Towards the strategic control of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in Africa: new techniques for a neglected problem

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: School of Life Sciences

Abstract

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a very serious viral disease of cloven-hooved animals, which causes immense economic losses through its impacts on animal health, productivity, and consequent trading constraints. While the biology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is quite well-understood as it occurs in outbreak settings in developed countries, this understanding has not been applied to regions of the world where the virus is permanently present. This is particularly unfortunate, since FMD has serious impacts for small-farmers, and previous studies rank FMD as one of the most important livestock diseases associated with poverty. Tanzania has the third largest population of domestic livestock in Africa, and livestock are critical for the nutrition and economic welfare of the millions of people who live in rural Tanzania. Rural communities depend directly on livestock for food, milk, use of animals in crop production, and in raising money through local sales. FMD causes animals to lose weight, reduce milk production, become immobile, and reduce in financial value, and therefore its control is particularly important for communities who depend directly on the well-being of their livestock. FMDV is often found to infect buffalo and other wild ungulates, and wildlife are often suspected to be either the direct of ultimate source of viruses causing disease in domestic livestock. This has led to conflict between the management of wildlife, which is itself a hugely important financial resource in countries like Tanzania, and domestic livestock, with calls for the construction of fences similar to those constructed in southern Africa that serve to reduce contact between domestic livestock and wildlife. There is an urgent need to understand how important wildlife is as a source of FMD for domestic livestock, and to find more environmentally-friendly ways of preventing the virus from moving out from wildlife sanctuaries. FMD can be controlled through the use of vaccination, but the vaccines are not perfect, providing only short-lived protection from the symptoms of the disease rather than infection itself, and protecting against only a limited range of genetic types of the virus. In order to use vaccination effectively, it is critical to know the genetic types of the virus that are likely to cause infection in animals, so that the best vaccines can be chosen. Unfortunately, although quite easily obtained, this knowledge is almost completely lacking from very large areas of Africa in which the virus is thought to be present. This project aims to conduct a large-scale survey of FMD in livestock and wildlife in 10 different areas across Tanzania. Blood samples will be collected from domestic livestock and wildlife and tested for evidence of previous infection by FMD and this will provide a crude picture of the most important types of virus that are present. Where virus is actually isolated we will sequence parts of the genome to obtain much more detailed information on the virus types. We will also focus on one area in northern Tanzania to carry out a more detailed longer-term study, collecting blood samples from herds at regular time intervals and collecting viruses during FMD outbreaks and sequencing them. Using these data, we will be able to determine where virus that causes infections comes from (is it wildlife or other domestic animals in the region, or does it evolve within the herds that its infecting?). We will also study the role of animals that have long-term infections of FMDV, identify other farming practices that are associated with infection by FMDV, and study just how much immune protection caused by infection with one strain can protect animals from infection with other strains.

Technical Summary

Despite a sophisticated understanding of the dynamics, control, and evolution of this virus during its periodic incursions into more developed countries, regrettably little of this understanding has been applied to the epidemiology of FMDV in developing countries where the disease is endemic. Tanzania has the third largest livestock population in Africa, and FMD outbreaks occur frequently throughout the country, with particularly severe impacts for pastoral and agro-pastoral families who are most reliant on livestock products for food and economic security. An almost total lack of systematically collected data from epidemiologically integrated studies of FMD in Tanzania is a major obstacle to tackling these problems. Vaccination offers a potential solution, but many different types of FMD virus circulate in Tanzania, and uncertainties about which vaccines to use, their effectiveness, the role of wildlife as sources of infection, and the most appropriate strategies for local and regional control all serve as major impediments to policy development and implementation. This project aims address these knowledge gaps. We will conduct a broad survey of FMD in livestock and wildlife across Tanzania to determine which serotype of viruses have been circulating in each area. Viral capsid (P1) sequencing will be used to determine the precise genetic strains currently found in different species and different areas, and to identify the most suitable vaccines that can be used to control them. We will also focus on one area in northern Tanzania to carry out a longer-term study, collecting regular serological and virus samples from herds. Using these data, we will determine the origins of new virus strains, the role of carrier animals in the maintenance of FMDV, identify risk factors associated with infection, quantify the extent of cross-protective immune responses, and develop and parameterize mathematical models to inform optimal control policies.

Planned Impact

This project will identify the strains and serotypes of viruses currently in Tanzania, and improve our understanding of the factors that influence the circulation and maintenance of these viruses. These findings will have important and immediate implications for the design of effective FMD control strategies in sub-Saharan Africa, both at a local scale and at national/regional levels. They will also have broad application to other locations, particularly elsewhere in Africa where similar livestock systems exist. From this project, we will have improved analytical tools which will allow us to develop vaccines that are most likely to be effective in East Africa. We will also have an understanding of the geographic and temporal patterns of genetic diversity, which will help determine the appropriate scales at which selected vaccines should be deployed. Modelling approaches combined with an improved knowledge of risk factors for outbreaks will also allow us to examine the effectiveness of different potential strategies. Beneficiaries. Tanzania has the third largest livestock population in Africa, and livestock are critical for the food-security and livelihoods of the poor. Primary beneficiaries will be these livestock-keepers and the livestock industry in Tanzania, and more widely in sub-Saharan Africa. Outputs of the project will help herd owners optimise herd productivity and offtake (e.g. through targeted vaccination of high-value individuals or draught animals). The results will also have major implications for the development of new regional markets, which will not only create opportunities for commercialisation of the livestock sector but reduce risk and vulnerability of poorer farmers by increasing their access to markets. Additional beneficiaries include wildlife managers and the national and global wildlife heritage; environmentally-sensitive approaches to FMD control around East Africa's protected wildlife areas will support the integrated livestock/wildlife systems that are critical for maintaining the integrity and viability of many of these areas (including UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as the Serengeti, Ngorongoro and Selous Game Reserve). Increased knowledge of FMD vaccine strains circulating in East Africa will also be of direct benefit to international agencies (e.g. FAO, OIE, AU-IBAR) for policy development and to regional FMD vaccine laboratories and the pharmaceutical industry. The research will generate important information for scientists on the basic biology of cross-protection to heterologous viral challenge. The welfare of livestock will benefit directly from control of a debilitating disease, and also because the development of new mathematical techniques for analysing cross-protection will reduce the need for future animal experiments. Delivery of outputs to beneficiaries. Communication with academic beneficiaries will take place through publications and presentations at conferences, through our interactions with the related FP-7 project on FMDV vaccine improvements, and through our engagement with the EuFMD Commission, particularly the biennial Open Sessions of the Research Group. The multi-sectoral nature of the project partnerships will ensure dissemination of outputs to a wide range of stakeholders, with the Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries (MoLD) having primary responsibility for liasing with national policy-makers, international agencies (FAO, OIE, AU-IBAR), and providing materials and media to livestock-keepers through district and village-level livestock extension services, the Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute and Sokoine University of Agriculture thus ensuring integration between livestock and wildlife sectors. The strong connectivity of project partners with communities, veterinary, development and wildlife NGOs will also assist in translation of research findings into appropriate disease control strategies.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This study of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Tanzania involved cross-sectional and longitudinal field studies, FMD outbreak investigations, laboratory studies, mathematical modelling and economic analyses to determine (a) spatial and temporal patterns of FMD virus infection and outbreaks in livestock in a range of production systems in northern Tanzania; (b) FMD virus infection patterns in buffalo populations in adjacent wildlife-protected areas; (c) the impact of FMD on household livelihoods and food security. The results of this research have generated the most comprehensive set of data on endemic FMD in East Africa and a greatly improved understanding of the epidemiology of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the likely effectiveness of potential control strategies.

The study generated several key findings:
1. FMD is widespread across pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livestock production systems, but is present at lower levels amongst rural smallholders. Higher levels of infection were also seen in buffalo in wildlife-protected areas close to agro-pastoralist and pastoralist farming systems than in buffalo from parks adjacent to smallholder farming systems.
2. Analysis of data from cross-sectional studies indicate that cattle are more at risk of FMD infection than small ruminants, and cattle in pastoral and agro-pastoral herds at greater risk than those in rural smallholder herds. Risk factors for infection were not associated with proximity to wildlife-protected areas or frequency of livestock interactions with susceptible wildlife. This suggests that, overall, wildlife populations are not an important source of infection for livestock in northern Tanzania, in contrast to the situation in southern Africa, where buffalo are considered the primary source of transmission to livestock.
3. FMD outbreaks occur at a high frequency in Tanzania, affecting the majority of cattle herds in pastoral and agropastoral communities every year. At least five distinct outbreaks were recorded over the three-year period of this field study. The herd-level impact of FMD is variable, but can be severe, with substantial impacts on milk production and sales, and affecting traction capacity and potential for agricultural crop production.
4. Genetic analyses of viruses isolated from FMD outbreaks suggests that successive outbreaks in livestock are caused by different virus types (serotypes), involving viruses conventionally associated with buffalo in southern Africa (SAT 1 and SAT 2 viruses) as well as viruses more typically associated with livestock (O and A viruses). Our findings indicate that cattle are likely to be able to maintain SAT 1 and SAT 2 viruses independently of buffalo. The genetic similarity of viruses isolated from across East Africa suggests FMD occurs as serotype-specific outbreaks sweeping across the region. The temporal sequence of the virus types causing successive outbreaks may be predictable, which has important implications for the design of potential vaccination strategies.
5. Mathematical models have been developed to use serological data to infer the timing of outbreaks and virus type causing outbreaks. This has allowed retrospective detection and characterization of FMD outbreaks that were not detectable through outbreak surveillance systems and has great potential to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of FMD in Africa, where livestock serological data are frequently collected and available for analysis, but capacity for outbreak investigation and isolation of viruses very limited.
6. Existing O and A vaccine strains are likely to provide protection against the O and A viruses that are currently circulating in East Africa, but are not likely to be protective against circulating SAT viruses. Livestock vaccination using vaccines against O and A virus could mitigate against the economic and animal health impacts associated with at least 50% of outbreaks occurring in northern Tanzania.
7. This study provided the first demonstration of SAT 3 virus and O virus in buffalo in Tanzania. These findings will be further investigated, but the isolation of a typical livestock virus (O virus) from buffalo suggests that cattle may be able to act as sources of infection for buffalo. No SAT 3 viruses have yet been detected in cattle, which further reinforces our conclusion that buffalo are unlikely to be a major source of infection for cattle in Tanzania, with buffalo-to-cattle transmission a relatively infrequent event. These findings further support our conclusions that effective cattle vaccination strategies could be implemented that would generate important benefits for rural communities affected by FMD in Tanzania and elsewhere in the east African region. Furthermore, disease control strategies that rely on separation of wildlife and livestock, such as veterinary game fences that have many damaging environmental impacts, are not likely to be necessary to reduce disease impacts in traditional farming systems in East Africa, thus allowing for land-use strategies that allow for mixed livestock and wildlife systems and optimal delivery of ecosystem services in biodiverse savannah rangelands.
8. This study evaluated several diagnostic tools for FMD detection and characterization in the field, including lateral flow devices, and mobile molecular diagnostic platforms (RT-PCR and RT-LAMP). The operational utility and performance of these tools was investigated in the field during outbreak investigations, and further work is on-going to evaluate how they can best be applied for management and control of FMD, as well as for addressing future research questions.
Exploitation Route Findings generated by this project have contributed to national and international advocacy and policy agendas in multiple ways. The Tanzanian government has adopted the Progressive Control Pathway (PCP) for FMD, a step-wise approach devised by international bodies (Food and Agriculture Organization and World Organization for Animal Health) to provide a roadmap for endemic countries to control FMD. This project has provided essential epidemiological and socio-economic data, which have contributed to progression along Stage 0 and towards Stage 1 of the PCP. The project has also identified potential control options for FMD in Tanzania (PCP-Stage 1) with expected beneficial consequences for the livestock and wildlife sectors, and local communities. Specifically, prevention of infection in livestock, including cattle vaccination and movement control, is expected to be an effective approach towards reduction of national- and local-level impacts of disease. On the contrary, strategies focusing on separation of wildlife and livestock , such as veterinary fences, would have little impact given the high level of disease present in livestock, and could have considerable damaging consequences on the preservation of Tanzanian unique ecosystems. The project has generated essential data on FMD viruses circulating in Tanzania, which have contributed to vaccine matching and development studies. Such studies have demonstrated that existing vaccine strains are likely to provide protection against at least two of the serotypes circulating in Tanzania (O and A) and therefore vaccination against these serotypes would address a substantial component of the current disease burden. The predictability of outbreaks that our study has highlighted also suggests that vaccination efforts against these two serotypes could be appropriately timed. Finally, the project has addressed a critical knowledge gap related to the socio-economic consequences of FMD for livestock-dependent communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Our findings have demonstrated the potential for FMD control to reduce vulnerability through increased milk and crop production, and are therefore expected to further contribute to current momentum towards global FMD elimination as a means to alleviate poverty.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

 
Description Research findings, and the critical linkages forged in affected areas through the research-between community members, local institutions, and high-level government officials and policymakers-have helped bring livestock diseases to the attention of local and national authorities. Our research underpinned policy briefs to and workshops with the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries 2013, 2015), sharing findings on the role of buffalo in FMD transmission and offering recommendations on vaccination and vaccine importation. The research has supported the Tanzanian government's development of an FMD action plan, placing the country on the FAO's 'Progressive Control Pathway for FMD' (PCP-FMD a globally-accepted framework for countries setting out a stepwise approach to tackling FMD. Before initiation of the our research, Tanzania lacked the socio-economic and epidemiological data necessary to join the pathway's Stage One (identify risk and control options). Furthermore, our research showing limited wildlife-to-cattle transmission risk in Tanzania meant that separation of the two was unnecessary and would be
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Livestock Modernization Initiative
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://agriprofocus.com/upload/post/Tanzania_Livestock_Modernization_Initiative1437567817.pdf
 
Description OIE working Group - FMD in North Africa
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Participated in an an OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) committee to review the emergence of foot-and-mouth disease in North African countries (Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco), and to provide advice about measures that should be adopted to control these outbreaks.
 
Description Progressive Control Pathway for FMD
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The results from the study have been used directly by the Government of Tanzania for developing the national control strategy for foot-and-mouth disease within the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD endorsed by the international animal health agencies (FAO/OIE)
 
Description BBSRC Impact Accelerator Award
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/GCRF-IAA/17/08 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description BBSRC Innovator of the Year Award 2017
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Funding ID International impact Category winner of BBSRC Innovator of the Year 2017 competition 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description BBSRC research grant
Amount £477,877 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R004250/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description BMFG doctoral training program
Amount $4,000,000 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2018
 
Description Impact Accelerator Award
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Industrial Funding
Amount € 48,000 (EUR)
Organisation MSD Animal Health 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2018
 
Description Industrial Funding
Amount € 24,000 (EUR)
Organisation MSD Animal Health 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 01/2016
 
Description Industrial Funding
Amount € 73,000 (EUR)
Organisation MSD Animal Health 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2021
 
Description OIE Twinning project with the National Animal Health Investigation Centre (NAHDIC) - Ethiopia
Amount € 146,760 (EUR)
Organisation World Organisation for Animal Health 
Sector Public
Country France
Start 11/2015 
End 10/2018
 
Description Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems - SEEDZ
Amount £2,738,706 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L018926/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Title Bayesian model for analysis of FMD serological data 
Description A Bayesian statistical model has been developed that allows information on the serotype, timing and duration of FMD outbreaks to be inferred from serological data. Previously this was not possible in an endemic multi-serotype environment due to cross-reaction between serotypes in the laboratory assays and complex infection histories of animals exposed to serial infections. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Application of the model is likely to be particularly relevant for developing an understanding of the epidemiology of FMD in endemic settings in Africa, where multiple serotypes affect livestock populations in frequent outbreaks and where large archives of livestock sera are available for testing. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of outbreak caused by different serotypes will directly inform the development of national plans for FMD control, including appropriate strategies for livestock vaccination. Existing techniques for understanding cross-protection of vaccines against varying FMDV strains, and of protection afforded by one strain against another require live animal challenge experiments on cattle in containment facilities. Even an understanding of serological cross-reactivity has required ex vivo cattle experiments using experimental animals. The Bayesian platform that we have developed is a first attempt to understand cross-protection in a natural experiment, requiring no animal use or experimentation beyond field sampling of existing domestic herds. The significant difficulties of interpreting the data from such a poorly controlled experiment have not been entirely overcome in this project alone, but as a proof of principle it is clear that this approach shows promise and we have been able to independently validate the results of our analyses. The enormous sample sizes available in the field, and their much greater relevance to disease spread in domestic herds, have the potential to both reduce the use of in vivo experiments significantly while simultaneously leading to a much more relevant and deeper understanding of virus circulation in an endemic setting than can easily be obtained by inference from a handful of experimentally infected animals. 
 
Title Foot and mouth disease database and sample archive 
Description Detailed livestock-management and socio-economic questionnaire data has been collected from 84 households in a cross-sectional study, 30 in a longitudinal study and 70 in a case-control study. These have been entered and organized in an SQL database. These data correspond to serological, oropharangyeal, nasal secretion and foot-and-mouth disease lesion samples from the same households, which have subsequently been analysed. The data are being used for descriptive, risk-factor and socioeconomic impact studies relating to foot-and-mouth disease. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication of a study on PPR indicating high levels of infection in cattle and the potential value of cattle as a target for disease surveillance. Samples also provided for development of new diagnostic tests at the Pirbright Institute, and made available to other research groups in Tanzania working on FMD, which has contributed to successful funding of a Tanzanian veterinary researcher through a Wellcome Trust intermediate fellowship in Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 
 
Description Afrique One 
Organisation Afrique One
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Staff time and expertise in developing research themes in intervention science, particularly foot and mouth disease and rabies
Collaborator Contribution Funding for developing research on policy analysis of foot and mouth disease
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration integrating social science expertise with veterinary epidemiology. Development of a MSc research project investigating market drivers of foot and mouth disease control policy in Tanzania.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with BBSRC CIDLID project 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partnership with FMD project supported by the CIDLID program (BB/H009175) to mutually enhance project objectives with respect to research on improved the quality of FMD vaccines for use in East Africa.
Collaborator Contribution Our project has provided post-outbreaks samples for vaccine matching work and diagnostic material for development of new assays, including field diagnostic tests.
Impact Availability of contemporary samples from northern Tanzania for BB/H009175resulted in improved understanding of the likely effectiveness of existing vaccine strains to protect against FMD serotypes currently circulating in Tanzania.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with Nelson Mandela African Institution for Science and Technology 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Department School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Established partnership for livestock disease and zoonoses research with active engagement on development of funding proposals and co-supervision of MSc and PhD students.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of laboratory facilities, including minus 80 freezer storage. Contributions to design, implementation and analysis of field research studies in Tanzania, including student supervision. Contributions to development of collaborative research proposals. Contributions to writing of research manuscripts.
Impact Collaboration which was initially established in relation to research on malignant catarrhal fever and has now been extended to foot-and-mouth disease research, rift valley fever, brucellosis and Q-fever, with the institution now a key partner in three BBSRC ZELS projects led by the University of Glasgow. Joint publication in Science on rabies control and elimination. Training of four Tanzanian MSc students, with successful completion of research projects. Successful collaboration for ZELS grant funding of zoonoses and emerging livestock systems (ZELS) projects Successful collaboration on Bill and Melinda Gates Grants funding for a doctoral training program on livestock health and production (16 PhD studentships) Successful collaboration on ZELS associated doctoral training centre Successful collaboration on AfriqueOne ASPIRE programme Joint publication submitted on Rift Valley Fever in the Serengeti Publications: Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JB, Cleaveland S; Haydon DT, Halliday JEB. 2016. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, available on CJO2016. doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute 
Organisation Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration established with Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in relation to research on SAT-2 viruses from Tanzania
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with the Southern Africa Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) 
Organisation Sokoine University of Agriculture
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution TPI staff have mentored research scientists at SUA, participated in visits to Tanzania and hosted visiting African scientists in the UK.
Collaborator Contribution These activities are designed to develop enhanced research capacity at SUA (Tanzania) and the other affiliated research organisations in Southern Africa. As an example, during August 2016, two TPI researchers travelled to SAU to provide training and technical expertise in methods that can be applied to sequence viral genomes.
Impact This collaboration has generated a number of joint publications/presentations and has led to the preparation of joint proposals to understand the circulation of transboundary diseases in endemic settings.
Start Year 2010
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Botswana Vaccine Institute
Country Botswana 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Department of Livestock Development
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation FGBI Federal Centre for Animal Health
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute
Country China 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Lombardy and Emilia Romagna Experimental Zootechnic Institute (IZSLER)
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation National Agri-Food Quality and Health Service (SENASA)
Country Argentina 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation National Centre for Foreign Animal Diseases (NCFAD)
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (Panaftosa)
Country Brazil 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa 
Organisation Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of diagnostic samples (buffalo and livestock) from field surveys and foot and mouth outbreaks in Tanzania
Collaborator Contribution Virus isolation from buffalo probang samples
Impact Collaboration involves field epidemiologists and virologists Isolation of foot and mouth viruses, demonstrating for the first time SAT3 and O viruses in Tanzania buffalo
Start Year 2011
 
Description 2012 Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Alliance Scientific Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact International meeting on Surveillance, Epidemiology, Vaccination and Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease. Presentations:
Fyumagwa et al. Surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in wildlife in different ecosystems of Tanzania: achievements and challenges.
Lembo et al. Epidemiological patterns of foot-and-mouth disease in livestock-wildlife interface areas of northern Tanzania.
Reeve et al. Validating and combining serological approaches to antigenic prediction. Workshop report

The data presented sparked questions regarding the research findings in Tanzania. Great interest was expressed regarding the unique socio-economic data generated by the project, which has the potential to shape advocacy agendas, particularly in relation to the control of FMD in traditional settings as a strategy for pro-poor growth.

The meeting provided an opportunity to engage closely with FMD research networks within the Global Foot-and-Mouth Research Alliance (GFRA), and as a result the subsequent GFRA meeting was held in Tanzania in conjunction with the final FMD project workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description 33rd World Veterinary Congress, Incheon, South Korea, August 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Don King was an invited speaker at the 33rd World Veterinary Congress, Incheon, South Korea, August 2017. He presented a talk entitled: New tools for the detection and characterisation of transboundary diseases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://wvc2017korea.com/
 
Description Antigone One Health Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation sparked questions and discussions with postgraduates and collaborators afterwards

Attendees have since followed up with requests for additional information on ongoing research and associated opportunities for further training
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Boyd Orr conferences and workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The sixteen conferences, workshops and symposia we have organised in Glasgow have resulted in lengthy discussions about the strategic direction that research should move in to have more impact, especially on policy.

Several consortia for large grants have met at these meetings over the years, and they have resulted in closer communications with both our collaborators in academia and partners in NGOs, charities and amongst policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014,2015
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/boydorr/meetingsevents/
 
Description David Livingstone Anniversary Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk stimulated interactions with representatives from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the WHO Neglected Tropical Disease groups.

Following discussions after the presentation, submissions made to the Gates Grand Challenges grants, and invitation for engagement with the WHO Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description EuFMD Open Sessions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact These open sessions are organised by the European Commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease, part of the FAO, every two years. Talks given at these meetings over several years have stimulated discussions about new collaborations, leading to new successful grant applications, discussions with industry resulting in industrial partnerships and funding, and discussions with policy makers, resulting in being consulted by policy makers about areas of expertise.

This has resulted in new collaborations, new grant applications and funding from both intergovernmental organisations and industry, and consultations with industry and policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2010,2012,2014,2016
 
Description FMD Workshop, Morogoro Apr 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The objectives of the workshop were:
1. To identify the likely benefits from better FMD control on sustainable livestock development in Tanzania, and the broader growth and sustainable livelihood aspirations of different stakeholders
2. To review the current barriers and challenges facing better FMD control
3. To identify the key incentives for FMD control in Tanzania among the wide range of stakeholders affected by the disease
4. To identify the key research and development options and solutions necessary to fit the needs and capacities of different stakeholders

At the conclusion of the workshop, the various issues presented and documented by the groups were discussed. Three overall priority areas of action were identified by the group of participants. These are:
1. Improve communication mechanisms for better dialogue amongst and between stakeholders concerned with FMD control, including the involvement of livestock owners in the national dialogue
2. Review and finalise the national FMD control plan in line with the Progressive Control Pathway (PCP) developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and taking into account the control solutions identified by this workshop
3. Develop a policy and strategy for FMD vaccine sourcing, importation and delivery, to improve accessibility of vaccines to all different stakeholder groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description FMD Workshop, Mugumu Apr 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Specific objectives of the workshop were:
Objective 1) To review the epidemiology of and risk factors for FMD in the area based on local knowledge and the results of the research conducted so far;
Objective 2) To review available prevention mechanisms and the role that individual owners and the community more widely can play in FMD reporting and
prevention;
Objective 3) To put the knowledge gathered through Objectives 1) and 2) into practice in order to develop a locally-­specific FMD reporting and prevention plan considering:
a. What approaches are already available to the community;
b. What the incentives for FMD reporting/prevention are from the perspective of livestock owners in these communities;
c. What the current barriers to better FMD reporting/prevention are;
d. What options are available to address these barriers;and
e. The stakeholders who would need to be involved and could help implement the devised plan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description FMD research coordination workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint meeting of the BBSRC-DFiD-Scottish Government projects funded through the CIDLID initiative:
"Towards the strategic control of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in Africa and "Improving quality of FMDV vaccine and vaccine strain selection in Eastern Africa"

The aim of the meeting was to provide an introduction to the projects, describe preliminary results, coordinate research activities between different groups working on FMD in Tanzania, and establish strong links between researchers and policy-makers. The meeting was attended by a broad range of stakeholders (~40), including national government representatives from the livestock (including the Director of Veterinary Services) and wildlife sectors, national and international scientists, vaccine-producers, and representatives from the central laboratory in Tanzania and the World Reference Laboratory. The meeting was also attended by collaborative groups in Tanzania funded through the Wellcome Trust SACIDS project (part of the African Institutions Initiative). After presentation of results, working groups were established to discuss forthcoming plans related to field activities, laboratory/training activities and policy.

Workshop report and data shared on CDs with all participants. Outcomes of the workshop shaped implementation and policy agendas for the remaining phases of the project. The need for more complete information regarding the epidemiology of the disease in Tanzania to inform control strategies and vaccine selection was highlighted in line with the principles of the FMD Progressive Control Pathway, devised by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health and embra
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Final workshop of FMD project in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Similarly to the initial project workshop, the meeting was attended by a broad range of stakeholders (~30), including national government representatives from the livestock (including the acting Director of Veterinary Services and focal person for FMD in the Ministry of Livestock) and wildlife sectors, national and international scientists, and representatives from the central laboratory in Tanzania and the World Reference Laboratory. The workshop provided an interactive platform to review the evidence, research findings and human skills (for field surveillance, laboratory diagnostics and molecular characterization) developed by the project in collaboration with other FMD initiatives in Tanzania. Research findings were linked to the FMD-Progressive Control Pathway (PCP) Stage 1, devised by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Organization for Animal Health.

Through the meeting (1) working hypotheses of how FMD circulates in Tanzania were formulated; (2) future research needs for progression towards the next stages of the PCP were identified and prioritised; (3) options for FMD control in Tanzania were identified; (4) areas for potential vaccination trials were discussed; and (5) further funding opportunities to facilitate research and policy progression were identified, with a number of applications planned or submitted.

Research outputs have been embraced by the Tanzanian government for developing a national plan to control FMD (see also narrative impact).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description GFRA meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talks given and discussions held at the Global Foot-and-mouth Research Alliance meetings over several years have stimulated discussions about new collaborations, leading to new successful grant applications, discussions with industry resulting in industrial partnerships and funding, and discussions with policy makers, resulting in being consulted by policy makers about areas of expertise.

This has resulted in new collaborations, new grant applications and funding from both intergovernmental organisations and industry, and consultations with industry and policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2015
 
Description Impact Accelerator Workshop 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact PI: Dr. Richard Reeve. SEEDZ Co-PIs Cleaveland and Sharp, along with HAZEL PI Zadoks and Brucellosis PDRA Halliday and Dr. Tiziana Lembo were awarded a £5900 Impact Accelerator Award to develop key healthcare messages to healthcare providers in Tanzania. This initiative is focussed on zoonotic diseases, and will feature messages that doctors can convey to their patients to reduce their risk of zoonotic disease. An Impact Accelerator Workshop took place in Moshi in June 2016, followed by a second workshop in Endulen in August 2016 and this grant also supported a Knowledge Exchange Workshop in Endulen in August. We anticipate developing materials for distribution in the coming months.
Impact Accelerator Award Workshop - June 2016. Included representatives from Faraja Health Care Centre, Jaffery Charitable Medical Services, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Majengo Healthcare Centre, Mawenzi District Hospital, Moshi Upendo Healthcare Centre, Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Senior and Children, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Pasua Healthcare Centre, St Joseph's Hospital, and TPC Hospital. This workshop provided information about the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health pathogens to doctors from across northern Tanzania, and gathered feedback on what sorts of zoonoses doctors encountered, what kinds of information would be helpful for them to receive and what information would be useful for patients to receive regarding zoonotic disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description M. Casey presentation - GFRA meeting, Arusha, Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Research findings were presented that sparked further discussions regarding the project in Tanzania.

Interest was expressed by scientists investigating FMD in other parts of Africa regarding the applicability of the research methods employed in Tanzania to other settings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Media activity relating to Queen's Anniversary Prize 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Research carried out by this project featured within the Horizons magazine of the University of Glasgow, on the occasion of the award of the 2013 Queen's Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education.

Increased awareness of international work of the Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health within the University of Glasgow and further afield.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Newsletter article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research or patient groups
Results and Impact Article in the Global FMD Research Alliance newsletter - "Towards the strategic control of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in Africa"

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description One Health in Tanzania, keynote presentation One Health EcoHealth Congress, Melbourne 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Overview of One Health research in Tanzania given as a keynote presentation at the One Health EcoHealth conference in Melbourne, with > 500 participants in attendance, and sparking a wide range of questions and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description One Health research and impact: Insights from northern Tanzania - BBSRC Presentation - Sept 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Presentation at BBSRC to share insights from past projects with funders and developers of future funding schemes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description One Health: understanding interactions, informing interventions, keynote presentation, St. George's University, October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attended by veterinary and medical researchers and practitioners, sparked discussion on further research relating to zoonotic pathogens in Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sgu.edu/news-and-events/sgu-host-international-ohom-symposium/
 
Description Policy briefing on foot and mouth disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Preparation of policy brief with results of the study and dialogue involving policy-makers.

Policy brief prepared for officials from the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development in relation to relevance of research findings for FMD control strategies in Tanzania. Results adopted by the Ministry for incorporation into the Tanzania national plan within the Progressive Control Pathway. Ministry officials indicated that "the results from the study were extremely valuable for ensuring progression of Tanzania to the next stage of the PCP for FMD" with this progression approved by international animal health authorities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.fao.org/AG/AGAINFO/PROGRAMMES/EN/empres/documents/docs/agenda_fmd_rwanda.pdf
 
Description Presentation on One Health research in Tanzania, Jenner Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Triggered further discussions on rabies vaccination strategies and established links with Jenner Institute scientists that led to a collaborative proposal for a session on rabies control and elimination at the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Queen Margaret School lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Generated interest of sixth form students in disease research.

No known impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Society of Biology Teachers' Conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk trigger requests for information from school teachers for teaching material.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description T. Lembo presenation - EU Commission for the control of FMD meeting, Spain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions.

A copy of the presentation was circulated to several users. Interest generated for collaborative engagement with international researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description T. Lembo presentation - Boyd Orr Centre inaugural conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The meeting provided an opportunity to better develop study protocols through interactions with FMD specialists attending the event.

Collaborative research plans developed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description T. Lembo presentation - Conference on interventions to control endemic diseases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion.

The content of the presentation contributed to shaping final plenary discussions regarding social and economic barriers to FMD control in endemic settings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description T. Lembo presentation - ISVEE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and suggestions regarding further laboratory analyses to be considered.

Efforts were made to incorporate suggestions received in further project activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description T. Lembo presentaton - ECCCB, Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked discussions regarding environmentally-sensitive approaches for the control of FMD in ecosystems where livestock and buffalo live in close proximity.

Efforts were made to incorporate suggestions received in project recommendations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description TAWIRI international conference - keynote presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk generated considerable discussion, particularly among younger scientists (ecologists and vets)

No notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Virus infections at the wildlife-livestock interface: rabies, MCF and FMD in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation given at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011