Adhesive mechanisms and dynamic performance in smooth adhesive pads of insects

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Zoology

Abstract

Many insects are capable of running upside down on a smooth surface, carrying loads and withstanding pull-off forces equivalent to more than 100 times their own body weight. The mechanisms of how this impressive performance is achieved and of how they master the conflicting tasks of running and of making stable adhesive contacts, are still largely unknown. We will investigate surface attachment and locomotion in ants and stick insects, which possess smooth adhesive pads at the tips of their legs. Experiments will be conducted to clarify whether attachment forces are due to 'wet' or dry' adhesion, i.e. whether they are mainly based on the properties of a fluid film between pad and surface or on the direct contact between the adhesive pad cuticle and the substrate. We will investigate whether the fluid secretion enhances adhesion and if so, and under what conditions. Attachment forces of single legs (adhesion and friction) will be measured while simultaneously filming their area of contact with the surface. The physical properties of pad cuticle and secretion will be analysed with modern microscopy techniques, and used to compare pad performance with theoretical predictions. To clarify the mechanism of adhesion and the scaling of forces with body size, we will study how adhesive pads detach from the surface. In general, forces are reduced when pads are detached by peeling. We will investigate whether insects are able to avoid peeling and if so, how they do this. To understand how insects manage to combine surface attachment with locomotion, we will study the movements of legs and adhesive pads during attachment and detachment. By analysing high-speed recordings of running insects, we will explore how running is influenced by surface attachment and how insects adjust their legs and feet to cope with different attachment conditions. Our project will clarify how insects adhere to surfaces and how they manage to control attachment forces. Even though numerous potential applications exist, no controllable technical adhesives have yet been developed. Understanding the mechanisms of how insects elegantly control attachment is likely to lead to the discovery of general principles useful for the design of novel 'biomimetic' adhesives.

Technical Summary

Insects that possess adhesive pads are capable of withstanding large detachment forces and are yet able to run. The detailed mechanisms of how they master the conflicting tasks of running and of making stable adhesive contacts are still largely unknown. The aim of this project is to clarify the mechanisms of surface attachment in smooth adhesive pads of insects and to understand how adhesive forces are controlled during running. Attachment forces of single legs will be measured under different conditions while simultaneously recording the area of contact. Physical properties of pad secretion and cuticle will be quantified using interference reflection and atomic force microscopy, and used to test theoretical models of adhesion and friction. We will verify whether and under what conditions the fluid secretion enhances adhesion. It will be tested whether attachment forces are based on the properties of a continuous fluid film in the pad contact zone or on direct cuticle-surface contacts. We will test the prediction that the two-phasic nature of the adhesive secretion is essential for static friction forces. To understand the mechanism of adhesion and the physical basis of how insects control adhesion, we will analyse the detailed mode of pad detachment ('peeling' vs. 'sudden separation') and test predictions regarding the scaling of adhesive forces and single pads and whole insects. The movements of legs and adhesive pads will be studied during attachment and detachment. By analysing high-speed recordings of running insects, we will test predictions of how running is influenced by attachment and what leg/tarsus adjustments insects make to cope with different attachment requirements (load, slope, substrate properties, rapid perturbations). Our project aims at dissecting the insects' mechanisms to control attachment forces. Thus, the research has a potential to identify general principles that may prove useful for the development of technical applications.

Publications

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Barnes W (2009) Structural correlates of adhesion and friction in tree frog toe pads in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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Bartsch M (2007) A Multiaxis Force Sensor for the Study of Insect Biomechanics in Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems

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Bullock J (2008) Friction forces in the hairy adhesive pads of beetles in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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Bullock J (2009) Why have more than one pad per leg? Determining the mechanical and adhesive properties of hairy attachment pads in beetles in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology

 
Title Giving cockroaches the slip 
Description Water-absorbing "Insectislide" coating 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2010 
Impact no actual impacts realised to date 
 
Description The aim of this project was to clarify the mechanisms of surface attachment in smooth adhesive pads of insects and to understand how adhesive forces are controlled during locomotion. Investigating the role of pad secretion for attachment, we showed that accumulation of secretion resulted in a loss of friction and adhesion on smooth substrates, but increased forces on rough substrates. Thus, the fluid does not generally increase attachment but does so only on rough substrates, where it helps to maximize contact area. Adhesive pads generated considerable static friction even when secretion had accumulated. Analysis of footprint volumes deposited during repeated press-downs showed that smooth pads secrete fluid into a storage volume, which is depleted exponentially over consecutive steps. Re-analysis of the fluid film between cuticle and substrate using interference reflection microscopy revealed that a thin epicuticular layer modifies the interference pattern, resulting in a reduced estimate of the fluid film's thickness of 0-50 nm. This suggests that direct cuticle-substrate contacts are possible. Dry contacts are also supported by our finding that pads produced different attachment forces on substrates of varying surface energy, unexplained by the variation of the fluid's contact angle. We demonstrated that the two-phasic nature of insect adhesive fluid provides a mechanism to increase friction and prevent insects from slipping. By manipulating adhesive secretion in vivo using water-absorbing polymer substrates, we found that friction forces were significantly smaller once the watery phase had been removed. Our finding has revealed a new principle for insect-repellent coatings, which are more durable and environment-friendly than existing coatings. To analyse the mode of pad detachment, we measured the scaling of adhesive forces with body mass. Scaling coefficients were much higher than expected if pads detached by peeling. This indicates that insects are able to distribute stresses across the entire contact zone.
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To understand how insects control surface attachment during locomotion, we studied the effect of pull-off angle on adhesive forces in ants. Adhesion strongly increased for smaller angles, but much more abruptly than predicted from peeling models. The sudden transition facilitates rapid control of attachment and detachment. When compared with upright locomotion, ants walking upside down made shorter strides, had a smaller speed and a higher duty factor. Inverted ants loaded with additional weights reduced their tarsus angle, thereby bringing their pads into a position where adhesive forces are maximised. Using rapid displacements of the substrate, we showed that ants and stick insects were able to double their adhesive contact area within less than a millisecond. Passive, mechanical control was also found to be responsible for the use of claws or adhesive pads, depending on surface roughness. Although both attachment devices are controlled by the claw flexor muscle, their movements occur one after the other, with the movement of the adhesive pad being last. As a result, interlocking of the claws on rough surfaces mechanically prevents full engagement of the adhesive pad. We found that insects possess different tarsal pads specialised for either pulling (adhesion) or pushing (friction). Both pad types differ in ultrastructure, adhesive properties and use during locomotion. The principle of division of labour between tarsal pads had not been recognised before but is widespread among arthropods. We investigated how adhesive structures cope with contamination by measuring attachment before and after contamination with microspheres. Smooth and hairy pads exhibited self-cleaning properties and rapidly recovered adhesion over consecutive steps. Many findings of this project will be relevant for the development of biomimetic adhesives.
Exploitation Route - development of biomimetic adhesives and climbing robots
- development of biomimetic slippery substrates
- development of non-toxic insect-repellent substrates
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare

 
Description Our findings have been used by other researchers, and have led to the development of biomimetic adhesives, slippery substrates, and insecticide-free substrates that are insect-repellent.
First Year Of Impact 2008
Sector Chemicals,Education
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Adhesion on rough surfaces and mechanisms of self-cleaning in insect attachment pads
Amount £434,256 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/I008667/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2011 
End 07/2014
 
Description Biomechanics of animal adhesion in wet environments
Amount £178,502 (GBP)
Funding ID PFZA/028 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description Characterization of Biological Adhesion using Surface-Energy-Patterned Substrates
Amount £29,638 (GBP)
Funding ID RG 79135 
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Department Isaac Newton Trust
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 01/2016
 
Description Comparative study of fibrillar adhesion in spiders and insects
Amount £115,500 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2008 
End 01/2009
 
Description Insect adhesion and properties of insect repellant surfaces
Amount £67,735 (GBP)
Organisation AkzoNobel 
Department AkzoNobel UK
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2011 
End 03/2014
 
Description Insect adhesion and properties of insect repellant surfaces
Amount £13,726 (GBP)
Organisation AkzoNobel 
Department AkzoNobel UK
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2015
 
Description Insect-repellent surfaces
Amount £1,440 (GBP)
Organisation AkzoNobel 
Department AkzoNobel UK
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2012 
End 09/2012
 
Description Micro-rheology of animal adhesive secretions
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RG76577 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description Nepenthes pitcher traps and counter-adaptations of specialised ants
Amount £129,212 (GBP)
Funding ID F/09 364/G 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2009 
End 12/2011
 
Description The role of subsurface structure in biological adhesion: insects to lizards
Amount £191,766 (GBP)
Funding ID RGP0034/2012 
Organisation Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country France
Start 08/2012 
End 12/2015
 
Title Method for studying adhesion on rough surfaces using transparent microstructured substrates 
Description We have developed a new method for investigating the contact of natural adhesives on rough surfaces. The technique involves transparent microstructured substrates; it allows us not only to standardise and vary surface roughness parameters but also to visualize the contact of adhesive pads and measure force, contact area and shear stress. This has led to a further grant funded by BBSRC (BB/I008667/1) to clarify the interaction of insect adhesives with surface roughness. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Method has been used to study tree frogs (group of Dr WJP Barnes) 
 
Title New principle by which surfaces can be made slippery for insects 
Description We discovered a new principle by which surfaces can be made slippery for insects. The key property is the ability of surfaces to absorb water. Such substrates can selectively remove the aqueous component of the two-phasic adhesive emulsion, which results in a loss of friction forces and slipping. The advantage of this principle is that it will allow insect-repellent coatings which are more durable and environment-friendly than existing coatings. We have filed a patent application with Cambridge 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Insect-repellent coatings and surfaces, as a non-toxic alternative to insecticides 
 
Title Setup for simultaneous measurement of adhesion, friction and contact area of small adhesive structures 
Description We have developed and further improved a Labview control programme for our automated force measurement setup, which allows the coordination of data acquisition (force measurements), three-axis motor movements and video recording (analysis of contact area). The system also includes a 50-Hz force feedback system, which allows it to keep normal force constant while measuring friction or vice versa. We have made the software available to colleagues who are using compatible hardware. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact An equivalent setup has been built and used by the group of WJP Barnes (Glasgow) 
 
Title Dryad digital repository 
Description Data for the following papers have been made available Zhou, Y., Robinson, A., Steiner, U. and Federle, W. (2014). Insect adhesion on rough surfaces: analysis of adhesive contact of smooth and hairy pads on transparent micro-structured substrates. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 11, 20140499. (http://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.k8d1f) Labonte, D., Williams, J. A. and Federle, W. (2014). Surface contact and design of fibrillar 'friction pads' in stick insects (Carausius morosus): mechanisms for large friction coefficients and negligible adhesion. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 11, 20140034. (http://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.jj0kj) Endlein, T. & Federle, W. 2015 On heels and toes: how ants climb with adhesive pads and tarsal friction hair arrays. PLoS ONE 10, e0141269. (http://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.vg446) Hackmann, A., Delacave, H., Robinson, A., Labonte, D. & Federle, W. 2015 Functional morphology and efficiency of the antenna cleaner in Camponotus rufifemur ants. R. Soc. open sci. 2, 150129. (http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.88q18) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Raw data publicly available 
 
Description Bayer Materials Science (Germany) 
Organisation Bayer
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Collaboration with the aim of making insect-repellent surfaces
Collaborator Contribution provision of test samples
Impact provision of test samples
Start Year 2006
 
Description Berengere Abou, Microrheology of adhesive secretions 
Organisation Paris Diderot University
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in insect biomechanics. Organizing research meeting with Dr Berengere Abou in 2014. Writing of research proposal for International Exchange, submitted to Royal Society.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in active and passive micro-rheology
Impact Awarded Royal Society grant over 5000 GBP for travel between labs
Start Year 2014
 
Description European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD0906: Biological adhesives: from biology to biomimetics 
Organisation European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Member of European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD0906: Biological adhesives: from biology to biomimetics
Start Year 2010
 
Description Florian Menzel (University of Mainz) 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Department Department of Evolutionary Biology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Micro-rheology of insect cuticular hydrcarbons and adhesive secretions
Collaborator Contribution Chemical analysis of insect cuticular hydrcarbons
Impact Joint publication in preparation, planned co-supervision of MPhil student, planned joint grant application
Start Year 2016
 
Description Sanjay Sane - NCBS Bangalore 
Organisation National Centre for Biological Science (NCBS)
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint project on take-off and landing mechanisms in flying, jumping and falling insects
Collaborator Contribution Joint supervision of a postdoctoral fellow funded by NCBS-inStem-Cambridge scheme
Impact Publications in preparation
Start Year 2015
 
Title A new type of insect repellent surface 
Description Patent application for a new type of insect repellent surface (UK patent application GB0904045.2 & 0921000.6), filed on 09/03/2009. 
IP Reference GB0904045.2 and 0921000.6 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2009
Licensed No
Impact Further cooperation with industrial partner (AkzoNobel) to develop insect-repellent coatings. A new patent application together with AkzoNobel is underway.
 
Title A new type of insect repellent surface 
Description Subsequent international patent application for a new type of insect repellent surface, filed on 09/03/2010 (PCT/GB2010/000420) A new patent application, together with AkzoNobel UK, is currently underway. 
IP Reference WO2010103266 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2010
Licensed No
Impact Further cooperation with industrial partner (AkzoNobel) to develop insect-repellent coatings. A new patent application together with AkzoNobel is underway.
 
Title Labview control programme for automated force measurement 
Description We have developed and further improved a Labview control programme for our automated force measurement setup, which allows the coordination of data acquisition (force measurements), three-axis motor movements and video recording (analysis of contact area). The system also includes a 50-Hz force feedback system, which allows it to keep normal force constant while measuring friction or vice versa. We have made the software available to colleagues who are using compatible hardware. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2009 
Impact No actual Impacts realised to date 
 
Title Method for studying adhesion on rough surfaces using transparent microstructured substrates 
Description We have developed a new method for investigating the contact of natural adhesives on rough surfaces. The technique involves transparent microstructured substrates; it allows us not only to standardise and vary surface roughness parameters but also to visualize the contact of adhesive pads and measure force, contact area and shear stress. This has led to a further grant funded by BBSRC (BB/I008667/1) to clarify the interaction of insect adhesives with surface roughness. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2009 
Impact No actual Impacts realised to date 
 
Description Co-organization of Royal Society scientific meeting "Cell Adhesion Century: Culture Breakthrough" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interdisciplinary meeting on adhesion, including cell biologists, animal biologists and engineers

As a result of the meeting, I was invited to contribute to two publication projects, and received one seminar invitation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://royalsociety.org/events/2014/cell-adhesion/
 
Description Invited Lecture at the CEE Workshop 'Modern Approaches to Functional Anatomy', Natural History Museum, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture at the CEE Workshop 'Modern Approaches to Functional Anatomy', Natural History Museum, London

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Invited Lecture at the CEE Workshop 'Modern Approaches to Functional Anatomy', Natural History Museum, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture at the CEE Workshop 'Modern Approaches to Functional Anatomy', Natural History Museum, London

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Invited Seminar, Dept of Botany, University of Bonn, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar, Dept of Botany, University of Bonn, Germany

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Invited seminar, Biocentre, University of Wuerzburg, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Seminar, Biocentre, University of Wuerzburg, Germany

discussion with students interested in our lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description Invited seminar, Dept of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar, Dept of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description Invited seminar, Dept of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Seminar, Dept of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Invited seminar, Institute of Zoology, University of Vienna, Austria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Seminar, Institute of Zoology, University of Vienna, Austria

meeting of collaborators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Invited seminar, Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Saarbrücken 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar, Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Saarbrücken

Visit of Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Saarbrücken, discussion of potential collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Invited seminar, Life Sciences, University of Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar, Life Sciences, University of Manchester

discussion with students interested in our lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Invited seminar, Solid State Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Seminar, Solid State Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Invited talk at 'Armourers and Brasiers Cambridge Forum' Dept. Materials Science and Metallurgy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Invited Lecture at the "Armourers & Brasiers Cambridge Forum" (Materials Science & Metallurgy, Cambridge)

Discussions with collaborators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Invited talk at 2012 MRS Fall Meeting on Bioinspired Directional Surfaces, Boston (USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2012 MRS Fall Meeting on Bioinspired Directional Surfaces, Boston (USA)

meeting with new collaborators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.mrs.org/f12-program-m/
 
Description Invited talk at 5th symposium of the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 5th symposium of the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS)

contacts and discussions with students interested in our lab and potential collaborators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Invited talk at Amsterdam ZOO meeting on Cell Adhesion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Amsterdam ZOO meeting on Cell Adhesion

further invitations to cell adhesion meetings (e.g. 2014 Reisensburg)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.t3net-itn.org/single_news+M5a85f74e9a3.html?&L=1
 
Description Invited talk at Cambridge Philosophical Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited Lecture for the Cambridge Philosophical Society UK

Discussions with local collaborators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Invited talk at Congo Conference 'Motion in Biology' Amsterdam 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion

Discussions with students interested in our lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://congres.congo.eu/2011-motion-in-biology/
 
Description Invited talk at Gordon Conference on Adhesion Science 2011, Lewiston (USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact talk sparked multiple discussions

new collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL https://www.grc.org/programs.aspx?id=13785
 
Description Invited talk at Horizon Forum: 'Functional Structures and Biological Surfaces', Botanical Gardens, University of Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Horizon Forum: 'Functional Structures and Biological Surfaces', Botanical Gardens, University of Cambridge

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Invited talk at nCam2012 (Cambridge NanoScience Conference 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact nCam2012 (Cambridge NanoScience Conference 2012)

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited talk at the High Polymer Research Group meeting, Pott Shrigley UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The 58th High Polymer Research Group meeting 2018 took place from 29 April to 3 May 2018 at Pott Shrigley UK.
The Group is a charity whose objective is to ensure that leading edge developments in polymer science and engineering are made available and fully discussed by industrial and academic researchers engaged in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://highpolymer.org.uk/past_programmes/2018.php
 
Description Invited talk at workshop 'Bioadhesion: from geckos to new products' INM Saarbrücken 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Invited Lecture at the International Workshop "Bioadhesion: from geckos to new products", INM Saarbr?cken

Many new scientific contacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Joint MRC-BBSRC-HFSPO Scientific Conference, Royal Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Research talk, and interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Organisation of Symposium 'Biomechanics of arboreal locomotion - a tribute to Jon Barnes', SEB Meeting in Glasgow, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Organisation of Symposium 'Biomechanics of arboreal locomotion - a tribute to Jon Barnes', SEB Meeting in Glasgow, UK

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Organisation of Symposium 'Mechanisms of Arthropod Locomotion' at Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Prague 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Symposium on 'Mechanisms of Arthropod Locomotion' with an international group of scientists at the Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Prague 2015

Publication of results planned
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Organised Joint ENBA - BioSmartTrainee Networking Event, Jesus College Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I organized a network meeting between the BioSmart Trainee international training network, and the European Network for Bioadhesion COST Action, to be held in Jesus College, Cambridge, UK from 18 to 20 March 2019. There will be 60 participants from 14 countries. We secured industrial support for the event from BASF (Germany), AkzoNobel (UK) and URGO (France).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://biosmarttrainee.eu/
 
Description Outreach presentation at National Insect Day 2007, 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Outreach presentation in National Insect Day, Museum of Zoology Cambridge

Strong interest from the general public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2009
 
Description Outreach video 'Cambridge Ideas - Sticky Feet' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact presentation of the research of our laboratory
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/cambridge-ideas-sticky-feet
 
Description Poster presentation in 'SET for BRITAIN' competition 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 2009: SET for BRITAIN - Poster competition and exhibition in the House of Commons:
James Bullock (B8, winner of runner-up prize in Biological and Biomedical Science of £1,000): Friction forces in the hairy adhesive pads in beetles

multiple discussions with politicians and policymakers about research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Poster presentation in 'SET for BRITAIN' competition 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 2009: SET for BRITAIN - Poster competition and exhibition in the House of Commons:
Jan-Henning Dirks (B15): Wet but not slippery - non-Newtonian properties of the adhesive fluid in insects Posters

multiple discussions with politicians and policymakers about research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Poster presentation in 'SET for BRITAIN' competition 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 2009: SET for BRITAIN - Poster competition and exhibition in the House of Commons:
Dr Thomas Endlein (B20): On heels and toes: how ants walk and climb with direction-dependent attachment structures
James Bullock (B8, winner of runner-up prize in Biological and Biomedical Science of £1,000): Friction forces in the hairy adhesive pads in beetles
Jan-Henning Dirks (B15): Wet but not slippery - non-Newtonian properties of the adhesive fluid in insects

multiple discussions with politicians and policymakers about research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Press release: How stick insects honed friction to grip without sticking 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release about our paper was followed by multiple radio and TV interviews, as well as internet and newspaper coverage
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/how-stick-insects-honed-friction-to-grip-without-sticking
 
Description Press release: How the stick insect sticks (and unsticks) itself 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release about our paper was followed by multiple radio and TV interviews, as well as internet and newspaper coverage
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/how-the-stick-insect-sticks-and-unsticks-itself
 
Description Press release: Why Spider-Man can't exist: Geckos are 'size limit' for sticking to walls 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release about our paper was followed by multiple radio and TV interviews, as well as internet and newspaper coverage
e.g.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-cambridgeshire-35351033
http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/interviews/interview/1001652/
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160118184359.htm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/why-spider-man-cant-exist-geckos-are-size-limit-for-sticking-to-w...
 
Description Symposium "Ants 2016 - Ants and their biotic environment" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact International scientific conference with a focus on ant-plant interactions in Munich (Germany)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The CamFM Science Show SpiderMan CAN EXIST; Biological adhesives with Drs Labonte and Federle 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Radio interview relating to PNAS paper about the scaling of adhesive organs in animals
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://soundcloud.com/user-639947375/biological-adhesives