Adhesion on rough surfaces and mechanisms of self-cleaning in insect attachment pads

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Zoology

Abstract

Adhesive tapes are made of very soft and tacky materials, allowing them to make contact to moderately rough surfaces. As a result, they are highly susceptible to contamination and can only be used once or twice. By contrast, biological adhesives, as found on the foot pads of insects, allow strong adhesion to rough and contaminated substrates; they can rapidly attach and detach millions of times with no loss of adhesive power. Animal adhesive pads are important models for new 'biomimetic' adhesives, but important aspects of their function are still not fully understood. In this project, we investigate the mechanisms of how insect adhesive pads can cope with surface roughness and contamination. We will use transparent microstructured substrates as a tool to investigate the performance of smooth and hairy adhesive pads of insects. These microstructures consist of micron- and nanometre-sized pillars and ridges and will be fabricated by optical lithography and nanoimprinting. Unlike randomly rough surfaces, these substrates have a well-defined geometry and will allow us to visualize the contact zones of insect pads adhering to them. We will vary the width, height and spacing of the surface structures to explore the detailed parameters of rough surfaces that can be compensated by smooth and hairy adhesive pads of insects. At the same time we will measure what effect roughness has on adhesion and friction forces and we will identify surface conditions that limit insect adhesion. We will study how the pad contact on rough surfaces depends on normal load and shear forces and how it is influenced by time-dependent viscoelastic pad properties. We will also use microstructured substrates to compare two types of foot pads in cockroaches that appear specialized for adhesion and friction (pushing), to test whether they differ in conformability and adhesive strength. We will investigate how natural adhesive pads are able to self-clean by measuring forces after contaminating the pads with standardised particles. We will test three possible mechanisms for self-cleaning, the shedding of particles by alternating pushing and pulling movements, the interlocking of particles when sliding on rough surfaces, and the removal of particles via the secretion of adhesive fluid. Our study of insect adhesion on rough and contaminated surfaces will be important not only for the development of biomimetic adhesives but also for the development of slippery coatings for insect pest control.

Technical Summary

Biological adhesives, as the foot pads of insects, are important models for novel synthetic adhesives, but important aspects of their function are still not understood. They allow strong adhesion to rough and contaminated substrates, where other adhesives fail, and can repeatedly attach and detach without losing adhesive power. In this project, we investigate the mechanisms of how insect adhesive pads can cope with surface roughness and contamination. We will use transparent micro- and nanostructured substrates to study the performance of smooth and hairy adhesive pads of insects. These substrates consist of pillars and ridges fabricated from polymers or inorganic ceramic materials by optical lithography and nanoimprinting. They have a well-defined geometry and will allow us to visualize the contact zones of insect pads adhering to them. By varying width, height and spacing of the structures we will explore the detailed roughness parameters that can be compensated by insects. At the same time we will quantify the effect of roughness on adhesion and friction, thereby identifying conditions that limit insect adhesion. We will study how pad contact on rough surfaces depends on normal and shear forces as well as time-dependent viscoelastic properties. Microstructured substrates will be used to compare proximal vs. distal foot pads, specialised for adhesion and friction, to test whether they differ in conformability and adhesive strength. We will investigate how insect adhesive pads are able to self-clean by measuring forces after contaminating pads with standardised particles. We will test three possible mechanisms for self-cleaning, the shedding of particles by alternating pushing/pulling movements, the interlocking of particles when sliding on rough surfaces, and the removal of particles via adhesive fluid. Our study will be important for the development of biomimetic adhesives and the production of slippery coatings for insect pest control.

Planned Impact

Biomimetic adhesives, mimicking animal adhesive organs, are currently being developed by many research groups worldwide. They may be used for a wide range of applications in production processes, climbing robots and medical applications, and therefore have a high potential economic impact. Efforts towards the development of biomimetic adhesives are limited by the fact that the biological models are still not sufficiently understood. Research on the function of natural adhesive structures is therefore essential. We anticipate that our findings will be important for the manufacture of synthetic, biomimetic adhesives. Given the importance of adhesives in technology, the economic impact of such novel adhesives will be substantial. A second area in which our research on the insect adhesion on rough surfaces will have impact is the development of insect-repellent coatings for pest control. Crawling insects cause a considerable economic loss. A detailed understanding of how surface roughness limits insect adhesion will be essential for the development of such coatings. Durable, non-toxic insect-repellent coatings that take advantage of surface roughness are feasible but still haven't been developed. We will disseminate our results via publications in international scientific journals, talks at conferences and by presenting them to colleagues in our fields, as well as in engineering and materials science. We will communicate our results to potential industrial partners for the development of insect-repellent coatings and biomimetic adhesives. To promote this activity, we are going to prepare information leaflets summarising the main findings of our research for industrial partners. To reach a wider audience outside academia, we will present findings to the general public and in the media. One industrial partner has already agreed to support our research on insect-repellent coatings and to supply us with materials for testing. Both PI and Co-PI have worked with Cambridge Enterprise, a wholly owned subsidiary of the University of Cambridge, which provides services to the research groups to file patents, and provide aid in the commercialisation of the registered IP. We therefore have the necessary experience and contact to quickly and effectively secure IP that will emerge from this project.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have established micro-structured substrates as a powerful tool to study adaptations of natural adhesives and quantify their performance on rough surfaces. We visualized for the first time the ability of insect pads to make contact to rough surfaces, and modeled it quantitatively. Our findings revealed a sharp transition from full to partial contact, explained by the dimensions of the rough surface topography. We showed that the pads' ability to conform to surface roughness increases with shear forces and is age-dependent, revealing novel properties of the insects' specialized adhesive cuticle.
Exploitation Route - development of insect-repellent substrates based on surface micro-roughness (already ongoing with AkzoNobel UK)
- development of bio-inspired slippery substrates (see http://www.mne.psu.edu/wong/slips.html
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2011/09/21/flesh-eating-plant-inspires-super-slippery-material-that-repels-everything/#.VtsjWeaO500
- development of bio-inspired adhesives that can cope with rough surfaces (see Rong, Z., Zhou, Y., Chen, B., Robertson, J., Federle, W., Hofmann, S., Steiner, U. & Goldberg-Oppenheimer, P. 2014 Bio-inspired hierarchical polymer fibre-carbon nanotube adhesives. Adv. Mater. 26, 1456-1461. )
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Transport,Other

 
Description Our findings have not only been used by other researchers, but have also led to the development of slippery, insect-repellent substrates in collaboration with AkzoNobel UK. The surfaces are based on a particular level of surface roughness, and they are durable and insecticide-free. Our findings have also led to the development of a new type of biomimetic adhesive that involve carbon nanotubes, and have good performance on rough substrates (Rong, Z., Zhou, Y., Chen, B., Robertson, J., Federle, W., Hofmann, S., Steiner, U. & Goldberg-Oppenheimer, P. 2014 Bio-inspired hierarchical polymer fibre-carbon nanotube adhesives. Adv. Mater. 26, 1456-1461). Our discovery of superhydrophilic pitcher plant surfaces has inspired the group of J. Aizenberg (Harvard University) to develop a highly efficient novel type of slippery and self-cleaning synthetic substrate which has a wide range of applications (Wong et al. 2011, Nature 477, 443), and has resulted in two start-ups in the US ('SLIPS' and 'LiquiGlide')
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Construction,Education,Electronics,Environment,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Biomechanics of animal adhesion in wet environments
Amount £178,502 (GBP)
Funding ID PFZA/028 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description Characterization of Biological Adhesion using Surface-Energy-Patterned Substrates
Amount £29,638 (GBP)
Funding ID RG 79135 
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Department Isaac Newton Trust
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 01/2016
 
Description Insect adhesion and properties of insect repellant surfaces
Amount £67,735 (GBP)
Organisation AkzoNobel 
Department AkzoNobel UK
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2011 
End 03/2014
 
Description Insect adhesion and properties of insect repellant surfaces
Amount £13,726 (GBP)
Organisation AkzoNobel 
Department AkzoNobel UK
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2015
 
Description Insect-repellent surfaces
Amount £1,440 (GBP)
Organisation AkzoNobel 
Department AkzoNobel UK
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2012 
End 09/2012
 
Description Insecticide effects of microparticles
Amount £17,524 (GBP)
Organisation AkzoNobel 
Department AkzoNobel UK
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 05/2015
 
Description Micro-rheology of animal adhesive secretions
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RG76577 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description The role of subsurface structure in biological adhesion: insects to lizards
Amount £191,766 (GBP)
Funding ID RGP0034/2012 
Organisation Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country France
Start 08/2012 
End 12/2015
 
Title Method for studying adhesion on rough surfaces using transparent microstructured substrates 
Description We have developed a new method for investigating the contact of natural adhesives on rough surfaces. The technique involves transparent microstructured substrates; it allows us not only to standardise and vary surface roughness parameters but also to visualize the contact of adhesive pads and measure force, contact area and shear stress. This has led to a further grant funded by BBSRC (BB/I008667/1) to clarify the interaction of insect adhesives with surface roughness. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Method has been used to study tree frogs (group of Dr WJP Barnes) 
 
Title New principle by which surfaces can be made slippery for insects 
Description We discovered a new principle by which surfaces can be made slippery for insects. The key property is the ability of surfaces to absorb water. Such substrates can selectively remove the aqueous component of the two-phasic adhesive emulsion, which results in a loss of friction forces and slipping. The advantage of this principle is that it will allow insect-repellent coatings which are more durable and environment-friendly than existing coatings. We have filed a patent application with Cambridge 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Insect-repellent coatings and surfaces, as a non-toxic alternative to insecticides 
 
Title Dryad digital repository 
Description Data for the following papers have been made available Zhou, Y., Robinson, A., Steiner, U. and Federle, W. (2014). Insect adhesion on rough surfaces: analysis of adhesive contact of smooth and hairy pads on transparent micro-structured substrates. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 11, 20140499. (http://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.k8d1f) Labonte, D., Williams, J. A. and Federle, W. (2014). Surface contact and design of fibrillar 'friction pads' in stick insects (Carausius morosus): mechanisms for large friction coefficients and negligible adhesion. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 11, 20140034. (http://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.jj0kj) Endlein, T. & Federle, W. 2015 On heels and toes: how ants climb with adhesive pads and tarsal friction hair arrays. PLoS ONE 10, e0141269. (http://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.vg446) Hackmann, A., Delacave, H., Robinson, A., Labonte, D. & Federle, W. 2015 Functional morphology and efficiency of the antenna cleaner in Camponotus rufifemur ants. R. Soc. open sci. 2, 150129. (http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.88q18) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Raw data publicly available 
 
Description Berengere Abou, Microrheology of adhesive secretions 
Organisation Paris Diderot University
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in insect biomechanics. Organizing research meeting with Dr Berengere Abou in 2014. Writing of research proposal for International Exchange, submitted to Royal Society.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in active and passive micro-rheology
Impact Awarded Royal Society grant over 5000 GBP for travel between labs
Start Year 2014
 
Description Beverley Glover (University of Cambridge) 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Department of Plant Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration on plant surface properties, joint supervision of a PhD student
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration on plant surface properties, joint supervision of a PhD student
Impact joint supervision of a PhD student
Start Year 2013
 
Description Duncan Irschick, Al Crosby (UMass Amherst, USA) 
Organisation University of Massachusetts
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration for theoretical and experimental work on animal adhesion.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Eduard Arzt (INM Saarbrücken) 
Organisation Leibniz Association
Department Leibniz-Institute for Molecular Pharmacology
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Research collaboration on bio-adhesion on rough substrates
Collaborator Contribution Research collaboration on bio-adhesion on rough substrates - fabrication technology. Joint grant application on 3D microstructured substrates and adhesion
Impact Work on joint grant application
Start Year 2013
 
Description Florian Menzel (University of Mainz) 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Department Department of Evolutionary Biology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Micro-rheology of insect cuticular hydrcarbons and adhesive secretions
Collaborator Contribution Chemical analysis of insect cuticular hydrcarbons
Impact Joint publication in preparation, planned co-supervision of MPhil student, planned joint grant application
Start Year 2016
 
Description Pierre Lambert (Univ. Bruxelles, Belgium) 
Organisation University Libre Bruxelles (Université Libre de Bruxelles ULB)
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration for theoretical and experimental work on capillary adhesion.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Robert Style (University of Oxford) 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research collaboration on mechanics of soft materials, and emulsions
Collaborator Contribution Expertise on mechanics of soft materials, cell motility on soft substrates
Impact joint grant application
Start Year 2013
 
Description Roger Sauer (RWTH Aachen Germany) 
Organisation RWTH Aachen University
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration for theoretical modelling of adhesion on rough surfaces
Start Year 2012
 
Description Sanjay Sane - NCBS Bangalore 
Organisation National Centre for Biological Science (NCBS)
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint project on take-off and landing mechanisms in flying, jumping and falling insects
Collaborator Contribution Joint supervision of a postdoctoral fellow funded by NCBS-inStem-Cambridge scheme
Impact Publications in preparation
Start Year 2015
 
Description Susan Perkin (University of Oxford) 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Chemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research seminar in Oxford, work on joint grant application
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in the Surface Force Balance method
Impact Joint grant application in preparation
Start Year 2015
 
Description Tristan Gilet (Liège, Belgium) 
Organisation University of Liege
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration for theoretical and experimental work on adhesion, microfabrication of substrates
Start Year 2012
 
Description 2016 JSPS UK-Japan Workshop on Bio-Inspired Soft Robotics in Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BP-ICAM & DRL Surface Science Network Workshop, 'Designer Surfaces' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Joint BP-ICAM & DRL Surface Science Network Workshop, 'Designer Surfaces' - Imperial College London - September 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cambridge Cafe Synthetique 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation about insect biomechanics + biomimetics at the Cambridge Café Synthetique, a monthly meetup for the Cambridge synthetic biology community with informal talks, discussion and pub snacks
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.synbio.cam.ac.uk/events/cafe-synthetique
 
Description Co-organization of Royal Society scientific meeting "Cell Adhesion Century: Culture Breakthrough" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interdisciplinary meeting on adhesion, including cell biologists, animal biologists and engineers

As a result of the meeting, I was invited to contribute to two publication projects, and received one seminar invitation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://royalsociety.org/events/2014/cell-adhesion/
 
Description Departmental Seminar at the Institute of ecology and environmental sciences - Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Departmental seminar Animal Ecology, University of Bayreuth (Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Departmental Seminar talk "Kletterkünstler auf Pflanzenoberflächen: Biomechanik und Ökologie von Insekten-Pflanzen-Interaktionen"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International workshop 'Insect bio-inspired microtechnology' in Tours (France) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact presentations + discussion in preparation of possible EU grant application
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.univ-tours.fr/recherche/actualite-scientifique/workshop-insect-bio-inspired-microtechnol...
 
Description Invited plenary talk at ESPCI Paris-Tech and Michelin workhop: 'Flow, Fracture, and Interfacial properties of Dispersed Materials' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Workhop included academics from biology, engineering and physics, and partners from industry. Talk triggered a lot of positive feedback.


Several discussions on the meeting have led to interesting new collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Invited plenary talk at ICTP Conference on 'Friction and Energy Dissipation in Man-made and Biological Systems', Trieste, Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Talk sparked discussions

Discussions with potential collaborators on the modelling of friction on rough surfaces
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Invited talk at nCam2012 (Cambridge NanoScience Conference 2012) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact nCam2012 (Cambridge NanoScience Conference 2012)

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited talk at the High Polymer Research Group meeting, Pott Shrigley UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The 58th High Polymer Research Group meeting 2018 took place from 29 April to 3 May 2018 at Pott Shrigley UK.
The Group is a charity whose objective is to ensure that leading edge developments in polymer science and engineering are made available and fully discussed by industrial and academic researchers engaged in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://highpolymer.org.uk/past_programmes/2018.php
 
Description Joint MRC-BBSRC-HFSPO Scientific Conference, Royal Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Research talk, and interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Keynote talk at 2017 Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, St. Petersburg, FL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote talk 'Running with sticky feet: biomechanics of insect adhesion'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Organisation of Symposium 'Mechanisms of Arthropod Locomotion' at Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Prague 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Symposium on 'Mechanisms of Arthropod Locomotion' with an international group of scientists at the Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Prague 2015

Publication of results planned
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Organised Joint ENBA - BioSmartTrainee Networking Event, Jesus College Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I organized a network meeting between the BioSmart Trainee international training network, and the European Network for Bioadhesion COST Action, to be held in Jesus College, Cambridge, UK from 18 to 20 March 2019. There will be 60 participants from 14 countries. We secured industrial support for the event from BASF (Germany), AkzoNobel (UK) and URGO (France).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://biosmarttrainee.eu/
 
Description Outreach course for Cambridge University at Madingley Hall 'Inspired by nature: wildlife in the arts' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact promoted understanding of biomimetics

positive feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Plenary speaker at the Annual Retreat of the Graduate Program of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB914) at Reisensburg Castle, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Stimulated collaboration with colleagues studying cell adhesion

High level of interest of participating students and professors
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at Student Taster Day, Jesus College Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation for school children and potential university applicants on "Learning from Nature and biomimetics"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at Training School of the BioSmartTrainee EU Network at IPF Dresden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop presentation 'Biomechanics of animal adhesion in wet environments'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://biosmarttrainee.eu/
 
Description Press release: Close-up film shows for the first time how ants use 'combs' and 'brushes' to keep their antennae clean 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release about our paper was followed by multiple radio and TV interviews, as well as internet and newspaper coverage
e.g.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/33988164
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/27/science/how-ants-keep-clean-and-safe.html
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3177636/Ants-like-look-best-Insects-use-combs-brushes-groom-antenna.html
https://worldindustrialreporter.com/ants-cleaning-methods-to-inspire-advancements-in-nanotechnology/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/close-up-film-shows-for-the-first-time-how-ants-use-combs-and-bru...
 
Description Press release: How stick insects honed friction to grip without sticking 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release about our paper was followed by multiple radio and TV interviews, as well as internet and newspaper coverage
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/how-stick-insects-honed-friction-to-grip-without-sticking
 
Description Press release: How the stick insect sticks (and unsticks) itself 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release about our paper was followed by multiple radio and TV interviews, as well as internet and newspaper coverage
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/how-the-stick-insect-sticks-and-unsticks-itself
 
Description Press release: Why Spider-Man can't exist: Geckos are 'size limit' for sticking to walls 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release about our paper was followed by multiple radio and TV interviews, as well as internet and newspaper coverage
e.g.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-cambridgeshire-35351033
http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/interviews/interview/1001652/
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160118184359.htm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/why-spider-man-cant-exist-geckos-are-size-limit-for-sticking-to-w...
 
Description Symposium 'Design of Feet in relation to Locomotion', World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston (USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Symposium 'Design of Feet in relation to Locomotion', World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston (USA)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The CamFM Science Show SpiderMan CAN EXIST; Biological adhesives with Drs Labonte and Federle 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Radio interview relating to PNAS paper about the scaling of adhesive organs in animals
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://soundcloud.com/user-639947375/biological-adhesives