Beyond the consensus: defining the significance of foot-and-mouth disease viral sequence diversity

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

Foot-and mouth disease is caused by a small virus (FMDV) which has an RNA genome. In common with most other RNA viruses, the replication machinery of FMDV makes errors when it copies the genome during replication. As a consequence, the virus evolves very rapidly and can quickly adapt to different environmental pressures. During the 2001 and 2007 outbreaks in the UK, we exploited these properties to finger-print FMDVs recovered from field samples to show how viruses collected on different farms were related to each other. These data provide valuable information to assist in epidemiological tracing and were used in real-time in 2007 to support Defra's control and eradication policy. It is likely that this type of analysis will be widely used to support any future incursions of FMD in the UK (or elsewhere in Europe). However, our current interpretation of these data is limited by our understanding of the fine-scale processes that underpin the genetic changes that are observed during transmission of the virus at the herd-to-herd (or animal-to-animal) level. The aim of this project is to use a 'next-generation' sequencing technology to reveal, for the first time, the complex mixture of viruses that are present within samples and are the starting material for fine-scale evolution of FMDV. We have conducted preliminary experiments to optimise and evaluate this method using a samples collected from a single cow that had been experimentally inoculated with FMDV. These data demonstrate that we are able to measure the frequency of even very rare genetic variants that exist in feet lesions from an infected animal. Many of these variants represent genetic intermediates that were previously undetected using conventional methods. We therefore, conclude that this new sequencing methodology is well-suited to revealing the fine substructure of complex viral populations and will be a valuable tool to quantify the high-resolution evolutionary dynamics of FMDV. During this project, we aim to extend this approach to generate data from a wider range of samples that have already been collected (and archived) from previous field outbreaks of FMD, and from controlled experimental transmission studies and develop models that quantify the effects of transmission on genetic diversity. In addition to improving our understanding of the way that FMDV evolves, we anticipate that the findings from this project will have broad application to the transmission biology of other acutely acting viral infections including viruses of human and veterinary importance such as classical swine fever, swine vesicular disease virus, rabies virus, influenza and corona-like (SARS) viruses.

Technical Summary

RNA viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) evolve rapidly due to their high replication rate and poor proof-reading ability of their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These viruses are thought to exist as heterogeneous and complex populations comprising similar but non-identical genomes, but the evolutionary importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Consensus sequencing identifies the predominant or major viral species present in a sample, but is uninformative about minority variants that may exist. Ignoring the polymorphic structure of viral populations reduces the reliability of approaches to use genome sequences to reconstruct the pattern of transmission between individuals. Cloning processes able to identify different sequence variants within a viral population are laborious and provide only a limited resolution of the mutant spectrum within a sample. This project aims to use 'next generation' sequencing technology to characterise how viral diversity within a host accumulates over the course of an acute infection of FMDV, and how much of this diversity is transmitted onward to susceptible individuals. Results from these transmission experiments will be compared to similar data generated over the course of outbreaks of FMD in the field. These new insights will inform and improve our tools that are used to trace FMDV during field outbreaks of disease by providing an improved understanding of the use of consensus sequences to reconstruct transmission trees, the development of new techniques for reconstructing transmission relationships from 'next generation' sequencing data, and new insights into how viral genetic differences accumulate with the number of transmission events. Our findings will likely have broad application to other important veterinary and human pathogens with similar replication strategies.

Planned Impact

FMD is highly contagious and disease outbreaks are difficult to control. The exact mode of transmission between farms remains poorly understood and during the UK outbreak in 2001 the viral origin for many infected premises was attributed simply to 'local spread'. Here we address the important problem of how to use viral sequence data to infer the movement of virus between farms. As part of previously funded projects (BBSRC DTA and Defra) we have developed novel molecular tools that can be used to trace and map FMD virus spread between farms. These methods utilise full-genome sequences generated using 'conventional' Sanger methods and were used in real-time to link cases of FMD that occurred during 2007 in Surrey and Berkshire. These were widely used to demonstrate that the outbreaks were caused by a derivative of a FMDV reference strain (see independent reviews by Sir Iain Anderson, Professor Brian Spratt and the HSE). Analyses of these data revealed the most likely chain of transmission events, and predicted undisclosed infected premises prior to their discovery by serological surveillance. In addition to FMDV, prototypic techniques of this sort show real and immediate promise for use in managing outbreaks of many other viral pathogens with plastic RNA genomes (including important veterinary and human pathogens). However in order to maximize the robustness and confidence that can be placed in these inferences it is necessary to develop a more refined understanding of how the genetic signal in the data is generated, and transmitted between individuals - specifically in the case of FMD - between individuals within the same herd, and individuals in different herds. At the end of this project we will have: 1) Generated novel insights into fine-scale processes that drive the evolution of FMDV 2) Developed generic laboratory and analytical tools that can be used by others to study the evolution of RNA viruses 3) Developed new and improved viral tracing tools that can be used in real-time to support the FMD control and eradication programmes Methods and results generated through this project will increase our confidence in the use of this type of sequence data to support epidemiological investigations realising the potential of full-genome sequencing for analysis of future epidemics of FMD. While not a specific aim of this project, a closer understanding of how genetic diversity accumulates as virus is transmitted between individuals on different farms will lead to an increased real-time ability to infer when two farms are not linked by a direct transmission event, thus indicating the potential presence of other infectious farms that might be unknown to outbreak control operation.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Genetic variation is increasingly used to trace the movement of viruses and the origins of disease outbreaks. The reduced costs of sequencing have resulted in an increase in both the number of samples submitted for genetic characterisation, and the proportion of the genome that is sequenced, enabling a corresponding increase in the spatial and temporal resolution at which virus evolution can be described. Using samples collected from controlled transmission experiments, we have employed 'next generation' sequencing technologies to characterise how viral diversity within a host accumulates over the course of an acute infection of FMDV, and how much of this diversity is transmitted onward to susceptible individuals. With these insights, we can use viral genetic data to reconstruct detailed transmission pathways for the virus that can be applied to outbreaks in the field. In addition to improving our understanding of the way that FMDV evolves, these findings have broad application to the transmission biology of other acutely acting viral infections including viruses of human and veterinary importance such as classical swine fever, swine vesicular disease virus, rabies virus, influenza and corona-like (SARS) viruses.
Exploitation Route FMD is an economically important disease, and as a consequence there is a requirement to develop tools to both monitor the evolutionary dynamics of the causative agent (FMDV), and the spread of the disease in the field. FMDV presents unique opportunities to integrate our understanding of evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics since virus samples are so often collected at the same time as detailed epidemiological data are acquired. This integration is currently the focus of a great deal of research attention and the data and findings of our proposed research will be of considerable general interest to the wider epidemiological community since FMDV is an appropriate 'model virus' representative of other viruses of contemporary interest.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description This project investigates the fine-scale evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Our findings improve knowledge about the way in which this important livestock virus is transmitted between infected farms, and has provided tools that can be potentially used in the event of a foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the UK or Europe. This project has: 1) generated novel insights into fine-scale processes that drive the evolution of FMDV 2) Developed generic laboratory and analytical tools that can be used by others to study the evolution of RNA viruses 3) Contributed to the development of new and improved viral tracing tools that can be used in real-time to support the FMD control and eradication programmes This work has influenced national contingency plans and preparations for future FMD outbreaks in the UK (highlighted as a key response capability in 2018 as part of "Exercise Blackthorn" organised by Defra)
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment
Impact Types Economic

 
Title Universal method to sequence RNA virus genomes 
Description Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing molecular epidemiology by providing new approaches to undertake whole genome sequencing (WGS) in diagnostic settings for a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Previous sequencing protocols have been subject to biases such as those encountered during PCR amplification and cell culture, or are restricted by the need for large quantities of starting material. We have developed a simple and robust methodology for the generation of whole genome sequences on the Illumina MiSeq. This protocol is specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) or other polyadenylated RNA viruses and circumvents both the use of PCR and the requirement for large amounts of initial template. The protocol was successfully validated using FMDV positive clinical samples, as well as samples that had been identified as cell culture negative. Genome sequences from three other non-FMDV polyadenylated RNA viruses (EMCV, ERAV, VESV) were also obtained with minor protocol amendments. This method works successfully from a limited quantity of starting material and eliminates the requirement for genome-specific PCR amplification. This protocol has the potential to generate consensus-level sequences within a routine high-throughput diagnostic environment. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This protocol is now being routinely applied to samples received into FMD Reference Laboratories. 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4247156/pdf/12864_2014_Article_6688.pdf
 
Description Collaboration with the Southern Africa Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) 
Organisation Sokoine University of Agriculture
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution TPI staff have mentored research scientists at SUA, participated in visits to Tanzania and hosted visiting African scientists in the UK.
Collaborator Contribution These activities are designed to develop enhanced research capacity at SUA (Tanzania) and the other affiliated research organisations in Southern Africa. As an example, during August 2016, two TPI researchers travelled to SAU to provide training and technical expertise in methods that can be applied to sequence viral genomes.
Impact This collaboration has generated a number of joint publications/presentations and has led to the preparation of joint proposals to understand the circulation of transboundary diseases in endemic settings.
Start Year 2010
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Botswana Vaccine Institute
Country Botswana 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Department of Livestock Development
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation FGBI Federal Centre for Animal Health
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute
Country China 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Lombardy and Emilia Romagna Experimental Zootechnic Institute (IZSLER)
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation National Agri-Food Quality and Health Service (SENASA)
Country Argentina 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation National Centre for Foreign Animal Diseases (NCFAD)
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (Panaftosa)
Country Brazil 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description CEEZAD BSL-3 Training/Transboundary Animal Disease Summer Program - Manhattan, Kansas, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact CEEZAD BSL-3 Training/Transboundary Animal Disease Summer Program Provides a Unique Opportunity for Future Veterinary Professionals

Ten future veterinary professionals with an interest in transboundary disease research took part in a two-week training program conducted by the Center of Excellence for Emerging Zoonotic and Animal Diseases (CEEZAD) at Kansas State University in coordination with the Kansas State University Biosecurity Research Institute (BRI).

The program involved one week of exposure to operations, safety techniques and lab principles of high-containment BSL-3 work at the Biosecurity Research Institute at Kansas State University followed by a second week of visits to institutions involved in the animal health industry and lectures. Students, representing 10 universities from around the USA, heard from prominent professionals in the area of zoonotic and transboundary disease research. The participants include students in veterinary medicine, doctoral students and post-DVM residents
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ceezad.org/news_events/
 
Description Invited Keynote Presentation - EPIZONE meeting, Copenhagen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A keynote talk was presented to outline the use of new sequencing technologies to understand the epidemiology of FMDV

Title of talk:
Keynote: King D. P., Logan G., Valdazo-González B., Freimanis G. L., Wright C. F., King D. J., Knowles N. J., Wadsworth J., Bachanek-Bankowska K., Di Nardo A., Orton R., Haydon D. T. The consensus and beyond: developing new tools to reconstruct transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 8th Annual Meeting of the EPIZONE project, Copenhagen, September 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.epizone-eu.net/en/Home/show/8th-Annual-Meeting-Denmark-2014.htm
 
Description Invited Seminar - Transboundary Seminar Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contributed a talk to the transboundary seminar series hosted by the Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases (CEEZAD) at Kansas State University, USA. The title of the talk was "Who infected who? - the use of sequence data to reconstruct transmission pathways in FMD outbreaks" - and described insights from our work on the evolutionary biology of FMD.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Talk - 17th International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Saskatoon, Canada, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Talk: King D. P., Valdazo-González B., Freimanis G., King D. J., Wright C. F., Di Nardo A., Wadsworth J., Soubeyrand S., Knowles N. J., Kim J. and Haydon D. T. The challenges of linking genetic and epidemiological datasets to reconstruct transmission trees for livestock viral diseases. OIE Symposium at the 17th International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Saskatoon, Canada, June 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Keynote presentation - 3rd Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories. Incheon (Seoul), Republic of Korea, October 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented an Invited-Keynote talk at the 3rd Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories. Incheon (Seoul), Republic of Korea, October 2014. This session considered the practical applications of new genomic sequencing methods to understand the epidemiology of pathogens that infect livestock.

Talk title:
King D. P. Use of next-generation sequencing to investigate foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.oie.int/eng/refcentre2014/presentations.htm
 
Description Keynote presentation - 7th International Symposium on Emerging and re-emerging Pig Diseases, Kyoto, Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented a talk outlining our research findings - entitled: "King D.P., Logan G., Freimanis G. L., Wright C. F., King D. J., Knowles N. J., Wadsworth J., Lasecka L., Bachanek-Bankowska K., Di Nardo A., Orton R. and Haydon D. T. Using sequence data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease" at the 7th International Symposium on Emerging and re-emerging Pig Diseases, Kyoto, Japan, June 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://emerging2015.com
 
Description Keynote presentation - GFRA Workshop, Hanoi, Vienam 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to present the opening keynote talk at the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam. Presented talk entitled " Global foot-and-mouth disease update: new tools to monitor outbreaks and predict threats" describing our research findings and their impact upon the global control of FMDV
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.ars.usda.gov/GFRA/2015workshop-presentations.htm
 
Description Lecture to students - Cambridge University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Provided a lecture to undergraduate vet/med students at the University of Cambridge - on FMD and tools to control the disease
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016