Increased Propionate Production In The Colon Is Associated With Reduced Appetite Body Weight And Improved Insulin Sensitivity

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Medicine

Abstract

Obesity is the greatest public health challenge facing most developed and many developing countries. Obesity is directly related to increased mortality, causing 600 premature deaths in the UK per week. In the current obesity epidemic, using therapeutic foodstuff to tackle obesity is potentially a would be economically viable for industrial partners. Recent epidemiological and experimental studies link the decline in consumption of non digestible carbohydrates (NDC) to the rise in obesity. NDCs are not broken down in the small intestine, but can be fermented by bacteria in the colon, part of the large intestine. Previous studies and our own pilot data shows that increasing the NDC in the diet of animals and humans reduces appetite and body weight and increase insulin sensitivity. Unfortunately, the high doses required to produce these effects are unpalatable and result in side effects, limiting the use of NDC supplements as a treatment for obesity or diabetes. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are molecules produced by the fermentation of NDC in the colon and are responsible for the biological effects of NDC. Recently, a receptor has been found that binds SCFAs, and in particular the SCFA propionate. This receptor is found on cells in the large bowel where it stimulates the release appetite-inhibiting hormones, and on fat cells where it acts to decrease the release of free fatty acids. Reducing free fatty acid levels within the body increases the sensitivity of the body to insulin and thus reduces the effect of insulin resistance which is present in type 2 diabetes. Until now, controlling the production of propionate in the colon has been impossible. Both the type of NDC ingested and the gut microbiota of an individual dictate the levels and types of SCFA produced in the colon. Recently, we have developed a novel molecule in which propionate is bound to a carrier molecule. The chemical bond that links proprionate to its carrier molecule cannot be broken down in most parts of the gut. However, in the colon, this chemical bond is broken by the bacteria present there, delivering specific amounts of propionate to the colon. We have shown that supplementing the diet of rats with this proprionate carrier molecule reduces their body weight compared to controls, and that in humans it reduces hunger and food intake. This study will determine the effect of 24 weeks diet supplementation with this propionate carrier molecule on appetite, body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese volunteers. We will test the hypothesis that supplementing the diet with propionate carrier molecule will reduce appetite through gut hormone release and improve insulin sensitivity by reducing the concentration of free fatty acids in circulation. Industry will have an important role in developing products which produce propionate in the colon to reduce appetite and improve insulin sensitivity. In collaboration with Leatherhead Food International we will design foods which can be used to supplement the diet of the general population with proprionate carrier. Demonstrating the link between colonic propionate production and appetite regulation has significant implications for public health given current trends in obesity rates. However, if colonic production of propionate increases satiety, then simply adding any NDC may not be sufficient to increase propionate production to a significant level to impact on satiety. This study will determine if colonic propionate leads to a reduction in appetite and body weight and cause beneficial metabolic change, and will demonstrate proof of principle for using NDC esters to deliver SCFAs to the large intestine. These data will therefore provide valuable information for future studies investigating the effects of SCFAs on appetite regulation and insulin sensitivity. Industry will play an important role in developing products which produce propionate in the colon to reduce appetite and improve insulin sensitivity.

Technical Summary

Recent evidence links the decline in consumption of non digestible carbohydrates (NDC) to the rise in obesity. NDCs are not broken down in the small intestine, but can be fermented by bacteria in the large bowel. Previous studies show that increasing the NDC in the diet reduces appetite and body weight and increase insulin sensitivity. Unfortunately, the high doses required to produce these effects are unpalatable and result in gastrointestinal side effects. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are molecules produced by the fermentation of NDC in the colon and are responsible for the biological effects of NDC. These effects of NDCs on appetite and insulin sensitivity are thought to be mediated via the production of the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) propionate which acts via the recently identified G protein coupled receptor GPR43. Proprionate acts on the GPR43 in enteroendocrine cells in the colon to stimulate the release of the anorexic gut hormones PYY and GLP-1., and on GPR43 in adipocytes to reduce free fatty acid output. Reducing circulating free fatty acid levels increases insulin sensitivity. Thus increasing colonic and systemic concentrations of propionate offers a potential therapy for the current obesity epidemic. To predictably increase colonic propionate release we have developed a novel system to deliver known amounts of propionate to the colon. We will test the hypothesis that elevated concentrations of colonic and systemic propionate will lead to a decrease in body weight through stimulation of appetite regulatory gut hormones and insulin sensitivity through suppression of free fatty acids. This study will determine the effect of 24 weeks diet supplementation with this propionate ester molecule on appetite, body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese volunteers. In collaboration with Leatherhead Food International and Premier Foods we will design foods which can be used to supplement the diet of the general population with propionate ester.

Planned Impact

Impact on researchers The proposal will determine if chronic increases in colonic propionate reduce appetite and body weight and improve insulin sensitivity. It will also demonstrate proof of principle for using an non-digestible carbohydrate (NDC) ester to deliver a specific short chain fatty acid (SCFA) to the large intestine. This project will therefore provide valuable information for future studies investigating the effects of SCFAs on biological systems. If this project products positive results then this will be a major step forward for nutritional science. We will also complete the preliminary work necessary to translate the results into a public health initiative. The multidisciplinary nature of this research demonstrates the applicability to other disciplines. The research cuts across nutrition, food science, chemistry, physiology, medicine and public health. Determining that increasing colonic propionate reduces appetite and body weight may stimulate other scientists to investigate other ways of increasing colonic propionate, and to use this SCFA ester delivery system to investigate the effects of SCFAs on other biological systems. Policy makers and Public sector: If the project is successful then this will be a major public health step forward. The partnership with industry and the product development mean that a large percentage of the population could gain benefit from increase in colonic propionate. Impact on the population: A recent review by the Government's Foresight group concluded that most adults in the UK are already overweight and predicted that by 2050 60% of men and 50% of women in the UK will be clinically obese. The major beneficiary of this work will be the overweight and obese population. A decrease in body weight in the overweight is associated with improvement in quality on life, less sick days and better overall performance. Impact on the nation's wealth: If the trials prove positive and the product translated into the market place the potential to have a positive effect on human health is enormous. The impact on limiting weight gain in the lean and decreasing weight in the obese will have large financial benefit for the health system through savings made in obesity related ill health. Obesity is associated with increased risk of many diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Obesity is directly related to increased mortality, causing 600 premature deaths in the UK per week. Without action, by 2050 obesity-related diseases are predicted to cost the UK National Health Service (NHS) £6 billion per year. Thus any intervention capable of reducing this burden would also have significant economic benefits for the NHS and UK Industrial Impact: This work will also provide data of major benefit to the food industry. Few NDCs have been shown to have a significant or specific impact on propionate production. In this proposal we intend to use a propionate ester to deliver high levels of propionate to the large bowel. Should this work demonstrate the efficacy of propionate on appetite regulation, body composition and insulin sensitivity this could lead to the development of foods designed to increase propionate in the large bowel in ways acceptable to the consumer. Give the worldwide epidemic of obesity and given the evidence that this study will provide it would make it commercially viable to product aimed at increasing colonic propionate as a tool to decrease body weight and potentially could increase success of industry.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description This project is complete. The out comes are:

1.To use a unique delivery system of propionate esterified to inulin to increase colonic propionate production

2.To determine the effect of supplementing the diet of obese volunteers with proprionate ester for 24 weeks on appetite and body weight

3.To investigate the effect of propionate ester on the release of the anorexigenic gut hormones GLP-1 and PYY.

4.To investigate if increases in plasma propionate concentrations leads to a decrease in free fatty acid output from adipose tissue leading to improved insulin sensitivity.



To date we have

1. Developed the propionate ester

2. Demonstrated a clear acute effect on appetite regulation with an increase in anorexigenic gut hormones
Exploitation Route Impact on researchers The proposal will determine if chronic increases in colonic propionate reduce appetite and body weight and improve insulin sensitivity. It will also demonstrate proof of principle for using an non-digestible carbohydrate (NDC) ester to deliver a specific short chain fatty acid (SCFA) to the large intestine. This project will therefore provide valuable information for future studies investigating the effects of SCFAs on biological systems. If this project products positive results then this will be a major step forward for nutritional science. We will also complete the preliminary work necessary to translate the results into a public health initiative. The multidisciplinary nature of this research demonstrates the applicability to other disciplines. The research cuts across nutrition, food science, chemistry, physiology, medicine and public health. Determining that increasing colonic propionate reduces appetite and body weight may stimulate other scientists to investigate other ways of increasing colonic propionate, and to use this SCFA ester delivery system to investigate the effects of SCFAs on other biological systems.

Policy makers and Public sector: If the project is successful then this will be a major public health step forward. The partnership with industry and the product development mean that a large percentage of the population could gain benefit from increase in colonic propionate.

Impact on the population: A recent review by the Government's Foresight group concluded that most adults in the UK are already overweight and predicted that by 2050 60% of men and 50% of women in the UK will be clinically obese. The major beneficiary of this work will be the overweight and obese population. A decrease in body weight in the overweight is associated with improvement in quality on life, less sick days and better overall performance.

Impact on the nation's wealth: If the trials prove positive and the product translated into the market place the potential to have a positive effect on human health is enormous. The impact on limiting weight gain in the lean and decreasing weight in the obese will have large financial benefit for the health system through savings made in obesity related ill health. Obesity is associated with increased risk of many diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Obesity is directly related to increased mortality, causing 600 premature deaths in the UK per week. Without action, by 2050 obesity-related diseases are predicted to cost the UK National Health Service (NHS) £6 billion per year. Thus any intervention capable of reducing this burden would also have significant economic benefits for the NHS and UK

Industrial Impact: This work will also provide data of major benefit to the food industry. Few NDCs have been shown to have a significant or specific impact on propionate production. In this proposal we intend to use a propionate ester to deliver high levels of propionate to the large bowel. Should this work demonstrate the efficacy of propionate on appetite regulation, body composition and insulin sensitivity this could lead to the development of foods designed to increase propionate in the large bowel in ways acceptable to the consumer. Give the worldwide epidemic of obesity and given the evidence that this study will provide it would make it commercially viable to product aimed at increasing colonic propionate as a tool to decrease body weight and potentially could increase success of industry. The potential of research is:

Impact on researchers The proposal will determine if chronic increases in colonic propionate reduce appetite and body weight and improve insulin sensitivity. It will also demonstrate proof of principle for using an non-digestible carbohydrate (NDC) ester to deliver a specific short chain fatty acid (SCFA) to the large intestine. This project will therefore provide valuable information for future studies investigating the effects of SCFAs on biological systems. If this project products positive results then this will be a major step forward for nutritional science. We will also complete the preliminary work necessary to translate the results into a public health initiative. The multidisciplinary nature of this research demonstrates the applicability to other disciplines. The research cuts across nutrition, food science, chemistry, physiology, medicine and public health. Determining that increasing colonic propionate reduces appetite and body weight may stimulate other scientists to investigate other ways of increasing colonic propionate, and to use this SCFA ester delivery system to investigate the effects of SCFAs on other biological systems.

Policy makers and Public sector: If the project is successful then this will be a major public health step forward. The partnership with industry and the product development mean that a large percentage of the population could gain benefit from increase in colonic propionate.

Impact on the population: A recent review by the Government's Foresight group concluded that most adults in the UK are already overweight and predicted that by 2050 60% of men and 50% of women in the UK will be clinically obese. The major beneficiary of this work will be the overweight and obese population. A decrease in body weight in the overweight is associated with improvement in quality on life, less sick days and better overall performance.

Impact on the nation's wealth: If the trials prove positive and the product translated into the market place the potential to have a positive effect on human health is enormous. The impact on limiting weight gain in the lean and decreasing weight in the obese will have large financial benefit for the health system through savings made in obesity related ill health. Obesity is associated with increased risk of many diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Obesity is directly related to increased mortality, causing 600 premature deaths in the UK per week. Without action, by 2050 obesity-related diseases are predicted to cost the UK National Health Service (NHS) £6 billion per year. Thus any intervention capable of reducing this burden would also have significant economic benefits for the NHS and UK

Industrial Impact: This work will also provide data of major benefit to the food industry. Few NDCs have been shown to have a significant or specific impact on propionate production. In this proposal we intend to use a propionate ester to deliver high levels of propionate to the large bowel. Should this work demonstrate the efficacy of propionate on appetite regulation, body composition and insulin sensitivity this could lead to the development of foods designed to increase propionate in the large bowel in ways acceptable to the consumer. Give the worldwide epidemic of obesity and given the evidence that this study will provide it would make it commercially viable to product aimed at increasing colonic propionate as a tool to decrease body weight and potentially could increase success of industry.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare

 
Description We have published a major paper in Gut (Chambers etal Gut. 2015 Nov;64(11):1744-54) We have the IP for the molecule Patent WO2014020344A1 and submitted a dossier for novel foods approval We secured follow on funding for the project BB/L0044971/1 We are forming a spin out company to market the inulin propionate ester
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description ILSI panel on short chain fatty acids
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Increase colonic propionate as a method of preventing weight gain in young adults
Amount £1,400,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EME/15/185/16 
Organisation NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre (NETSCC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 04/2022
 
Description Regulating Appetite by Targeting Nutrient Delivery in the Gut
Amount £1,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L004259/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2016
 
Title Short chain fatty acid esters 
Description This is a method of delivering short chain fatty acids to the colon 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Mainly publications at the present time 
 
Description Imperial Nestle Collaboration 
Organisation Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developing research partnership
Collaborator Contribution Cutting edge science Knowledge of the market
Impact To early
Start Year 2016
 
Description Metabolite and nutrition partnership 
Organisation Murdoch University
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This partnership will develop links around food metabolomics a food strucutures
Collaborator Contribution The phenome centre at Murdock Univesity will provide anylitical techniques to understand food strucutre
Impact It is too early in the collaberation to have impact
Start Year 2019
 
Description Propionate inulin ester 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Human research for the project
Collaborator Contribution Development of the propionate inulin ester
Impact Patent
Start Year 2010
 
Title Propionate inulin ester 
Description The propionate inulin ester when given to humans reduces appetite and recents weight gain 
IP Reference GB1213629.7 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed No
Impact We have received BBSRC follow on funding to look at commercialisation
 
Title Novel food ingredient dossier submitter 
Description Inulin propionate ester. WE have submitted the dossier for novel foods to the EU. This novel to phase 3 clinical trial 
Type Products with applications outside of medicine
Current Stage Of Development Market authorisation
Year Development Stage Completed 2018
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact This is potentially the only therapy for the prevention of weight gain. 
 
Description BBSRC DRINC Club meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 120 scientist and industrial members attended the lecture with networking after

Feed back on the project was useful for next steps
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/drinc
 
Description BBSRC DRINC Club meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Given information of follow up funding

Interest from industry on the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/drinc
 
Description BBSRC Innovator of the year 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Demonstrating the inulin propionate ester concept and the award evening
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/people-skills-training/2016/160406-n-innovator-of-the-year-finalists-ann...
 
Description British Dietetics Association Obesity Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Spoke to expert dietitian about hte potential role of the gut microbiota in dietetic practice
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/bda-obesity-group-annual-conference-2020-tickets-69660236643#
 
Description Debate at Food Matters Live 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The debate stimulate lots of dicsussion

There has been a number of enquirers form industry interested in SCFA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.foodmatterslive.com/
 
Description Diet and Health Research Industry Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The aim is to share the progress of the project with DRINC members Poster and a 20 minute lecture

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Exhibition at the Science Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a display in the Cravings exhibition that highlighted our work on dietary fibre and appetite regulation

There has been a large interest in the area with an large number of email enquires about the topic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Experimental Biology conference Boston 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Talk sparked discussion

Requests of further information about studies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://experimentalbiology.org/2015/Home.aspx
 
Description FENS conference Dublon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Spoke to an audance of over 100 one food and the gut covering aspects from many of my awards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.fens2019.org/
 
Description Food digestion meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 400 scientist attended a two day meeting. I present the impact of fermentable carbohydrate on appetite regulation. Good audience feed back
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Food matters live 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 120 people attended a lecture at food matters live. This was dissemination of research findings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.b2match.eu/foodmatterslive2016
 
Description Food of tomorrow Science Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Ran demonstrations of fermentable carbohydrate from a stall at the science museum
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Fructan Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a lecture and judge the posters. Good feed back at the lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ILSI workshop on fermentation and appetite 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The talk sparked likely debate

Industrial partners consider the use of inulin propionate ester in there products
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ilsi.org/Pages/HomePage.aspx
 
Description Imperial College Fringe Festival "Food of Tomorrow" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The fringe was a totally food based activity highlighting Imperial's contribution to the food chain. It highlighted out BBSRC and NIHR work.

A large number of people from school children to adults attended each stall
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/be-inspired/festival/fringe/
 
Description Imperial Science Festival - dissemination to general public 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We had a two stands disseminating information in out work on dietary fibre and dietary assessment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/festival/about/festival-2017/
 
Description Lecture at British Endocrine Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation stimulated further debate after the talk. I was approached by a number of interested potential collaborators.

The talk raised the issue of short chain fatty acid metabolism in a forum where it hadn't been released before.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.endocrinology.org/meetings/2015/SFEBES2015/index.aspx
 
Description New Frontiers in Food and Drink 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Lecture stimulate interest in the Imperial Glasgow new molecule for appetite suppression. Lots of interest from the 200 business people business people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.newfrontiersinfoodanddrink.co.uk/
 
Description NutraFormulate conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Poster presentation on this project Poster

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentaion to Cambridge metabolic group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 50 post doctoral scientist attended the workshop on short chain fatty acids. The talk raised a number of questions and suggestion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Rank Prize conference - Designing Food Structure to Control Digestion and Improve Health Impacts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 60 young scientist attended a week long workshop to understand the role of food structure. The aim was to develop interest in this area
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.rankprize.org/index.php/symposia
 
Description Science Museum Cravings Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Exhibition of work on fermentation at the Science Museum

The exhibition has been seen by over 4 million people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/visitmuseum/Plan_your_visit/exhibitions/cravings.aspx
 
Description Visit to Norway to talk to opinion makes about Nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk to 15 Norwegian opinion leaders about the role of Nutrition in the prevention of non communicable disease highlighting my research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Workshop at DAVOS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 120 people attended a science update at DAVOS. My talk was on the double hit of Malnutritiion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.weforum.org/events/world-economic-forum-annual-meeting-2018