An investigation of tetrapod skull architecture using advanced computer modelling techniques.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Hull
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

The skulls of animals must balance the conflicting demands of strength and stability with flexibility, so that they can open their mouths as wide as possible and apply a maximum bite force without damaging the enclosed brain and sense organs. Ancestors of reptiles, birds and mammals had a solid skull except for eye and ear openings, but they soon began to develop openings (fenestrae) in the side of the skull behind the eyes; now different skulls have different patterns of fenestrae, but it is still not understood why. Furthermore the overall geometries of skulls are different. There is variation in skull depth, in the size of the brain and/or sense organs, in the complexity of the jaw muscles, and in the length of the neck. All of these features, individually or in combination, have a major effect on skull function (biomechanics) and may underlie the radical differences in skull architecture of living animals. The aim of this research is to understand the relationship between biomechanical forces and skull shape in living animals, and in particular to determine the biomechanical significance of skull fenestrations. To do this work, we need to combine the expertise of mechanical engineers, digital imagers, bone biologists, and morphologists, and use advanced computer modelling techniques to perform sophisticated biomechanical analyses. In this project, information from museum specimens of living animal groups (obtained by advanced computer imaging - High Resolution Computed X-ray Tomography) will be combined to develop accurate models of a range of skulls. These can be modified to change basic parameters (e.g. eye size, brain size, patterns of fenestration), and then loaded in ways that simulate changing complexities of the jaw and neck muscles, changes in size of the brain and sense organs, and/or increasing bite force. As a result, we can, for the first time, test a series of theories to explain skull shape. Not only will the study advance our knowledge of the development of a key group of organisms but it will also deepen our understanding of the complex relationship between biomechanical forces, soft tissue structures and skeletal shape. Understanding this complex relationship is important, not only to general biology but also to medicine (e.g. bone repair and remodelling, over-use injuries, osteoporosis).

Technical Summary

For land tetrapods, it is widely accepted that key anatomical features of the skull (e.g. diagnostic holes, fenestrae, emarginations) are genetically regulated and serve specific purposes (are adaptive). However, some of these features may be secondary phenomena reflecting optimisation of skull structure to the combined effects of stress (from jaw and neck muscles, from biting) and the changing proportions of the enclosed brain and sense organs. This impacts on our understanding of the extent to which skull features are there because they serve a particular function or are secondary mechanically or genetically mediated optimisations of form to function. This is a key biological issue. It requires an intimate understanding of cranial and bone biomechanics, structure, comparative function, and developmental biology, a range of expertise that can only be offered by a cross-disciplinary approach. We propose to undertake the first comprehensive study of skull form and function using a hybrid MDA/FEA approach to test a series of hypotheses relating to the biomechanical significance of fenestration and/or emargination. Multibody dynamics analysis (MDA) will be used to calculate the external forces and internal musculature arising during normal skull loading. Finite element analysis (FEA) and a unique adaptive FEA approach developed at Hull (BMU-SIM) will then be used to model the skulls and test their response to varying patterns of stress/strain that result from enlargement of the brain and/or sense organs, increased complexity of jaw muscles, and the presence of a mobile neck. We have access to skull data obtained by High Resolution X-ray CT and to a supercomputer powerful enough for highly detailed static and adaptive skull remodelling studies. This pioneering research will also be the first to model in detail effects of cranial sutures on skull biomechanics and function.

Publications

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publication icon
Curtis N (2013) Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. in Journal of the Royal Society, Interface

 
Description The broad aim of this research was to understand the relationship between biomechanical forces (e.g. from biting different food materials, jaw muscle strength), skull shape (patterns of fenestration and bars), skull depth, head soft tissues (muscles, ligaments, fascia, brain and sense organs), and neck length in living animals. We considered reptiles but the results apply to all animals including humans. Many of our target animals were relatively small, making traditional experimental approaches technically difficult, even without the ethical concerns. We therefore developed a sophisticated computational approach that combines the expertise of biomechanical engineers and functional morphologists. It involves the following steps: (1) development of an anatomically accurate 3D computer model of the target skull and neck; (2) inclusion of cranial joints; (3) incorporation of relevant head and neck muscles; (4) development of a moving computer model (MDA, multi-body dynamics model) that replicates jaw movements and muscle actions; (5) validation of the model by comparison with the living animal (where possible); (6) analysis of the model (FEA, Finite Element Analysis) to examine patterns of strain related to feeding and other activities; (7) modification of the skull architecture (adding/removing openings or bars), with repetition of step (6).

This protocol allowed us to test theories about the complex relationship between biomechanical forces, soft tissue structures and skeletal shape.

Our results have shown:

a) That the combined use of MDA and FEA yields more realistic models than FEA alone.

b) That the presence of neck muscles (and thus of a neck) did not alter strains significantly in the skull, although strains were larger in some areas when the neck musculature was included.

c) That fenestrae appear to develop in areas of the skull where strain is low and may therefore be an expression of mechanical efficiency, at least in part.

d) That skull sutures do not lower the average strain in the skull, but do tend to reduce peak strain values and distribute the strains more evenly. Thus while strains decrease in some areas, they increase in others. This result has important implications towards bone adaptation and remodelling, and may explain the maintenance of the current skull structures. The presence of cranial soft tissue between the skull and braincase, around the jaw joints, and in some key points of the skull also contributes to shock-absorption.

e) That muscle cross-sectional area, generally used to predict muscle strength, underestimates this strength if the muscles concerned have a complex internal architecture (i.e. pennate, as in lizards and turtles).

f) That mobile joints in lizards and bracing bars in tuataras (and dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds) may be different ways of avoiding damaging strains around the jaw joint.

g) That in animals without socketed teeth, feedback from the jaw joint and adductor musculature is likely to have an important role in modulating biting.
Exploitation Route a) Sea turtle and tuatara conservation - understanding feeding mechanics and diet
b) Presentation of science to the general public

Related research continues - with increasing interest in clinical problems.

a) Early suture work developed into further projects into craniosynostosis
b) New approaches to the modelling of biological systems
c) Education and museums
d) Insights in the role of jaw joint feedback in the control of biting (potential for understanding human bite anomalies)
Sectors Healthcare

 
Description The research has provided much useful information on the relationship between biomechanical forces and skull geometry, which (with BB/E014259/1) has led directly to two follow-on projects to further elucidate: (1) the role of sutures and skull flexibility (kinesis) in some animals; and (2) the biomechanics of mandibles, which is providing information that will be useful to future dental research. In addition, the work has led to a long-term research project investigating craniosynostosis, a rare clinical condition where premature fusion of the sutures in the skull occurs. That project includes an investigation into the biomechanics of skull growth, which will have other potential clinical applications.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Healthcare
 
Description Mechanical adaptation of cortical and trabecular bone morphology in the mammalian mandible
Amount £342,040 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/I008462/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2011 
End 08/2014
 
Description RAEng Fellowship for Dr Mehran Moazen
Amount £438,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2012 
End 02/2017
 
Description Skull evolution and the terrestrialization and radiation of tetrapods
Amount £295,309 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P013090/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description The role of skull flexibility in feeding - an investigation using advanced computer modelling techniques
Amount £310,869 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/H011668/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2010 
End 10/2013
 
Description The role of soft tissues in cranial biomechanics - an investigation using advanced computer modelling techniques.
Amount £764,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M008525/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2018
 
Description Understanding the functional evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw joint across the cynodont-mammaliaform transition
Amount £53,398 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/K013831/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Title Combined MDA and FEA for investigating the biomechanics of skulls 
Description A combined computer modelling technique to predict musculoskeletal loading of skulls. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Better understanding of the role of sutures in skulls. This could lead to a reduction in animal use. 
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Hull York Medical School
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation National History Museum, Paris, France
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Ruhr University Bochum
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Chicago
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Title VOX-FE voxel based FE software 
Description Voxel based FE software 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact Nothing significant so far. A follow on project should see it developed it unique software for very high resolution FE modelling.