=103116601448377) is hosting examples of the research and impact activities of these partners. The research team is supporting the training and capacity building of these partners' research assistants who are involved in the project.
Collaborator Contribution These partners have undertaken to conduct case studies to support this project. They are also making contributions (video broadcasts/podcasts and publications) to the Governing Plastics Network website and Facebook page.
Impact Video link on Facebook Relevant Publications on topic linked on Facebook and tweeted This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving legal and communications disciplines.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Broadcast (video and short talk) on Governing Plastics Network website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This talk by Professors Malcolm (Surrey) and Oguge (Nairobi) announced the launch of the Governing Plastics Network and the two linked projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Building Bridges webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Building Bridges webinar had two elements. First there was a debate around the documentary: The Story of Plastic, the link to which had been circulated in the previous 48 hours. Contributions were made by the partners and then a debate across the floor which raised interest around a number of issues concerning the management and governance of plastics. Secondly there was a workshop comprising the DAC-listed and EU partners in the project to discuss the Research Plan. This served to refine the plan and the programme for the development of case studies in the DAC-listed countries was confirmed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://eur02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fsurrey-ac.zoom.us%2Frec%2Fshare%2F...
 
Description Development of website and Facebook pages 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Governing Plastics Network website has a link where visitors can join the network and receive regular updates. Over 100 visitors to the website have joined.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-centre-international-and-environmental-law/governing-plastics-networ...
 
Description Launch of Governing Plastics Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This podcast launched the Governing Plastics Network explaining the projects which were running as part of that network. It comprised two contributions from Prof Oguge (Nairobi Co-I) and Prof Malcolm (Surrey PI). It attracted a number of the audience to join the Governing Plastics Network and follow its activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://eur02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Ft.co%2Fopt8AQbUvK%3Famp%3D1&data=0...