Mechanical adaptation of cortical and trabecular bone morphology in the mammalian mandible

Lead Research Organisation: University of Hull
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

The morphology of jaws and teeth can tell us much about how an animal breaks down its food. Herbivorous animals such as cows and sheep have, for example, relatively flat-topped teeth and jaw joints that allow horizontal movements of the lower jaw so that they can grind their food. Meat-eating animals such as cats, on the other hand, have blade-like teeth and jaw joints that allow only vertical movements of the lower jaw. These different ways of breaking down food cause very different forces acting on the teeth and jaw bones, which raise several fundamental questions: How are chewing forces transferred from the teeth through the jaws? What role does tooth shape play in the distribution of these forces? How does the bone in the jaws adapt to these different forces? However, answering these questions is not an easy task, since important information is currently missing. Firstly, little is known about the variation of the internal morphology (geometry) of the jaws between mammalian species, since a comprehensive study of this morphology depends on the availability of high-resolution computed tomography scans and these have become available only recently. Secondly, the strains in the bone resulting from different chewing forces are not well known, and can only be measured on the bone surface. We will address these questions by studying the internal morphology of the lower jaw in mammal species with very different and well-known feeding adaptations. We will apply a combination of state-of-the-art image processing based on high-resolution data, functional computer modelling and mechanical experiments. We will focus on a part of the lower jaw that is known to experience high stresses and strains during chewing, the bone beneath the cheek teeth. The overarching aim is to understand the link between internal bone morphology, tooth morphology and chewing forces. Our group and close collaborators have a very strong research record in the modelling of masticatory function and the study of mechanical adaptations in the skull. We have already provided new insights into the form and function of the skull in mammals (primates including humans) and reptiles (lizards), and in the process developed new methodological approaches for this type of work. Plus we have already examined the mechanical significance of the different shapes of modern human and Neanderthal mandibles. The proposed project will continue and combine these successful lines of research to elucidate the relationships between masticatory loads and the internal and external architecture of the mandible in mammal species with very different dietary habits. With this vital underpinning knowledge, we then plan to extend this work in subsequent proposals to consider clinical and dental applications, especially ageing of the masticatory apparatus, tooth loss and replacement by the latest generation of dental implants which attach directly to the bone. There will be many beneficiaries of our work, including researchers from diverse disciplines (such as, comparative anatomy, functional morphology, palaeontology, dentistry), the UK science base in general (through training of young scientists in an interdisciplinary framework, attraction of overseas students and collaborators), the wider public (public engagement, media interest) and clinicians (dentists and orthodontists).

Technical Summary

A significant part of mammalian diversity has arisen through variation in dietary habit and masticatory function. The large differences in mammalian skull and tooth morphology reflect these different feeding adaptations, but the fundamental relationships between bite force and bone and tooth morphology remain largely unexplained. For example: how are chewing forces transferred from the teeth through the jaws? What role does tooth morphology play in the distribution of these forces? How does the bone in the jaws adapt to different forces? We will address these questions by examining the morphology of the mandibular molar region in mammal species with very different and well-known feeding adaptations. The overarching aim is to understand the link between cortical and trabecular bone morphology, tooth morphology and masticatory forces. This will be achieved by in vitro experiments and the use of state-of-the-art image processing and functional computer modelling. Our team has a strong research record in the application of these techniques to the study of functional adaptations in the skull. Recently, we have combined advanced 3D image processing and finite element analysis in novel ways which allow us to modify model geometry and study the mechanical significance of individual morphological variables systematically. In addition, we will use models with modified geometries together with novel adaptive remodelling algorithms to simulate the adaptation of the bone to different loading conditions. This approach allows the study of form-function relationships even in complex structures such as cancellous bone tissue. Our existing BBSRC funded projects focus on large scale morphological adaptations of the skull to masticatory function. This new project builds on their success, and focuses on a smaller anatomical area that is known to experience high strains during masticatory function so that mechanical adaptations of the bone can be studied in detail.

Planned Impact

Who are the beneficiaries of this research and how will they benefit? UK LIFE SCIENCES: The BBSRC stresses the need for interdisciplinary approaches to the 'big' questions in biology. As an interdisciplinary team we promote this between colleagues and collaborators, and in the training environment provided for young scientists. ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: Our work is of interest to many disciplines including functional and evolutionary anatomy, palaeontology and developmental biology, here and overseas. It offers new insights into skull structure, function, and evolution. We have introduced novel methodologies (combined MDA/FEA; FEA and adaptive remodelling software; iterative modelling) that have significantly advanced the field and the new project will further refine some of these approaches. THE WIDER COMMUNITY: Animal structure and function interests the public and media and, as such, is a good mechanism for Public Engagement with Science and for fostering interest in science amongst young people. Ultimately this benefits the UK in the development of scientific literacy. CLINICAL RESEARCH: Our results to date have implications for craniofacial medicine and dentistry, and our modelling approaches have wider application (e.g. bone remodelling simulations for examining growth changes and ageing). Fagan is a Royal Society Industry Fellow, working with Smith and Nephew's Research Centre on the modelling of bone, and has many other clinical and industry partnerships. PUBLIC HEALTHCARE: Due to the current demographic changes in industrialised countries age-related tooth and bone loss is becoming an increasing problem for healthcare providers. In addition, the resorption of tooth roots and alveolar bone creates obstacles for orthodontic treatments and the resorption around dental implants is a major problem in dentistry. Our research will provide new insights in the role of mechanical factors on the internal structure of the mandible and thus lead to a better understanding of how healthy internal bone structure can be maintained, to support and secure teeth and dental implants. What will be done to ensure that they have the opportunity to benefit from this research? DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS - ACADEMIC: we publish in high impact journals (PNAS, Proc. Roy. Soc. [see publications and track record]) and speak at international conferences/ seminars/ workshops in the UK and overseas. We also maintain web pages and are planning to extend these to include a database of computer models and other useful data [see Impact Plan]. DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS - WIDER PARTICIPATION: we will continue to engage in public-academic dialogue with schools, open days, festivals, museum talks, and by working with the media offices of our relevant institutions and funding bodies (e.g. BBSRC Business October 2008, pg 24). The University of Hull has public engagement programmes in place. We have research group web pages, but are requesting funds to develop a comprehensive interactive site for the use of colleagues (see above) and the wider public.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The overarching aim of this project was to study the relationships between masticatory loads and the internal architecture of the mandibular molar region in mammal species with different and well-known masticatory adaptations. We are still analysing the results of the research, but broadly we have:

(1) quantified the variation in cortical and trabecular morphology between mammalian species with diverse feeding adaptations; including the variation of cortical thickness within the bone, density and spatial variations in density of the trabecular network and orientation of the trabeculae in different areas of the mandible.

(2) studied how different masticatory forces are transferred through the bone, in particular examining the role of the periodontal ligament in load transfer between the tooth and alveolar bone.

(3) examined the mechanical role of cortical and trabecular morphology in accommodating masticatory loads.

(4) compared the effect of differences in tooth morphology on the transfer of occlusal forces through the bone.
Exploitation Route Analysis and publication of the results is still on-going.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare

 
Description The role of soft tissues in cranial biomechanics - an investigation using advanced computer modelling techniques.
Amount £764,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M008525/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2018
 
Description Three dimensional analysis of maxillofacial growth in patients with cleft lip and palate
Amount £96,401 (GBP)
Funding ID 205923/Z/17/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2019
 
Description Understanding the functional evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw joint across the cynodont-mammaliaform transition
Amount £53,398 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/K013831/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Hull York Medical School
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation National History Museum, Paris, France
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Ruhr University Bochum
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Chicago
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007