Impact and mitigation of emergent diseases on major UK insect pollinators

Lead Research Organisation: Queen's University of Belfast
Department Name: Sch of Biological Sciences

Abstract

The mysterious death of thousands of honey bee colonies in the USA in the winter of 2005/06, termed Colony Collapse Disorder, focused media attention on the plight of bees, the world's primary pollinators. In the UK, both the honey bee and the 24 species of bumble bee play a major role in crop and wildflower pollination, and both have been suffering serious declines. Exotic (non-native) and newly emergent (native, but with increasing virulence) diseases are considered a major cause of decline in bees and consequently they are one of the greatest challenges to bees in the UK. The single-celled microsporidian 'fungus' Nosema ceranae is an exotic infectious disease of the honey bee that primarily attacks the gut of the bee. We have shown that it has spread worldwide, including the UK, within the last ca. 10 years, and it has been implicated in honey bee colony collapses in the USA (2005/06) and Spain (2007/08). Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) is the major disease organism associated with Varroa destructor mites of honey bees. This emergent disease replicates inside the bee, causing deformed wings and reduced longevity and is responsible for considerable honey bee colony mortality in the UK. Both disease organisms have recently been detected in bumble bees. Thus, both N. ceranae and DWV pose major threats to the UK's principal pollinators. Investigations of pollinator diseases typically focus on single-species interactions (one disease organism and one pollinator species). However, most parasites have multiple hosts and most hosts have multiple parasites. Here, we will take a multidisciplinary, ecological systems-based approach to understand the virulence (e.g. reduced longevity) and transmission of these two major disease organisms, N. ceranae and DWV, and detrimental synergies between them, on the UK's major pollination service providers: the honey bee and bumble bees. We will undertake laboratory epidemiological experiments (in which we look at the impact of a disease organism(s) on its host and the progression of disease from initial infection through to host mortality or recovery), state-of-the-art 'post-genomic' analyses and high-resolution radar tracking of individual insects to determine disease virulence and transmission. Using these data, we will parameterise a novel epidemiological model that will allow risk assessment of these emergent diseases on UK pollinators. Taking advantage of the complete genomes of both N. ceranae and DWV, we will undertake country-wide screening of pollinators to provide the evidence base of current disease strain prevalence. We will also refine innovative approaches for combating disease impacts. Specifically we will investigate the role of 'lactic acid bacteria' (the 'good guys' found naturally in healthy bee guts) and so-called RNAi technology (=RNA interference - short stretches of RNA that may interfere with viral replication inside a host) in curing bees of N. ceranae and DWV, which would provide long-term sustainable solutions to these disease organisms. For ca. £1.6 million (75% FEC), this interdisciplinary project will combine expertise from three leading UK bee and pollination research groups at Queen's University Belfast, Royal Holloway University of London and Rothamsted Research with mathematical modellers (Royal Holloway), pioneering microbiologists at the University of Lund (Sweden) and the world leader in RNAi technologies for bee diseases: Beeologics (USA). It will elucidate the impact and epidemiology of two increasingly important parasites on the UK's principal insect pollinators. Results will provide the evidence base for policy on disease mitigation strategies for government (conservation and agricultural advisory bodies) and major stakeholders (beekeepers, bumble bee importers). As well as serving as a model study of emergent pollinator diseases, project results will feed directly into husbandry practices and approaches to mitigate disease impact.

Technical Summary

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are the UK's principal pollinators yet both are in decline. Emergent infectious diseases are considered a major cause of bee decline. By combining theoretical modelling with empirical high-resolution evidence in an ecological systems approach, our £1.6 million (75% FEC) 3 year multidisciplinary project aims to understand the current and future threats posed by the UK's emergent and exotic honey bee pathogens on its major pollinators, and to develop innovative and sustainable mitigation strategies. We shall develop protocols for the culturing of DWV and N. ceranae so that single variants of these pathogens can be used in experimental investigation, allowing an explicitly experimental approach to host-parasite interactions. The UK's six common Bombus species will then be challenged with these pathogens to determine their susceptibility. Honey bees and bumble bees will then be challenged with one or both pathogens to determine synergies among multispecies parasite assemblages and host susceptibility, host immune response and host behaviour (pathogen transmission) measured in the lab and field as changes in host flight behaviour. These studies will be complemented by analysis of inter-specific host transmission of pathogens using state-of-the-art radar tracking of individual insects. A biologically realistic epidemiological model for a multi-parasite multi-eusocial-host system will be developed and used to refine experimental design and will be parameterised by results derived from these objectives. This model will provide risk assessment of DWV/N. ceranae and other emergent pathogens on the UK's major pollinator species. Two novel control methods, based on lactic acid bacteria of the bee gut and RNAi, will be tested for their efficacy. A countrywide survey of DWV and N. ceranae variants will provide the evidence base of current disease status and potential threats to the honey bee and to bumble bees.

Planned Impact

This interdisciplinary project will elucidate the impact and epidemiology of two increasingly important parasites, deformed wing virus (DWV) and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, on the UK's major insect pollinators: honey bees and bumble bees. The impact of this project will be: 1) a substantially enhanced understanding of the interactions between pathogens and multiple pollinator hosts, knowledge that can be used to predict pollinator population changes and provide opportunities to mitigate parasite impacts with appropriate disease control strategies; and 2) a suite of new tools of vital importance in the study of pollinator pathology. In addition to the scientific community for whom high-impact research articles will be written, both areas will be of direct relevance to the following non-academic sectors: a) policy makers on sustainable pollination service provision, b) commercial and hobbyist beekeepers, c) NGOs and conservationists, d) farmers and industries involved in crop and food production and e) the wider public interested in the environment and pollinator conservation. a) Policy makers: We will use our contacts to ensure the implications of the project results are integrated into policies affecting bee and pollinator management. One route is via our close connections with EU policy makers (COLOSS and a briefing workshop for Members of the European Parliament on pollination and bees). b) Beekeepers: We will speak at beekeeping events, write for beekeeper newsletters and, specific to this project, we will invite regional beekeeping organisations to Rothamsted to see the radar in action (in 2011). We will also present our work at Apimondia, the international congress held specifically to disseminate research results to beekeepers. Through a public participation campaign, we shall engage beekeepers in assessing the risks posed by N. ceranae. c) NGOs and conservationists: We will engage with conservation organisations like Bumble Bee Conservation Trust and Bees Wasps and Ants Recording Society though data sharing and talks at their annual meeting. We will publicise results in targeted articles e.g. in British Wildlife, and dedicated leaflets. d) Farmers and associated industries: Rothamsted Research Association provides a forum for informing and engaging farmers and farming industries, and Osborne's team arrange regular farmer visit days to explain their research. One of these events incorporating this project will be held in 2012. e) General public: We have 15 years experience of disseminating results through the media (television, newspaper and radio) and we will extend these activities to incorporate this project and its results. Rothamsted holds Open Weekends showcasing their science to the public, and we will use this forum to inform on this project. Website: Of benefit to all stakeholders will be a project website. It will outline our research and provide opportunities for the public to engage with us. It will also publicise the prevalence and distribution of disease variants across bee species and will link to relevant NGOs and the new cross research council website on Food Security. All stakeholder event: In 2013, we shall stage an event either at Rothamsted or hosted by the Royal Entomological Society to bring together all stakeholders listed above for a workshop discussing the results of the project, inviting feedback and stimulating initiatives for disease management in wild and domesticated pollinators. Outside the project: We will engage with potential collaborators through data sharing, ensuring that our survey data on parasite distribution and abundance are available to organisations such as the National Bee Unit, FERA, and COLOSS. Exploitation: The project may generate significant exploitable results of considerable economic importance. If innovative control methods are successful, we will as a matter of priority engage with subcontractors and potential funders to undertake field-scale trials.
 
Title Opera: The Silence of the Bees: A Science Opera 
Description Prof Mark Brown collaborated with a composer, Kelvin Thomson, on a new opera "The Silence of the Bees: A Science Opera", which had its world premiere at Royal Holloway, University of London on 17th March 2013 
Type Of Art Composition/Score 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact Beauty and awe in the minds of the listeners. 
 
Description Our overarching aim was to understand whether and how interactions among two emerging insect pathogens, deformed wing virus (DWV) and a spore-forming microorganism of the gut (a fungus-like microsporidian called Nosema ceranae or N. ceranae), impacted their known host, the honey bee. Further, we set out to determine the extent to which these pathogens also impacted other important insect pollinators of the UK, the bumble bees, and how they could be controlled in hosts. We successfully developed methods for rearing pathogens in the laboratory, and then we undertook a large body of experimental research, both in the laboratory under tightly controlled setting, and in the field using advanced radar technology, to determine how important each pathogen, alone and in combination, impacts these pollinator insects. We also developed novel mathematical models - informed by our empirical data - that can predict the impact of pathogens on social bees. We have 7 key findings:

1. Both DWV and N. ceranae are pathogen for honey bees. Contrary to our original hypothesis, they seem not to interact synergistically in elevating mortality of honey bees in the laboratory. Under most circumstances, DWV is far more virulent than N. ceranae for honey bees.

2. In a stressful field setting, the impact of both pathogens may be greater than that seen in the benign laboratory. Radar tracking demonstrates the difficulty faced by honey bees when orientating and flying if they are infected with either pathogen.

3. A novel method of control of pathogens, feeding with naturally occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria, provides health benefits for the honey bee, but they do not give specific benefits to hosts in combatting DWV and N. ceranae.

4. Theoretical modelling demonstrates that pathogens and other stressors such as pesticides may cause sudden collapse of social insect colonies when they suffer from on-going insult by these factors.

5. Both pathogens impact bumble bees, but again DWV has far greater impact on its host.

6. DWV is at an extremely high prevalence in British honey bees.

7. Pathogens of the honey bee may 'spill over' into bumble bees, and vice versa, with potentially devastating consequences for populations of both managed (honey bee) and largely unmanaged (bumble bee) pollinator populations.
Exploitation Route Policymakers may use our results in their formulation of evidence-based policy in relation to the importation, movement and stocking of managed pollinators. For bee-keepers, our results suggest that greater attention needs to be paid to management to reduce DWV pathogen loads, probably by reducing the number of Varroa mite pests in colonies. Conservationists, NGOs and the general public need to be aware of the risks that pathogens represent for pollinator numbers, and the potential that exists for inter-host transfer of pathogens. Our research should also motivate the scientific field to study the role of pathogens in regulating insect pollinator populations, and how virulence might evolve in a multi-host multi-pathogen system that is insect pollinators and their microbial associates.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

URL http://beediseases.org.uk
 
Description We have held over 60 dissemination events, from scientific presentations at conferences through workshops with government policy makers to beekeeper conventions, in an attempt to disseminate the important messages that have arisen from our results. We have informed national (British) and international (EU) government of our key findings and we have fed results arising from our research into pollinator conservation policy (the National Pollinator Strategies) for England and Wales. On the scientific field, we have been instrumental in founding the newly established SUPER-B, a cross-European network funded by the European Science Foundation to address the decline of pollinators Europe-wide, and in directing attention and improving research to address the role of pathogens in pollinator decline.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description BBSRC/NSF US-UK Young person exchange program
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2013 
End 03/2013
 
Description Innovation grant
Amount € 150,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 2817100710 
Organisation German Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection 
Sector Public
Country Germany
Start 04/2011 
End 03/2014
 
Description sDiv workshop
Amount € 56,400 (EUR)
Funding ID Synthesising transcriptome data to explore interspecies bee-pathogen molecular interactions that may underpin pollinator decline "trans-bee" 
Organisation German Research Foundation 
Sector Public
Country Germany
Start 09/2013 
End 04/2014
 
Description An an invited lecture on pathogen spill-over from honey bees to bumble bees at INTECOL, London (22 August 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description An invited lecture on pathogen-related IPI projects at INTECOL, London (22 August 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Brown talk to the Apimondia conference: 2nd ApiEcoFlora Biodiversity, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, 6th November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Pollinator plagues - emergent multi-host pathogens in bees?' was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Changes in populations of pollinating insects across Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary talk to the TSGE forum meeting on 29 April 2013 at St Anne's College, Oxford University, entitled, 'The Impact of Agriculture on Pollinating Insects: Science and Regulation', a conference for regulators and policy makers. Plenary lecture to policy makers and regulatory authorities ppt presentation distributed to delegates

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Hive alive BBC 4 July 2014 (TV program on bee biology including radar tracking) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feedback from the BBC and public was positive

Dissemination
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Inaugural Jack Pridham Lecture, Royal Holloway, University of London "Where's the buzz" (October 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Interest in talk was excellent

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited lecture to the Apimondia one-day meeting on Bee Health in Dublin (24 March 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited lectures to the National Honey Show, London (24 and 25 October 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talks were 'Nosema - a pervasive and persistent parasite of the honey bee' and 'pesticides and bees - a dangerous mix'; the latter is accessible on youtube

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VZSGTsPQJCY
 
Description Invited plenary lecture to EurBee5, the 5th European Bee Research Conference, at Halle (Saale), Germany. Topic: pathogens (September 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk well received.

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited presentation on emergent disease in wild pollinators to All-Party Parliamentary Group on Agroecology, Palace of Westminster, UK (12 Feb 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk captured audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Invited talk to Society of Biology (NI) and Armagh Wildlife Society "Bumblebees - what's all the buzz about?" (September 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Netowrking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited talk to Surrey Bee Keepers Association, Surrey Bee Day (23 Feb 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Netowrking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Major contribution to BBC Horizon Special What is killing our bees - program on bee decline, August 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Horizon Special "What is killing our bees", particularly Stephan Wolf's part, was well received

Dissemination
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Media presentation in Science (Magazine) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Positive feedback

Request for dialogue on topic from around the world
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/09/plight-of-the-bumblebee.html
 
Description Participation in the IPI mid-term workshop on stakeholder engagement, York (November 2012). 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Pathogen spillover between honeybees and wild bees' to the EPILOBEE group (National Veterinarians, organized by the EU National Reference Lab for Bee Diseases, ANSES: French National Food Safety Authority, Paris, France on 10th June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk was well received and sparked considerable discussion

Greater insight by participants about pathogen spill-over among bees
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plenary lecture to the National Honey Show, London (October 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk very well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Policy Breakfast Seminar at the EU Parliament, Brussels, (May 2011) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Presentation to an EU Parliament round table on 'bee declines' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk led to much discussion

No immediate impacts seen
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Radio broadcast on Farming Today, BBC Radio 4, interview on IPI work (12 June 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Positive feedback from public

Interest aroused in a wide audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Representation on the UK's International Insect Pollinators Workshop, London, Feb 2012, and chair of the Pollinator Health working group. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Workshop engaged and directed thought

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk "Where's the buzz? Bumblebee ecology & conservation" Free Public Lecture Series, Birkbeck University of London, 25/10/2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk "Where's the buzz? Bumblebee ecology & conservation" was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk "Where's the buzz?" Eton College, Banks (Natural History) Society, 26/9/2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk "Where's the buzz?" was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk on 'Emerging viruses as a cause of bee decline in Europe' to Department of Structural Biology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic on 20th November 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Emerging viruses as a cause of bee decline in Europe' to Department of Structural Biology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic on 20th November 2015; outcome is potential collaboration on viral analysis and control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk on 'Emerging viruses as a cause of bee decline in Europe' to Departments of Virology and Emerging Parasitic Infections, Veterinary University of Hannover, Germany on 25th November 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Emerging viruses as a cause of bee decline in Europe' to Departments of Virology and Emerging Parasitic Infections, Veterinary University of Hannover, Germany on 25th November 2015; outcome was potential collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk on 'In and out of fashion of an enigmatic honey bee parasite, Nosema ceranae' to the Department of Ecology, SLU-Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden on 18th September 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'In and out of fashion of an enigmatic honey bee parasite, Nosema ceranae' to the Department of Ecology, SLU-Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden on 18th September 2015; outcome, potential collaboration with two independent academics on new projects (H2020 and BiodiversA)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk on 'What is killing honey bees: testing the role of pathogens, pesticides and pollen' to iDiv (German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research), Leipzig, Germany on 3rd December 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paxton: talk on 'What is killing honey bees: testing the role of pathogens, pesticides and pollen' to iDiv (German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research), Leipzig, Germany on 3rd December 2015; outcome: interest among audience was raised for pollinators.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk to 3M Retired professors and university personnel, Lund University, Sweden (22 February 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk to Bedfordshire Beekeepers Association (Mar 2011) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk to Herts Natural History Society (Nov 2011) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience.

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk to Middlesex Beekeepers Association (Feb 2011) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk interested audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk to Newbury Beekeepers Association (Feb 2011) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk to Politician week at Almedalen, Gotland, Sweden, organized by the Swedish Beekeeper's national organization and LRF (July 2011). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk stimulated discussion

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk to Rotary Club, Höör, Sweden (29 November 2011) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk to Society of Biology (July 2011) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk generated interest

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk to the 11th Hymenopterist's Conference, Stuttgart Natural History Museum, Germany, 5th October 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk: 'Does pathogen spillover from managed bees represent a threat to wild bees' was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk to the BBKA Spring Meeting, Harper Adams University, 4/4/2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk: "DWV and Nosema ceranae in bumblebees and honeybees" was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk to the European Section Conference of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects (IUSSI) at Tuscany, Italy: (August 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk to the Institute for Biology of the Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (7 November 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk: 'Whither wild bees' was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talks and posters to beekeepers annual meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Helpful contacts made
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Two lectures on bee health to the annual conference of the Ulster Bee-Keepers' Association on 24-25 Feb 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk generated interest

Networking improved
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Two talk to the Scandinavian professional beekeeper's conference, Skara, Sweden (11 February 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Much interest in audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Vasquez talk to the EurBee5, the 5th European Bee Research Conference, at Halle (Saale), Germany (September 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description invited plenary lecture to the Central Association of Bee-keepers' Autumn conference (October 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description invited talk to Bromley Beekepers,18 Feb 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk was entertaining

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description invited talk to Hertfordshire Beekeepers, April 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description invited talk to Metropolitan Police, 12 Dec 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk engaged the audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description invited talk to Rothamsted Research Day (August 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk engaged audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description invited talk to the Association of Applied Biologists meeting on 'Bees in Agriculture', Brussels, Belgium (1 April 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk: 'The impact of diseases on pollinator populations' was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description invited talk to the British Isles Bee Breeders Association 50th Centenary meeting, Llangollen on 26th September 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Hybridization, including tolerance to bee diseases' was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description participation in the UK-USA research seminar in York (17-18 October 2012). 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Excellent development of ideas

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description plenary lecture to Somerset Beekeepers Lecture Day (March 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description poster at the BBKA Spring Convention (April 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public liked poster

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description poster for 90 years of bee research at Rothamsted (May 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Poster well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description presentations (talks and posters) at the IPI stakeholder meeting, 21 October 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk and posters were well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk 'Emergent pathogens in wild and managed bees in the UK' to the North London Beekeepers Association (6 November 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk 'Emergent pathogens in wild and managed bees in the UK' well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk at the 17th world conference of the IUSSI in Cairns, Australia (14th July 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk;Disease associations between bumblebees and honeybees: a threat to pollinators; was very well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk on 'A journey through space and time (in search of bees)' to the Federation of Irish Bee-Keepers Associations 69th Annual Summer Course, Gormanston, Co. Meath, Ireland on 30th July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Much discussion followed the talk

Discussion continued info malling into the night
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk on 'Bee die-offs - correlations and causes' to the 104th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of Thuringia, Erfurt, Germany, 15th November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk was well received and sparked discussion.

More information was requested by email after the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk on 'Breeding a better bee - a Sisyphean tale' to the Federation of Irish Bee-Keepers Associations 69th Annual Summer Course, Gormanston, Co. Meath, Ireland on 31st July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk was very well received

After my talk, I have received numerous Emailed requests for additional information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk on 'Do lactic acid bacteria of the adult honey bee foregut contribute to host defence against pathogens?' to the 4th Conference of the Central European Section of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects (IUSSI), Lichtenfels, Germany o 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Good discussion following talk

Continued debate on the role of LAB in insect health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk on 'Does viral recombination lead to more virulent pathogens of the honey bees' to Departments of Biology & Bioinformatics, University of Münster, Germany on 25th March 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk resulted in excellent discussion and suggestions for future research

The Head of Bioinformatics at the host university, Prof. Erich Bornbauer-Baer, have set up a small collaborating project following my talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk on 'Doom and gloom of Nosema - or is it all hype?' to the Federation of Irish Bee-Keepers Associations 69th Annual Summer Course, Gormanston, Co. Meath, Ireland on 29th July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Many questions followed my talk; audience were lively and interested

I received e-mail requests for additional information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk on 'Emerging diseases - native and exotic - as a major cause of honey bee decline' to the Leipzig and Taucha Beekeepers' Associations, Leipzig, Germany, 12th November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked considerable discussion.

Requests were made for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk on 'More than a common cold: pestilent viruses of the honey bee' to the Federation of Irish Bee-Keepers Associations 69th Annual Summer Course, Gormanston, Co. Meath, Ireland on 27th July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lots of questions received after the talk

Practitioners incorporated new information from my talk into their subsequent presentations, with due acknowledgement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk on 'On-going research on pathogens of pollinators' to the ESF COST Action 'Super-B' training school at the University of Halle, Germany, on 2nd March 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Talk lead to much discussion.

Plans for future collaborative research were laid.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk on 'Pathogen spill-over among communities of bee species' to 62nd German Annual Bee Research Conference, Münster, Germany, on 26th March 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Good discussion following talk

Talk well received
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk to All-Party Parliamentary Group on Agroecology, Palace of Westminster, UK, 19/3/2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk "Impact of a pyrethroid pesticide on worker body size in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris" was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk to Bees Tea Party, Friends of the Earth, House of Lords, Westminster, 28/10/2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk "A scientific prime on bee declines and how to reverse them" inspired participants

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description talk to British Society for Parasitology Autumn Symposium, University of Salford Media City, 18/9/2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talk "Pollinator plagues - emergent multi-host pathogens in bees" was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk to National Pollinator Strategy Briefing Meeting, WI & Friends of the Earth, Houses of Parliament, Westminster, 8/4/2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk: "The national pollinator strategy: an introduction and a brief appraisal" was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk to University of Würzburg, Department of Zoology, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Talk engendered considerable discussion.

Discussion of potential future collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description talk to beekeepers' meeting in Helsingborg, Sweden (27 November 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk interested audience

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description talk to the Apimondia conference: 2nd ApiEcoFlora Biodiversity, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, 6th November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Emerging diseases - native and exotic - as a major cause of honey bee decline' was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk to the EurBee5, the 5th European Bee Research Conference, at Halle (Saale), Germany (September 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description talk to the EurBee5, the 5th European Bee Research Conference, at Halle (Saale), Germany: (September 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk: How disease-ridden are our pollinators? Emerging honey bee (Apis) pathogens in bumble bees (Bombus), was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description talk to the EurBee6, the 6th European Bee Research Conference, at Murcia, Spain (September 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk to the International Society for Behavioral Ecology conference at Lund University, Sweden (August 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description talk to the NESCent Workshop: BeeBiome: Omic approaches for understanding bee-microbe relationships, Duke University, North Carolina, USA, 22nd October 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk entitled 'Pathogen in wild bee populations' was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description talk toNational Bee Unit, FERA, York, 13/2/14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talk "Emergent honey bee diseases in wild pollinators" was well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description two invited lectures on bee health to the Scottish Bee-Keepers' Centenary conference, Sterling (14-16 September 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talks were well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description two invited talks to the Ulster Beekeepers' Association Annual Conference, Greenmount Agricultural College, Co. Antrim (8 March 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talks: 'Nosema - really a killer' and 'The evolving field of viruses in honey bees' were well received

Networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014