AEOLIAN (Artificial intelligence for cultural organisations)

Lead Research Organisation: Loughborough University
Department Name: Humanities

Abstract

How can we unlock "dark" digital archives closed to the public? What is the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in making digitised and born-digital cultural records more accessible to users, on both sides of the Atlantic? AEOLIAN (Artificial intelligence for cultural organisations) focuses on born-digital and digitised collections that are currently closed to researchers and other users due to privacy concerns, copyright and other issues.

Archives are meant to be used, not locked away. In order to unlock cultural assets, we need to work across disciplines and harness the latest technology. AEOLIAN brings together Digital Humanists, Computer Scientists, archivists and other stakeholders to transform the access and use of born-digital and digitised collections which are currently hidden away.

Analysing vast amounts of data cannot be done manually: automation is no longer a choice, it is a necessity. Artificial Intelligence can be used to improve access to non-confidential materials through sensitivity review, for example by distinguishing between personal and business emails. AEOLIAN aims to unlock born-digital and digitised collections and open them up to a large number of users.

Access to digital archives is essential, but we also need to anticipate the moment when born-digital records will be more accessible. To make sense of this mass of data, new methodologies are urgently needed, combining traditional methods in the humanities with data-rich approaches. Collaborations between humanities scholars, computer scientists, archivists and other stakeholders are therefore essential to make archives more accessible, but also to design new methodologies to analyse huge amounts of data.

AI and machine learning create opportunities, but also challenges, for libraries, archives and museums. The project will address larger questions in the humanities - including ethical and social considerations at the centre of current debates on AI and digital technologies.

The AEOLIAN project will lead to the following research outputs:
_6 online workshops , which will result in the creation of an international network of theorists and practitioners working with born-digital and digitised archives.
_5 case studies of US and UK cultural organisations . These case studies will feed into an open-access 100-page report for an interdisciplinary audience outlining avenues for future research.
_2 collections of essays published as special issue of journal or edited collection.

The final report will offer a roadmap on born-digital and digitised cultural assets, based on 5 case studies of specific collections in the UK and US and detailed interviews. Crucially, it will also develop specific ideas for interdisciplinary research areas to solve the issue of access to digital cultural assets, which could form the basis of future research initiatives.

Archives are of course not reserved to academic researchers. The online workshops and the website will foster public engagement on the topic of the changing nature of archival collections (from print to digital) in the twenty-first century.

The website will keep track of all the project activities in the form of presentation materials from all workshop participants, video recordings of workshop presentations, and case studies that will then feed into the final report. Associated social media will help us connect with interested parties - in academia, archival institutions and beyond.
 
Description We have to date completed 3 out of our 6 planned workshops, all generating international interest and interdisciplinary discussions.
1. "Employing machine learning and artificial intelligence in cultural institutions" (WORKSHOP 1 - DELIVERED IN JULY 2021)
2. "Reimagining Industry / Academic / Cultural Heritage Partnerships in AI" (WORKSHOP 2 - DELIVERED IN OCTOBER 2021)
3. "What challenges do Machine Learning and AI raise in terms of privacy, ethics, research integrity, reproducibility, and bias?" (WORKSHOP 3 - DELIVERED IN JANUARY 2022).

Recordings and slides have been made available through the website: https://www.aeolian-network.net/category/workshops/

We have also published the first of our 5 open-access Case Studies on US and UK Cultural Organisations (The National Archives UK) and the second, featuring a prominent US library, will be available shortly.

We have also launched the CFP and received submissions for the first Special Issue associated with the project: "Artificial Intelligence for Cultural Heritage Materials" to be published in Journal of Documentation (Emerald) [forthcoming, 2022].

We also created a list-serv which has 181 members at the time of writing (March 2022) and we have made extensive use of Twitter using the hashtag #AEOLIAN_Network.
Exploitation Route The networking and collaborative opportunities, as well as the research into born-digital archives and accessibility have and will continue to influence AEOLIAN members, workshop participants and industry professionals who are having these conversations and dealing with similar issues within their own industries. The collaborative and interdisciplinary nature of the project, bringing together Humanities scholars, Computer Scientists, archivists and other stakeholders, is a prominent point of praise within the project's collected feedback from workshop participants.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://www.aeolian-network.net/outcomes/
 
Description For the three AEOLIAN workshops, we have asked participants, of whom over 50 percent on average are non-academic, to provide feedback on their experience, which as a whole has been very positive. The growing interest in the project has been measured through workshop participation, Twitter followers (313) and engagement, mailing-list subscribers and website visits measured through datastudio (google). Since the launch in February 2021, the AEOLIAN website has had 11,800 views from 4,300 users from the UK, US, Canada, Australia and France, with the workshop recordings and slides being the most visited content.
First Year Of Impact 2021
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Influence on policy - Unlocking our Digital Past
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Contribution to new or Improved professional practice
Impact The Unlocking our Digital Past project led to 2 online workshops in June and September 2021, as well as 30 interviews with policy makers and industry professionals from the UK and US. It brought together a wide range people from across the GLAM sector, academia and the civil service to discuss some of the potential ways in which AI can be used to support making born-digital archives more accessible and usable to users, both for the general public and professional researchers.
URL https://unlockingourdigitalpast.com/
 
Description "Work with French researchers" scheme funded by AHRC in the UK and LABEX in France, for EyCon (Early Conflict Photography and Visual AI)
Amount £175,000 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/W008408/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2022 
End 07/2023
 
Description Collaboration with Catherine Nicole Coleman (Stanford University) 
Organisation Stanford University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, building of the AEOLIAN Network.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise and practical knowledge of library sciences, artificial intelligence and computer science.
Impact Catherine Nicole Coleman (Stanford University) chaired for the first Workshop: "Employing machine learning and artificial intelligence in cultural institutions" and is currently preparing our second Case Study on the library collections at Stanford University.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaboration with Claire Warwick (English Department, Durham University) 
Organisation Durham University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, cultural heritage and Information Sciences
Impact Delivery of Workshop 3: What challenges do Machine Learning and AI raise in terms of privacy, ethics, research integrity, reproducibility, and bias?
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Annalina Caputo (School of Computing, Dublin City University) 
Organisation Dublin City University
Country Ireland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in Computer Science/ Artificial Intelligence
Impact Co-Authored Case Study on The National Archives for the AEOLIAN project, exploring the TNA's current strategies, projects and policies concerning the use of AI to make born-digital records more accessible. It also addresses other projects and current developments within the wider sector and internationally.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaboration with Paul Gooding (Information Studies, University of Glasgow) 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in Data Science, Information Studies and Digital Humanities
Impact Blog Post: Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) Blog Post. The blog post introduced the AEOLIAN network and its project outputs. It also encouraged readers to join our AEOLIAN list-serv to receive updates on our initiative and latest news.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaboration with The National Archives (UK) 
Organisation The National Archives
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in Artificial Intelligence, Library Science, Archives and current industry policies.
Impact Case study 1: The National Archives (UK). Written by Lise Jaillant, Annalina Caputo, and Katherine Aske on The National Archives UK (TNA). The study examines TNA's current strategies, projects and policies concerning the use of AI to make born-digital records more accessible. It also addresses other projects and current developments within the wider sector and internationally.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaboration with University of Illinois 
Organisation University of Illinois
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities
Collaborator Contribution Working with Glen Layne-Worthey and J. Stephen Downie (HathiTrust Research Center, University of Illinois), and post-doc Ryan Dubnicek, with combined expertise in Digital Humanities, Information Science, project promotion, workshop organisation, publication and editing.
Impact Delivery of Workshop 2: "Reimagining Industry / Academic / Cultural Heritage Partnerships in AI" Project Blog Post: Artificial Intelligence for Libraries, Archives & Museums (AI4LAM) Secured publisher and submissions for the first Special Issue with Journal of Documentation.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnership with Educopia 
Organisation Educopia Institute
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in library science and digital preservation. Attendance at events (up to 4 staff members).
Impact Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnership with Frick Collection 
Organisation Frick Collection
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in library science and digital preservation. Organisation of Workshop 4, and attendance at events.
Impact Organisation of workshop 4. Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnership with Harvard College Library 
Organisation Harvard University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in library science. Attendance at events (up to 5 staff members).
Impact Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnership with Indiana University Libraries 
Organisation Indiana University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in library science and digital preservation. Attendance at events (up to 4 staff members).
Impact Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnership with The National Library of Scotland 
Organisation National Library of Scotland
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities
Collaborator Contribution Attendance at workshop events (up to 7 staff members)
Impact Attendance at workshops
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnership with The National Library of Wales 
Organisation National Library of Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in library sciences. Attendance at events (up to 4 staff members).
Impact Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnership with University of North Carolina Libraries 
Organisation North Carolina State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in library science and digital preservation. Attendance at events (up to 4 staff members).
Impact Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnership with Yale University Library 
Organisation Yale University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in library science, working with the Digital Preservation Team and the Irving S. Gilmore Music Library. Attendance at events (Digital Preservation Team, up to 4 staff members / Music Library, 1 staff member).
Impact Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnerships with History of Parliament Trust 
Organisation The History of Parliament
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in policy. Attendance at events (1 staff member).
Impact Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Partnerships with Wellcome Collection 
Organisation Wellcome Collection
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in Digital Humanities, project management and networking.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in library science. Attendance at events (up to 4 staff members).
Impact Attendance at and participation in the project's online workshops.
Start Year 2021
 
Description AEOLIAN Online Workshop 1: "Employing Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Cultural Institutions" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The purpose of this first workshop was to bring together key figures in the archive 'circuit', from the creators of data (computer scientists, digital humanists, researchers, and archivists), to users, addressing the employment of ML and AI across the spectrum. The workshop focussed on how AI technologies, and specifically ML models, are being employed within the archival sector. It addressed concerns regarding ethics, collaboration, and innovation within the GLAM [Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums] industry. Over 100 participants attended the workshop from all over the world. We conducted a survey after the workshop and received 34 responses. The majority of these respondents were professionals from the GLAM sector (approx. 45%), with the remaining participants being early career students, academics, and university staff.

I) ORGANISATION. Respondents found the workshop extremely useful (35.3%), very useful (55.9%), and useful (8.8%), with most saying the workshop was well-organised (97%). One respondent enjoyed the "flow and structure of the workshop" and was also "grateful for presenters in different roles, e.g. librarians, technicians, curators, etc". Several respondents noted the user-friendly programme, particularly the "perfect length" of the talks and regular breaks. Two described the workshop as "well-organized" and one applauded the "communication and moderation" throughout the workshop. Others said it was "well paced" and "well managed", and that they enjoyed the sense of community in a network welcoming "a wide group of people working in the area of ML & GLAMs." On the whole, the organisation received very positive feedback, with the programme and the range of presentations being particularly noteworthy.

II) CONTENT. Nine respondents noted the variety of presentations as the best part of the workshop. In particular, the range and "highly applicable topics" was well received, as was the "high calibre of the presenters", discussions, and the demonstration of ML tools and techniques. Others commented on the relevance of the Keynote presentation as a "theoretical complement" to the earlier panels, and for challenging them to think "beyond immediate projects". Another respondent was glad to attend a workshop "for GLAM institutions", noting they "mostly hear about AI/ML in other fields." One noted the "thoughtful passion and practical work behind the 'AI-positive' presentations", and particularly the "civic-minded" applications of AI covered by the workshop. Others commended the expertise of the presenters and valued their range of knowledge concerning both "big-picture" and "detailed projects". Overall, respondents appreciated the advice and discussion arising from the presentations and Q&A sessions.

III) IMPACT. 27 out of the 34 respondents answered the question regarding the impact of the workshop on their own work. This was overwhelmingly positive with the majority of respondents saying it would impact their knowledge of AI and ML, and the way they approach their own projects/work. They said the workshop had revealed new ideas, inspired further reading and detailed not only ML models, but how to apply them in a range of audio, visual and textual contexts. Comments included: "I started thinking about new concepts and I got some new ideas". "I did learn a lot about the broader state and use of AI in cultural heritage and the Digital Humanities, which will help shape my future research and collaborations". "I am quite a newbie to the field, and haven't used many of these tools myself, but it helps me to think through my own problems and how they can be solved." "I am interested in the potential use of AI to aid in this detecting and reassembling of globally dispersed and undocumented indigenous heritage." One respondent said that "considering what others have done to overcome the labor intensive work of training a ML tool to accomplish something" will help to generate important conversations within the GLAM sector, by "becoming more aware of data sets that can be used for some of the training effort." One post-graduate respondent said "I am about to embark on an MA in Archives and Records Management so this is really helpful for me." Others noted that they could now go and "explore some of the different tools" and that the workshop had given them "inspiration for the next edition of our institution's collections information plan". Suggesting the importance of including non-AI specialists, four respondents noted the significance of having conversations with colleagues across the GLAM sector. One claimed that "it was very helpful to learn more about the ways AI is being used to improve access to collections, the importance of working across institutions to ensure this work is done ethically, and being able to network with others working in this space." Generally, the responses welcomed the call to action for sharing resources, learning, and methodologies between archivists, GLAM professionals, AI specialists and digital humanists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.aeolian-network.net/events/workshop-1-employing-machine-learning-and-artificial-intellig...
 
Description AEOLIAN Workshop 2: Reimagining Industry / Academic / Cultural Heritage Partnerships in AI 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The purpose of this second workshop was to continue to bring together key figures in the archive 'circuit', from the creators of data (computer scientists, digital humanists, researchers, and archivists), to users, addressing the employment of ML and AI across the spectrum. The workshop focused on the application of innovative AI research methods and collaborations among industry, academia, and cultural institutions, how they are now, and what they might look like in the future. The workshop invited critique, visions, and revisions of what and how these relations might grow with equity and social justice interweaved from the design process onwards; we explored both synergies and differences in the ethics, motivations, and practices implicated in such industry / cultural heritage partnerships, reimagining them for a thoughtful and intentional future within the GLAM [Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums] industry.

With 10 international speakers, almost 100 participants attended the workshop from all over the world. Recordings of the presentations are now available to view on the project website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.aeolian-network.net/category/workshops/
 
Description AEOLIAN Workshop 3: "What challenges do Machine Learning and AI raise in terms of privacy, ethics, research integrity, reproducibility, and bias?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop was online and hosted on ZOOM by Prof. Claire Warwick (project Co-I) at Durham University on Thursday 27th January and Friday 28th January. The workshop, the third in the series, looked at privacy and the uses of AI. It asks how far we, as users and as information professionals, trust AI both in terms of how transparently algorithms are constructed, and what their creators say about them. How far are we able to cut through promotional hype and evaluate the affordances of AI for use in cultural heritage? How do we allow for potential biases in the construction of algorithms? How should we advise potential new users of such technologies? The workshop consisted of two Keynote talks, one on each day, followed by open discussion sessions, where participants will be encouraged to discuss questions, and make recommendations for future action. The Keynotes were from Prof. Jason R. Baron (University of Maryland) and Prof. Alexandra Cristea (Durham University).

Over 110 participants registered for the 2-day workshop, 19 of whom were PhD or Postdoctoral students, demonstrating the project's growing engagement and relevance within higher education. The remaining participants were from a diverse range of professions, including academia, neuropsychiatry, management and library services, and ranged from entry level positions to heads of departments. Most registered attendees were from the UK and US, but we also had participants from India, Hungary, Finland, Luxembourg, Greece, Austria, Croatia, Australia, and South America.

When asked if the workshop was useful, 100% of survey participants said yes. Comments included that the workshop was 'carefully organised', and included 'exciting topics' relevant to practice, and that they were looking forward to future events.

The keynote talks and discussions revealed the relevancy of the project, and the call for a collaborative approach and wider communication across sectors in the use and development of AI technologies in cultural heritage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.aeolian-network.net/events/workshop-3/
 
Description Blog post by Glen Worthey (Associate Director for Research Support Services in the HathiTrust Research Center, US PI for AEOLIAN) detailing AEOLIAN's work so far. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This second blog post, published on the Artificial Intelligence for Libraries, Archives & Museums website, has been written by Glen Worthey, Associate Director for Research Support Services in the HathiTrust Research Center, based in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign School of Information Sciences. Formed in 2018, AI4LAM is a collaborative framework for libraries, archives and museums to organize, share and elevate their knowledge about and use of artificial intelligence. The blog post details our partnerships and work so far, as well as our upcoming workshop on July 7.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://sites.google.com/view/ai4lam/news/20210609worthey
 
Description Blog post by Paul Gooding (Senior Lecturer at the University of Glasgow, UK Co-I for AEOLIAN) introducing the AEOLIAN project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The first blog post, written by Paul Gooding, Senior Lecturer in Information Studies at the University of Glasgow, was published on the Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) blog. A not-for-profit membership organization, the DPC was founded in 2002, and now gathers more than 100 agencies from 13 countries. The blog post introduces the AEOLIAN network and its project outputs. It also encouraged readers to join our AEOLIAN list-serv to receive updates on our initiative and latest news.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.dpconline.org/blog/aeolian-paul-gooding
 
Description Feature in ARC Magazine by Katie Aske, title: 'Better Together: AEOLIAN Network's First Workshop' (October 2021) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Katie Aske, Research Assistant for the AEOLIAN Network at Loughborough University, discusses the key outcomes of the network's first workshop which addressed the ways in which Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence can be leveraged to help organise, search and understand digital collections across the sector.
Aske, K. 'Better Together: AEOLIAN Network's First Workshop', Feature in ARC Magazine, Issue 381, Archives & Records Association, pp. 25-27. ISSN: 2632-7171 (Sept-Oct 2021).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.archives.org.uk/arc-magazine
 
Description Interview for American Library Association's Choose Privacy Every Day blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Virginia Dressler, Digital Projects Librarian at Kent State University interviewed Glen Worthey (AEOLIAN US Director) for the American Library Association's Choose Privacy Every Day blog: "Artificial Intelligence for Cultural Organizations (AEOLIAN) NEH Grant".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://chooseprivacyeveryday.org/artificial-intelligence-for-cultural-organizations-aeolian-neh-gra...
 
Description News Eye interview with Lise Jaillant about the AEOLIAN Network. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Amanda Maunoury, National Library of France, interviews Lise Jaillant in "Artificial Intelligence for Cultural Organisations: A Conversation with Dr Lise Jaillant" for the News Eye blog. They discuss the project, the background and the future of the network. The post also encourages readers to join the AEOLIAN mailing list.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.newseye.eu/blog/news/an-interview-with-lisa-jaillant-uk-principal-investigator-for-the-a...
 
Description Open Access Case Study on The National Archives UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This first case study is written by Lise Jaillant, Annalina Caputo, and Katherine Aske on The National Archives UK (TNA). The study examines TNA's current strategies, projects and policies concerning the use of AI to make born-digital records more accessible. It also addresses other projects and current developments within the wider sector and internationally, and highlights key areas for future research and collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.aeolian-network.net/case-studies/
 
Description Review of 'Employing Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Cultural Institutions Workshop', by Adrian Stevenson (Technical Innovations Manager of Digital Resources at Jisc) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Adrian Stevenson, Technical Innovations Manager of Digital Resources at Jisc reviews the first workshop from the AEOLIAN project for Archives Hub.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://blog.archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/2021/07/09/employing-machine-learning-and-artificial-intelligenc...