Evolutionary Dynamics Underlying Species Diversification

Lead Research Organisation: John Innes Centre
Department Name: Cell and Develop Biology

Abstract

Biological diversity is evident at many different scales, from variation between individuals in a population to the distinctions between different species and other taxonomic groupings. A major aim of evolutionary biology is to understand the connections between these different levels of variation. All taxonomic distinctions ultimately trace back to genetic differences between individuals in populations. However, it is unclear how such genetic variation has led to the evolution of diverse phenotypes over time. What, for example, causes populations to diverge and form new species and what constrains the paths that evolution may take? Answering such questions has been difficult because the genes underlying species differences are often poorly defined and because the details by which processes like natural selection and genetic drift have led to fixation of particular versions or alleles of these genes remain unclear. Recent advances in molecular and evolutionary genetics make it possible to address these issues in a fully integrated way for the first time. In particular, genes controlling phenotypic differences between species can now be isolated and studied at a whole series of scales, from individual pedigrees to populations and species. The variation in and around these genes can be readily determined for DNA sequences that are few bases to millions of bases apart. By measuring how such genetic variation is distributed over different geographical ranges and periods of separation, estimates can be obtained for the rates at which genes flow from place to place, and the extent to which natural selection or random fluctuations (genetic drift) influence evolutionary change. Moreover, genetic interactions can be studied by applying these methods to several genes in parallel. By integrating all of this information, models from the individual to species level may be constructed and evaluated, providing a coherent framework for understanding the evolution of diversity. Taking such an integrated approach requires a biological system with several features. It should have well developed molecular genetics, exhibit genetically tractable diversity within and between species, be convenient for field studies and allow interactions between multiple genes to be studied. One of the few systems that currently meets all of these requirements is flower colour variation in Antirrhinum (snapdragon). We propose to exploit this system to study the evolution of diversity at a range of temporal, spatial and genetic scales. This will involve characterising variation around three key flower colour genes that are known to be important for inter-specific differences. At the smallest temporal scale, we will determine the pattern of gene flow from one generation to the next in a region where species meet and hybridise. This will allow the fitness (i.e. the number of offspring) of different gene combinations to be measured in the field. Over the medium scale, we will survey fluctuations in a range of genetic markers to give longer term estimates of gene flow and the intensity of natural selection. At the largest temporal scale, we will compare variation in DNA sequence and function of each gene in several species. This should throw light on how distinct alleles arose and how quickly they spread. Appropriate theories and models will be developed for each scale of analysis. These will then be integrated to arrive at an overall framework that spans variation from the individual to species level. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the origins of biodiversity, the project will provide multidisciplinary training for several young researchers and promote a more integrated understanding of evolutionary and developmental biology.

Technical Summary

This project aims to integrate molecular, population genetic, computational and theoretical approaches to provide a detailed quantitative understanding of mechanisms underlying species diversity. Natural variation at three key loci controlling flower colour, ROS EL and SULF, will be characterised at various temporal, spatial and genetic scales. At the smallest spatial and temporal scale, fitness and gene flow will be directly measured in a hybrid zone population segregating for different morphs. This will be achieved at individual resolution by exploiting high throughput methods for DNA fingerprinting and image analysis. These findings will be integrated with estimates of selection and dispersal based on marker studies at a medium population scale. Other loci at which selection may be acting at the hybrid zone will also be identified. The key flower colour loci will be compared in different species to determine the differences in sequence and expression that underlie species differences. By looking at closely linked markers we will also determine the extent to which selective sweeps have occurred at these loci. Theoretical frameworks will be developed to determine which fitness landscape topography provides the best explanation for all of the data. General tools, such as a physical map, will also be established to aid with gene and marker isolation. A database, ANTSPEC, will also be created to facilitate coordination, analysis, access and archiving of the data, methods, maps (genetic and physical), materials (e.g. BAC libraries), software and theories. Researchers will be trained with a novel combination of interdisciplinary skills. The project will therefore help forge a new and integrated understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms that underpin evolution and diversity and provide training and expertise in this interdisciplinary research area.

Publications

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Coen E (2017) On genes and form. in Development (Cambridge, England)

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Tavares H (2018) Selection and gene flow shape genomic islands that control floral guides. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Whitewoods CD (2017) Growth and Development of Three-Dimensional Plant Form. in Current biology : CB

 
Description 1. We have shown how genetic diversity between subspecies of Antirrhinum (Snapdragon) is maintained by small regions of the genome, called genomic islands. These islands preserve diversity despite sexual exchange, due to selection on two flower colour genes. The system parallels that underlying butterfly mimicry, suggesting that it reflects a general mechanism underlying diversity, spanning both plant and animal kingdoms. This paper was published in PNAS (Tavares et al 2018)
2. We have shown that variation in yellow flower colour between two species of Antirrhinum is caused by small RNA molecules that inhibit gene activity. This is the first case in which a role for small RNAs in creating diversity between species has been clearly demonstrated and has general implications for how species differences evolve. This paper was published in Science in 2017 and have made the ANTSPEC website publically available.
3. We have generated of an integrated map of Antirrhinum genome in collaboration with Yong Biao's group in Beijing.
4. We have documented and collected plant material over 5 consecutive years in a location where two species meet and hybridise. This provides a valuable resource that will allow pedigrees and natural selection in the wild to be determined.
Exploitation Route Release of a website that documents our data and findings should allow others to exploit our results and take them further. We have a further grant from BBSRC to take this work forward.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

URL http://www.antspec.org/
 
Description In 2017 Enrico Coen was awarded the Haldane Lecture from the Genetics Society. The lecture was given at the Royal Institution and the released video has had more than 25,000 views. In 2018 he gave a talk at Cafe Scientifique in Norwich to a general audience. In 2019 he presented his work for a general audience at the Darwin Day celebration in Norwich.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Antirrhinum and Utricularia genomics 
Organisation University of Beijing
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide genetic material of Antirrhinum and Utricularia.
Collaborator Contribution Sequencing of the material provided and collaboration over its interpretation and analysis.
Impact Mainly academic interactions
Start Year 2014
 
Description population genetics 
Organisation Institute of Science and Technology Austria
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We analyse the molecular genetic variation underlying genomic islands of diversity
Collaborator Contribution The partner is an expert in population genetic analysis and provides simulations and understanding of the variation we document.
Impact Papers are in preparation.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Article STEMM Champion: Sam Fox 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Cambridge Norwich Tech Corridor article about Sam Fox (Coen Lab) as a STEMM Champion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.techcorridor.co.uk/articles/tech-corridor-women-in-steam-the-scientists/
 
Description Chelsea Flower Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 157 000 attendees at the Chelsea Flower Show had the opportunity to Engage with our research at our Silver Award Winning Exhibition at the Chelsea flower show.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://genetics.org.uk/news/centenary-garden-exhibit-at-chelsea-flower-show-2019/
 
Description Haldane Lecture at the Royal Institution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture at the Royal Institution. The lecture was recorded and has had 13,000 views on youtube
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q4QS62qMImw
 
Description International undergraduate summer student training 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Enrico Coen initiated and lead an annual 8 week undergraduate summer student training programme, co-hosted by The John Innes Centre, The Sainsbury Laboratory and The Genome Analysis Centre, which started in 2013. The summer school provides UK and non-UK students with the unique opportunity to spend the summer on the Norwich campus. Students are housed together to encourage a community atmosphere and an enjoyable research experience in plant and microbial sciences. They will benefit from working directly with some of the world's leading scientists at internationally-recognised laboratories. Students have been hosted in the Coen laboratory.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news/2012/10/2013-undergraduate-research-programme/
 
Description Interview article in school science magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Sam Fox was interviewed for an article in a school magazine on the 7th March 2018. The interview was about her job as a plant scientist and the route educationally she took to get into that role.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Norwich Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Engagement activities with Norwich Science Festival on how genetics influences how plants grow and plant form
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Press release: "How Snapdragons keep their colour: signposting trick reveals evolutionary mechanism" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news/how-snapdragons-keep-their-colour-signposting-trick-reveals-evolutionary-...
 
Description Press release: "How Snapdragons keep their colour: signposting trick reveals evolutionary mechanism" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised. The press release led to the following articles:

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/17/science/snapdragons-colors-genes.html

https://www.edp24.co.uk/news/environment/norwich-scientists-discovery-of-genetic-gymnastics-in-snapdragons-brings-new-insight-into-evolution-1-5294260

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/snapdragons-spanish-pyrenees

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171116142146.htm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news/how-snapdragons-keep-their-colour-signposting-trick-reveals-evolutionary-...
 
Description Press release: "Leap forward in understanding plant organ growth" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/press-release/new-model-is-a-leap-forward-in-understanding-plant-organ-growth/
 
Description Press release: "Leaves possess a molecular compass" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news/leaves-possess-a-molecular-compass/
 
Description Press release: "Snapdragon enters the genomic age" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/press-release/snapdragon-enters-the-genomic-age/
 
Description Radio Broadcast: Interview about plant and flower shapes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Radio broadcast discussing research findings in plant and flower shapes. The broadcast intended to inform the general public of scientific research undertaken in the institute strategic programme GRO (Growth And Development Underpinning Yield) at JIC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Radio Interview about carnivorous plant project and InnerWorlds website on BBC Radio Norfolk. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Karen Lee and Enrico Coen undertook an interview discussing the carnivorous plant project and the InnerWorlds website on BBC Radio Norfolk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Science Cafe Public talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Enrico Coen and Scott Boden gave a joint Science Cafe talk entitled 'Cereals and Snapdragons' to the general public in Oct 2018 as a part of the Norwich Science Festival.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Science Communications Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A science communication workshop took place in 2013 to enhance participants ability to communicate their science to a wider audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Short course for students on how to chair and introduce a speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A short course for students on how to chair and introduce a speaker was undertaken aimed at undergraduates and postgraduates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Skype interview with MSc student from Central St Martins University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Discussions and advice on carnivorous plants, our research and scientific thinking for creation of an installation exploring plants in the environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Smithsonian magazine coverage of modelling work on how plants make leaves 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Coverage of our Science publication on understanding how leaf shape evolved through the study of carnivorous plants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/deciphering-how-plant-genes-drive-weird-wonderful-dive...
 
Description Soapbox Science Norwich Science Festival: how plants shape their leaves 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On the 27th October 2018 Beccy Horn in the Coen Lab stood on a raised platform in Norwich City Centre and spoke to the genral public about their research that understands how the different shapes of leaves are formed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at the Edinburgh Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A general talk on principles in systems biology was presented, in relation to the book Cells to Civilizations, short-listed for the Winton Book prize.

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sosCIIZROdw
 
Description Taught on a Genetics Society Communicating Science Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In April 016 Enrico Coen taught at a Genetics Society Communicating Science Course how to effectively disseminate your research to others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Visit to home educated students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Science discussion with home educated school children
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Webcast: Inner world of Carnivorous plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A video and website were produced by Enrico Coen and Karen Lee describing the research undertaken in the GRO (Growth And Development Underpinning Yield) institute strategic programme at the JIC on the Inner world of Carnivorous Plants .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL https://wikis.nbi.ac.uk/InnerWorlds/index.php/Main_Page#.Vt61a03cuUl
 
Description Webcast: Optical Projection Tomography images featured in Cell Picture Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Karen Lee and Enrico Coen released a cell picture show on the InnerWorlds webpage showing optical projection tomography images.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Women of the Future 2017 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The 3rd Women of the Future Conference took place on Wednesday 29th November 2017. 170 young girls from 17 schools across Norfolk and Suffolk attended the unique event. The event is specifically aimed at Year 10 girls, and aims to raise aspirations, broaden horizons and facilitate engagement with world class scientists and leaders and promote careers in STEMM subjects.

The lack of women in STEMM careers continues to be a real cause for concern for employers.

At the John Innes Centre we are committed to promoting equality and diversity for all our staff and students and in addition recognise the importance of inspiring the next generation of female STEMM professionals.

Having first been launched in 2015, this year's event built on the success of the previous two conferences, giving the participants a great chance to meet and speak with more than 27 female role models and exhibitors from a diverse range of industries.

There was also fascinating line-up of speakers that included science author and presenter Dr Emily Grossman, Senior Advisor for Medical Applications at CERN Dr Manjit Dosanjh, and JIC Research Fellow Dr Philippa Borrill.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/blog/women-of-the-future-2017/
 
Description Women of the Future Conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Women of the Future 2018 event took place with 200 girls from yr 10 (14-15 yr olds)

5 GEN female people involved:
-Speakers Jemima Brinton & Mikhaela Neequaye (Jemima is a researcher in crop genetics, Mikhaela is a Phd student in food nutrition). Science Chat on the Sofa with Speakers (Auditorium) -Chaired by Samantha Fox
-Closing Remarks - Samantha Fox
-Meet a professional session: Mikhaela Neequaye, Natalie Wager, Jess Hughes, Penny Hundleby
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/blog/the-story-of-women-of-the-future-2018/
 
Description Workshop for undergraduate summer students from throughout the UK on behalf of the Genetics Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A workshop for undergraduate summer students from throughout the UK was run on behalf of the Genetics Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Year 10 Science Camp 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We introduced year 10 science students to life as a scientist and working in our labs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/training-careers/work-experience/year-10-science-camp/
 
Description YouTube video created: Evolutionary Genetics of Snapdragons 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'A Flying Visit to the Antirrhinum Hybrid Zone in the Pyrenees'
Take a tour through the hybrid zone in the Pyrenees where a population of magenta Antirrhinum pseudomajus on the east meets a yellow Antirrhinum striatum population to the west and form a rainbow of hybrid flowers over a 1km stretch. Read about how our study of this region revealed how small RNA helps maintain diversity in the region. The video creates interest and communicates to the general public the research that takes place in the Coen Lab.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=muP7fSn1eaE&feature=youtu.be
 
Description YouTube video: movie explaining the relationship between growth and division in plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sam Fox (Coen Lab) and Ruby O'grady in our communications team created a video explaining the relationship between growth and division in plants after a new model was published. The video had 1587 views from the JIC tweet alone on 13.03.19 and another 250 on the JIC YouTube Channel.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvXBYL7WUDA
 
Description Youth STEMM Award mid-term conference 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 80 students from 8 schools in Norfolk and Suffolk attended the Youth STEMM award mid-term conference on the 26th February 2019. There were 2 talks from John Innes Centre scientists and 10 interactive stands including the Coen Lab, who displayed a range of plants and research, explaining to the students what they do for their job. Feedback from the event indicated that 95% of those that completed a feedback form (53/80) felt the event was informative as it highlighted a range of different STEMM careers out there. 80% said the event had made them inspired to pursue a STEMM related career, or take a STEMM subject at higher education. ""This exhibit has inspired me to take a higher education level in biology or as a job."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Youth STEMM Mid Term conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact On the 6th March 12 schools with 146 students (aged 13-17) participated in the YSA midterm conference at the JIC Conference Centre. The event had a combination of science talks and interactive activities as a part of the STEMM showcase. The Coen lab exhibited their research on evolution, development of shape and form and genetics at the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018