Development of a vaccination strategy for the control of malignant catarrhal fever

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Medical, Veterinary &Life Sci

Abstract

This proposal aims to further develop and refine our recent breakthrough of an immunisation strategy for the control of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) by increasing the magnitude and duration of immunity through improved adjuvancy (compounds given along with virus antigens that help direct the type of immune response to an infectious agent and improve its magnitude and duration - all important for a good vaccine) and testing the potential vaccine in field trials in Tanzania where MCF is a problem. Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal disease of cattle, deer, bison and pigs, caused by a group of viruses (herpesviruses) including ovine herpesvirus-2 and alcelaphine herpesvirus-1. These viruses infect their natural hosts efficiently (sheep for OvHV-2 and wildebeest for AlHV-1), causing no apparent disease, but in the disease-susceptible animals, MCF is usually fatal and consequently has a profound affect on animal welfare and production. The virus is transmitted by aerosol or by contact and most lambs or wildebeest calves are infected shortly after birth and are capable of then infecting susceptible cattle. There is no vaccine currently available for MCF, but we have recently developed a potential vaccine that works well in experimental studies. The effect of AlHV-1 MCF on pastoralist communities in sub-Saharan Africa is profound, with social, economic and welfare impact. In two studies of MCF in Tanzania and Kenya, incidence in studied areas was found to be 6% and 10% respectively. The high rate of cattle death meant that MCF was rated as the most important disease risk in areas with wildebeest contact. Field trials in Tanzania are essential to determine the efficacy of the alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) MCF vaccine and will inform further refinement of the vaccine as necessary. It is important to determine the contribution of the different components of an immune response that will protect affected cattle. Although there is a strong correlation between virus-neutralising antibody and protection, we need to determine whether cell-mediated immunity (CMI) including cytotoxic T cell activity (CTL) is involved or not in protection. Furthermore, we need to identify virus component antigens that stimulate protective immune responses in cattle. This will allow vaccine development for ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2, a highly genetically-related virus to AlHV-1) MCF, which is a problem not only in Africa but worldwide where natural carrier animals and disease-susceptible animals mix. This dual approach is important as there is more likely to be a commercial uptake of an AlHV-1 and OvHV-2 MCF vaccine than either one singly. This study will use defined new generation adjuvant compounds to improve the current AlHV-1 MCF vaccine and test this in field trials in Tanzania. For very little extra effort, we can identify the protective virus component antigens of AlHV-1 and use the equivalent OvHV-2 ones to attempt a vaccine to OvHV-2 MCF. This increases the chances of commercial uptake of an MCF vaccine. The expected principal outcome of this work wil be implementation of a vaccine disease control strategy to have an impact on animal mortality due to MCF and improvement of quality of life of pastoralists and farmers within 5 years of the conclusion of this project.

Technical Summary

This proposal aims to further develop and refine our recent breakthrough of an immunisation strategy for the control of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) by increasing the magnitude and duration of immunity through improved adjuvancy and testing the potential vaccine in field trials in Tanzania where MCF is a problem. MCF is a major contributor to cattle mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa wherever wildebeest are found (natural disease-free carriers of the alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 MCF virus). This in turn adversely affects the income and quality of life of pastoralists and poor farmers. There is no vaccine currently available for MCF. However we have recently developed a potential vaccine for AlHV-1 MCF that stimulates a mucosal barrier of virus-neutralising antibody. We aim to improve this vaccine by the strategic use of toll-like receptor (TLR)agonists as adjuvants to stimulate the appropriate protective immunity in cattle and test the improved vaccine in field trials in Tanzania. TLR agonists are proving very useful as adjuvants to direct the quality and magnitude of immune responses for improved vaccine design. We know that high virus neutralising antibody titres correlate with protection, but the role of cell-mediated immunity will be studied for its contribution (if any). Furthermore, for minimum effort and added value, protective antigens of AlHV-1 will be identified to clone the equivalent antigen genes from ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) into an attenuated AlHV-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) that we have developed as a viral vector. AlHV-1 and OvHV-2 are genetically very similar. We predict that the outcomes will include: An improved immunisation strategy leading to a vaccine for AlHV-1 MCF; Proof of concept for an OvHV-2 MCF vaccine based on OvHV-2 antigens in an AlHV-1 BAC; Field trial confirmation of the efficacy of an AlHV-1 MCF vaccine. This will have an impact on pastoralist quality of life within 5 years of project completion.

Planned Impact

Field trials with the existing potential AlHV-1 vaccine will determine its efficacy and could give a quick result in respect of MCF control (within 2 years) that would benefit the pastoralists, the consortium and be a public relations coup for the initiative. The Maasai and others have long wanted to see an effort in reducing the negative impact of MCF on their cattle and consequently their livelihoods. We predict that the vaccine will need to be improved (see objectives) and that implementation of an improved vaccine would give a measurable reduction of MCF in target areas within 2-5 years of the completion of this study. The development of an OvHV-2 vaccine strategy is envisaged within 5-6 years and an impact of this (as a consequence of future-funded work) in 6-8 years. We will know within 3-5 years of the completion of this project the degree of welfare and economic improvement of pastoralist cattle and the knock-on effect of improved wealth for the communities. The impact of the study goes beyond its immediate goal to implement a vaccine for MCF. By targeting MCF, the pastoralists will avoid upland areas where they currently take their cattle to avoid the disease. By doing this they will minimise exposure of their cattle to trypanosomosis and East Coast Fever, two serious diseases that also affect cattle production and pastoralist livelihoods. In fact the local Tanzanian scientific community position on this is that there is no doubt that control of MCF would result in an increase in survival of adult animals, with a direct improvement in herd productivity. It is also likely that, by permitting wet-season grazing on the short-grass plains, a vaccine against MCF would also reduce mortality and morbidity from tick-borne diseases and directly-transmitted diseases, as well as enhance survival and fertility through access to high-quality grazing at a critical time of year. Adverse environmental impacts associated with concentration of people and cattle in the highlands, which include overgrazing, erosion and tree-felling, might also be mitigated. One concern expressed by conservationists has been that the reduction in MCF-related mortality may lead to a rise in cattle numbers, which might further increase land-use pressure. Despite the importance of cattle as a measure of status and wealth in pastoralist society, current trends suggest that Maasai are now more likely to sell 'excess' animals that are produced or survive as a result of MCF control. For most herds, the growing demand for cash income to pay for grain, medicines, and school fees is likely to necessitate sustained commercial offtake. There is also a growing realisation of the need to improve the quality of livestock, not merely the quantity. Thus, although cattle numbers may increase slightly, a cattle population explosion is unlikely to occur in pastoralist communities, even if MCF is controlled. Another important impact of this work is that the development of a mucosal immune barrier to prevent MCF may translate to the vaccine control of other herpesvirus infections in other species, including humans. There is currently no herpesvirus vaccine that prevents infection and the establishment of latency. The strategy within this application will address this and the outcome should be of value to a much wider community.
 
Description This project was an international collaboration between University of Nottingham, University of Glasgow and Moredun Research Institute in the UK, and Sokoine Agricultural University, Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute and stakeholder groups in Tanzania. The aim of the project was to develop a vaccine for Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF), a fatal viral infection of cattle carried by wildebeest that threatens the livelihoods of livestock-keepers in Africa. The disease also has important consequences for land-use and conservation management in the rangeland ecosystems of east Africa.
A vaccine field trial was carried out in two successive years in the Tarangire ecosystem of northern Tanzania, using an immunization regime that had shown safety and efficacy in protecting cattle against experimental infection in the UK. The trial in Tanzania involved testing cattle against natural infection transmitted through contact with wildebeest. The work involved close engagement with local stakeholder and community groups, who rank MCF as one of the most important livestock diseases, and expressed substantial support and interest in the project.

In both years, the trial herd involved 100 cattle, with 50 individuals vaccinated and 50 unvaccinated. Following immunisation, the herd was grazed in close proximity to wildebeest during the calving season, when high levels of MCF virus shedding are thought to occur. The cattle were sampled regularly to monitor immune responses to vaccination and wildebeest exposure, and closely monitored to assess the safety of the vaccine and to detect the onset of MCF.

No adverse effects were associated with vaccination, and high antibody levels were detected in serum and nasal secretions of vaccinated animals, consistent with findings in UK cattle. Only two unvaccinated animals succumbed to fatal MCF during each trial, which was much lower than expected from the published literature and previous studies, and as a result the study could not demonstrate protection against fatal MCF induced by natural challenge. However, multiple cases of non-fatal MCF were detected - previously thought to be very rare - and PCR analysis has demonstrated that MCF virus infection was significantly less likely in vaccinated animals, with the vaccine showing an efficacy of 57% in protecting against MCF virus infection and 62% in protecting against non-fatal disease. In addition to generating data on vaccine performance, the study has therefore also raised questions about the transmission and progression of MCF in natural infections.

To address some of the questions raised by this study, additional word was carried out in Tanzania which demonstrated: (a) that a high proportion of wildebeest have evidence of MCF virus infection; (b) that the wildebeest MCF virus has undergone little genetic change over the past 50 years; and (c) that the virus used in the immunization trial was similar to contemporary wild-type virus.

Further work has also been carried out to investigate the social, economic and environmental impacts of MCF to examine the costs of MCF avoidance by pastoralists, and the potential benefits of a vaccine to optimise mixed livestock-wildlife grazing systems. These studies shown that, in the absence of a MCF vaccine, 90% of pastoral households in MCF-risk areas are forced to move cattle away from the main residence to avoid wildebeest, which has negative impacts on livestock production, and reduces by 64% the availability of milk for families, particularly children who remain at the household.

Studies in the UK were carried out to enhance understanding of immunity and how to improve the duration and strength of immunity. Studies focused on stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play a key role in initiating and augmenting the immune response, investigating two compounds, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and bacterial flagellin. The results indicated that ODN used as an adjuvant with the vaccine virus did confer protection in cattle challenged experimentally with the virus, but did not significantly enhance the protective effect of the standard adjuvant. There was also no significant enhancement of immunity using flagellin.

Further work has been conducted to develop assays to measure cellular immunity and to identify a viral protein that is a vaccine candidate and a diagnostic tool for both wildebeest-associated MCF and sheep-associated MCF, a worldwide problem for which no vaccines or specific diagnostic tools are available.
Exploitation Route During stakeholder meetings in Tanzania, further field trials of the vaccine have been highlighted as a priority in order to explore how implementation of a partially-protective MCF vaccination strategy has value in developing integrated land-use management strategies around wildlife protected areas, both to support the livelihoods and food security of pastoralists in these critical regions, and also to ensure the integrity of globally-important ecosystems.

The research was also taken forward during MCF strategic planning workshop (2017) involving stakeholders from veterinary authorities, livestock owners, NGOs, industry and researchers to develop a road map for progressing vaccine development from field trial to end user delivery.

In 2017-2018, funding for work on vaccine stability and scale-up of MCF vaccine culture was provided to the Moredun Research Institute through GALVmed (a leading UK-based NGO that helps produce animal vaccines for livestock diseases), with further work ongoing to increase capacity to produce larger vaccine volumes. GALVmed have subsequently continued to provide advice on development, and discussions are underway with private sector companies to assess feasibility of production of bulk antigen and commercial production. Further work is being carried out with partners to determine market demand, including a willingness-to-pay study in Tanzania.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

 
Description Comparative DNA sequence-based analysis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus (AlHV-1) in wildebeest and cattle in Tanzania and the virus strain (C500) used for vaccine development were carried out. The results indicate that the AlHV-1 virus circulating in East Africa has not diverged at all from the model used for vaccine development. This finding is extremely important as it confirms that the C500 strain is an appropriate model for vaccine development. Furthermore, similarity with the wild-type virus reduces any risk of a novel virus mutant (different from the wild-type virus) escaping into the wild. This makes C500 strain safe for vaccination. We carried out the first partial quantitative analysis of the impact that MCF has on pastoralist livelihoods and the results provide an economic baseline against which vaccination strategies, and their impact, can be compared. The field trial of the vaccine indicated that the vaccine reduced infection with AlHV-1 by 57.7%. These findings will be used to refine and improve vaccine development efforts. The integrated management of rangelands around protected area ecosystems is currently one of the major priorities for the Ministries of Livestock and Fisheries Development and Natural Resources and Tourism, both to support the livelihoods and food security of pastoralists in these critical regions, and also to ensure the integrity of globally-important ecosystems, including World Heritage Sites. The results of the study were communicated through workshops to pastoral communities, veterinary authorities and conservation agencies and contributed to the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development meetings to develop the "Tanzania Livestock Modernization Initiative" and and a MCF strategic planning workshop (2017) involving veterinary authorities, NGOs, researchers, industry and farmer representatives to develop a road map for progressing vaccine development from field trial to end user delivery. The Glasgow-led field trials in Tanzania of an experimental MCF vaccine have stimulated further independent trials of the vaccine in Kenya by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya) with promising results that demonstrate high efficacy. Further work is now ongoing to assess market demand, including willingness-to-pay studies (funded through a ESPRC GIAA grant).
Sector Chemicals
 
Description BBSRC Innovator of the Year Award 2017
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Funding ID International impact Category winner of BBSRC Innovator of the Year 2017 competition 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description BMFG doctoral training program
Amount $4,000,000 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2018
 
Description ESPRC-GCRF Global Impact Accelerator Account award - Bridging the gap: Improving understanding of the market for a cattle vaccine against Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Tanzania
Amount £5,767 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S51584X/1 
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Master's degree program at the Royal Veterinary College and London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Commonwealth Scholarship Commission
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2015
 
Description Supporting Evidence Based Interventions
Amount $1,149,879 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Technical sub-committee
Amount £89,128 (GBP)
Funding ID MRI-R34A0985A1 
Organisation GALVmed 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description Working Towards the Elimination of Multiple Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amount $99,000 (USD)
Funding ID OPP1129149 
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 05/2015 
End 09/2016
 
Description Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems - SEEDZ
Amount £2,738,706 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L018926/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description Collaboration with International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) for further MCF vaccine trials in Kenya 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Members of the research team (Felix Lankester and George Russell) were requested by ILRI to collaborate in a further MCF vaccination trial in Kenya with provision of vaccine, inputs into study design and support for serological testing.
Collaborator Contribution Implementation of the Kenya MCF vaccine trial in the ILRI research herd.
Impact The Kenyan MCF vaccine trial incorporated insights and understanding gained from the Tanzanian MCF vaccine trial which resulted in an improved study design, with the result that important new data have been generated on vaccine efficacy in natural settings. Preliminary results from the trial on vaccine efficacy are very promising and plans to establish local production of the vaccine in the immediate future are being discussed.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department MRC - University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of longitudinal cattle sera from Tanzania for morbillivirus serological testing.
Collaborator Contribution Development of pseudotype serological assays for investigating patterns of morbillivirus infection in mixed livestock-wildlife systems in northern Tanzania
Impact No outputs yet - serological assays underway.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Nelson Mandela African Institution for Science and Technology 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Department School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Established partnership for livestock disease and zoonoses research with active engagement on development of funding proposals and co-supervision of MSc and PhD students.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of laboratory facilities, including minus 80 freezer storage. Contributions to design, implementation and analysis of field research studies in Tanzania, including student supervision. Contributions to development of collaborative research proposals. Contributions to writing of research manuscripts.
Impact Collaboration which was initially established in relation to research on malignant catarrhal fever and has now been extended to foot-and-mouth disease research, rift valley fever, brucellosis and Q-fever, with the institution now a key partner in three BBSRC ZELS projects led by the University of Glasgow. Joint publication in Science on rabies control and elimination. Training of four Tanzanian MSc students, with successful completion of research projects. Successful collaboration for ZELS grant funding of zoonoses and emerging livestock systems (ZELS) projects Successful collaboration on Bill and Melinda Gates Grants funding for a doctoral training program on livestock health and production (16 PhD studentships) Successful collaboration on ZELS associated doctoral training centre Successful collaboration on AfriqueOne ASPIRE programme Joint publication submitted on Rift Valley Fever in the Serengeti Publications: Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JB, Cleaveland S; Haydon DT, Halliday JEB. 2016. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, available on CJO2016. doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Simanjiro Development Trust 
Organisation Simanjiro Development Trust
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Regular meetings were held with the director the SDT and he was invited to join the bi-weekly field visits and sample collection activities
Collaborator Contribution The SDT provided access to the Maasai pastoralist community of Emboret and facilitated our collaboration with them
Impact Engagement with the pastoralist community of Emboret The provision of land upon which we carried out the vaccine trial The field vaccine trial would not have been possible without this collaboration
Start Year 2010
 
Description Collaboration with Washington State University 
Organisation Washington State University
Department School of Global Animal Health
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of data collection instruments and analytical methodologies for evaluating the economic impact of malignant catarrhal fever in Tanzania. Collaboration on Social, Economic and Environmental Drivers of Zoonoses BB/L018926/1. Successful collaboration on "Supporting Evidence Based Interventions (SEBI)", a Gates-funded initiative.
Collaborator Contribution Team members contribute intellectually to our collaborative activities. Dr Felix Lankester will lead field work relating to the SEBI project, including training for field staff in Tanzania. Team members from WSU attend annual project meetings and participate in monthly research skype calls.
Impact Successful collaboration on the SEEDZ grant Successful collaboration on the Gates-funded SEBI project Successful collaboration on a Gates-funded project on combining intervention platforms Conference presentations: Yoder J. Inferring the value of statistical life from tough tradeoffs: Choosing between the risk of death from rabies and the cost of treatment in rural Tanzania. Invited Lecture - University of Glasgow, 1 September 2016.
Start Year 2011
 
Title bovine malignant catarrhal fever vaccine 
Description The attenuated malignant catarrhal fever vaccine provides cattle with protection from infection with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, which infects wildebeest without clinical signs but which can cause fatal malignant catarrhal fever in in-contact cattle. This is a particular issue for pastoralist farmers in east Africa, where the wildebeest migration forces cattle owners to avoid the nutritious short-grass plains and risk other diseases such as trypanosomiasis or East Coast Fever by grazing in more remote upland areas, and in southern Africa where it is a cause of conflict between cattle and game ranching operations. Field trials during 2016 and 2017 involving several hundred animals each in South Africa (with Afrivet Pty) and Kenya (with ILRI, GALVmed) have shown that the vaccine induces appropriate immune responses and protection from MCF with efficacy of around 90%. GALVmed funding in 2017 allowed the scale-up of vaccine production to provide over 4000 doses for continued work with ILRI and to develop master seeds of virus and host cells for potential transfer to commercial production. 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Vaccines
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2017
Development Status Actively seeking support
Impact The suggestion that an effective vaccine for MCF may be produced has led to significant local responses particularly among pastoralist communities and in South Africa, with reports of ongoing vaccine trials appearing in the media (www.africanfarming.com/success-african-field-trials-new-malignant-catarrhal-fever-vaccine/ and www.rpo.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/RPO-fw-July-2016.pdf), stimulating contact from South African veterinary medicines distributor Afrivet Pty and funding for small-scale field trials there. 
URL http://www.moredun.org.uk/research/diseases/malignant-catarrhal-fever-mcf
 
Description David Livingstone Anniversary Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk stimulated interactions with representatives from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the WHO Neglected Tropical Disease groups.

Following discussions after the presentation, submissions made to the Gates Grand Challenges grants, and invitation for engagement with the WHO Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description EPIZONE meeting - keynote presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk discussed debate about definition of reservoirs and understanding of reservoir systems, and stimulated development of a paper that has subsequently been published in Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

Publication of a manuscript in Trends in Ecology and Evolution on disease reservoirs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description ISVEE, Lankester 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact TO DISSEMINATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER VACCINE FIELD TRIAL AND TO ILLUSTRATE HOW ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENTS OF DISEASE CONTROL CAN BE CARRIED OUT.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description MCF Strategic Planning Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A MCF strategic planning meeting attended by about 50 participants including from the research sector, policy makers, , industry, communities and third sector organisations. The overarching aim was firstly to deliver, to a range of key stakeholders from the research and non-academic sectors, the key outcomes that resulted from the BBSRC funded malignant catarrhal fever Tanzanian vaccine field trial (2011 and 2012); and secondly to develop a road map for progressing vaccine development from field trial to end user delivery. As a result of the workshop plans were established for future activities, including steps towards final formulation of the vaccine, collection of data for a market survey, participatory studies to investigate potential community uptake, as well as ecological and environmental impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MCF oral presentation - TAWIRI conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talked sparked discussions with conservationists and ecologists, with new collaborations established with scientists working on wildebeest movement ecology.

Publication of abstract in conference proceedings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-16286655
 
Description MCF stakeholders meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A meeting involving Ministry of Livestock delegates, local community leaders, regional press and scientific participants; held at Orkesmet, Simanjiro, Tanzania. Oral presentations given and outline of project and its impact discussed

Community engagement, cooperation and interest in the research activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description MCF stakeholders workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentations sparked discussion about ways of moving forward with MCF control strategies within integrated livestock-wildlife management systems.

Further engagement with policy makers from the Ministries of Livestock and Fisheries Development and Ministries of Natural Resources and Tourism
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description One Health in Tanzania, keynote presentation One Health EcoHealth Congress, Melbourne 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Overview of One Health research in Tanzania given as a keynote presentation at the One Health EcoHealth conference in Melbourne, with > 500 participants in attendance, and sparking a wide range of questions and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description One Health research and impact: Insights from northern Tanzania - BBSRC Presentation - Sept 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Presentation at BBSRC to share insights from past projects with funders and developers of future funding schemes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description One Health: understanding interactions, informing interventions, keynote presentation, St. George's University, October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attended by veterinary and medical researchers and practitioners, sparked discussion on further research relating to zoonotic pathogens in Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sgu.edu/news-and-events/sgu-host-international-ohom-symposium/
 
Description Oral presentation of malignant catarrhal fever project outcomes to Tanzanian Wildlife Research Inst. Scientific Conference audience 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions, discussion afterwards and increased request for information regarding the project outputs

Increased frequency of requests for information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Poster presentation to International Conference of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact presentation resulted in questions regarding the research project and its outputs

Researchers made contact to request more information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Presentation on One Health research in Tanzania, Jenner Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Triggered further discussions on rabies vaccination strategies and established links with Jenner Institute scientists that led to a collaborative proposal for a session on rabies control and elimination at the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Queen Margaret School lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Generated interest of sixth form students in disease research.

No known impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Society of Biology Teachers' Conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk trigger requests for information from school teachers for teaching material.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Stakeholder workshop on scaling up MCF vaccination 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The overarching aim of the MCF Strategic Planning Meeting was firstly to present, to a range of key stakeholders from the research and non-academic sectors, the key research outcomes that resulted from the BBSRC funded malignant catarrhal fever Tanzanian vaccine field trial (2011 and 2012) and two vaccine field trials (2016 and 2017) at a livestock ranch in Kenya owned by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) funded by ILRI, GALVmed and Moredun Research Institute (MRI); and secondly to develop a road map for progressing vaccine development from field trial to end user delivery.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Stakeholder workshop on scaling up MCF vaccination 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The aims of the MCF Strategic Planning Meeting were: first, to present, to a range of stakeholders from the research and non-academic sectors, the key research outcomes that resulted from the BBSRC-funded malignant catarrhal fever Tanzanian vaccine field trial (2011-2012) and two further vaccine field trials during 2016 and 2017 at a livestock ranch in Kenya owned by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), funded by ILRI, GALVmed and Moredun Research Institute (MRI); and second, to develop a road map to progress vaccine development from field trial to end user delivery.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description TAWIRI international conference - keynote presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk generated considerable discussion, particularly among younger scientists (ecologists and vets)

No notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description TAWIRI, LANKESTER 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Lankester, F., Lugelo, A., Russell, G., Keyyu, J., Kazwala, R., Haig, D., Yoder, J., & Cleaveland, S. (2015). Malignant catarrhal fever: A vaccine trial and an economic impact assessment. Tanzanian Wildlife Research Institute 10th International Scientific Conference, Arusha, Tanzania.

THE PURPOSE OF THE TALK WAS TO DISSEMINATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE MCF VACCINE FIELD TRIAL AND TO ILLUSTRATE HOW ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENTS OF DISEASE CONTROL CAN BE CARRIED OUT, TO GENERATE DISCUSSION REGARDING HOW TRIALS OF THE VACCINE CAN BE INCREASED TO INCLUDE A WIDER SPECTRUM OF LIVESTOCK KEEPING SOCIETY, AND TO PROVIDE A FOCAL POINT FOR DISCUSSIONS REGARDING HOW FURTHER MCF VACCINE TRIALS IN KENYA WITH COLLEAGUES AT THE INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INST. MIGHT TAKE PLACE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Virus infections at the wildlife-livestock interface: rabies, MCF and FMD in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation given at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011