CAPP: Combining Plant and Algal Photosynthesis

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Plant Sciences

Abstract

In most plants, growth rate is limited by the rate at which carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is taken up and converted to sugars in the process of photosynthesis. The enzyme responsible for the first step in this process, Rubisco, does not work at its potential maximum efficiency at the current levels of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. If levels were much higher, photosynthesis would be faster and plants would grow faster. This speeding-up of photosynthesis will happen naturally over the next fifty years or so as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels rise due to human activities. However, there is an immediate requirement for increased crop productivity to provide food for the rising population of the planet. Our project addresses this problem. We are studying a mechanism present in tiny green algae that results in high concentrations of carbon dioxide inside their photosynthesising cells (called a Carbon Concentrating Mechanism, or CCM), enabling Rubisco to work at maximum efficiency. We have recently discovered important new information about this mechanism, and we have invented new and rapid methods to discover algal genes that contribute to it. We have two complementary and parallel aims. First, we will apply our new methods to identify all of the genes required by the algae to achieve high concentrations of carbon dioxide inside the cells, and we will discover exactly how these genes work. Second, we will transfer the most important genes into a plant, and study whether the same CCM can be recreated inside a leaf. If it can, we expect that our experimental plant will have higher rates of photosynthesis and hence a higher rate of growth than normal plants. This work will provide new insights into how plants and algae acquire and use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, of great importance in predicting and coping with the current rapid changes in the atmosphere and hence in climate. The work will also contribute to strategies to increase global food security, because it will indicate new ways in which crop productivity can be increased.

Technical Summary

We propose to use the carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) from green algae to enhance CO2 concentration in C3 chloroplasts, suppressing photorespiration and increasing productivity. The CAPP programme will discover and characterise components of the Chlamydomonas CCM, in addition to known bicarbonate pump(s) and carbonic anhydrases, identify pyrenoid components, supramolecular complexes and their chaperones, and progressively incorporate key components into Arabidopsis. Our approach includes: 1) Addition of a bicarbonate pump to the chloroplast envelope inner membrane (and removal of any CO2-channelling aquaporins: PIP1 sub-family) to maximize bicarbonate accumulation in the chloroplast. 2) Formation of ordered clusters of modified Rubisco and carbonic anhydrase in the chloroplast to benefit from local CO2 concentration at the active sites, and to distance the Rubisco from the site of O2 generation at PSII. 3) Discovery of genes required for the CCM in Chlamydomonas through a novel, high throughput insertional mutant screen and parallel, hypothesis-driven RNAi approaches 3) Progressive addition of newly-discovered CCM components into an Arabidopsis plant incorporating the above novel features, followed by characterisation of the metabolism and physiology of the lines thus generated 4) Mathematical modelling methods to identify constraints to carbon uptake and exchange in Chlamydomonas and Arabidopsis, and to evaluate the improvement in carbon supply likely to arise as CCM components are added to Arabidopsis. The goal is to create an Arabidopsis 'Advanced Plant', with significantly improved rates of CO2 assimilation. This is a first step towards producing a crop plant with a 'biophysical' CCM that significantly improves productivity and yield.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research? 1. Academics and researchers in all fields of plant research. 2. Annotators in genomics and metabolomics, database and germplasm curators. 3. UK, US and international science base. 4.Agro-industry including biotechnologists and plant breeders seeking to increase plant productivity and/or harvest index; metabolic engineers and metabolic modellers. 5. Agricultural community and advisors. 6. Postdoctoral researchers employed on the project. 7. Public 8. The next generation: school children and undergraduate students 9. Multinational and Government Agencies How will they benefit from this research? 1. Researchers will receive comprehensive new information about the CCM of algae, requirements for CO2 concentration in higher-plant chloroplasts, and mechanisms of assembly of supra-molecular complexes. 2. Researchers will have access at the point of publication to new genome annotation in Chlamydomonas, novel Arabidopsis material with altered primary carbon assimilation and models describing the relationship between the spatial distributions of inorganic carbon substrates and enzymes and the process of CO2 assimilation in chloroplasts. 3. The research will have a major impact on understanding of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and its relationship to inorganic carbon concentrations in the chloroplast. 4. Agro-industry will receive information to underpin rational approaches to increase plant productivity, and relevant new genes and modelling methodologies. 5. The agricultural community will benefit in the longer term from sustainable crop improvements enabled by our research. 6. The PDRAs will receive a wide training in plant integrative biology, professional skills and wider training courses, and the opportunity to interact closely with researchers on an international scale. They will also receive training in transferable skills such as presentation and dissemination of results, and grant-writing. 7. Our research findings relate to issues of public interest including sustainable crop production, global food security and atmospheric and climate change. 8. Our research has wide educational value, at all levels through schools and Universities 9. Our research is relevant to broad international challenges in sustainable agriculture, food security, and public awareness of these issues What will be done to ensure they benefit from this research? 1. Publish results in high-impact journals in a timely fashion, with open access where possible. Present research results at international meetings and institutions 2. Submit data and models to relevant international depositories. Notify new/corrected gene and enzyme annotations to community databases 3. Exploit extensive existing contacts of the PIs with other academics with relevant research interests as soon as any exploitable results/materials are generated. 4. Make informal contacts with biotechnologists as soon as exploitable results are generated; recognise and protect PI to ensure wise and fruitful exploitation. Collectively we have vibrant contacts with relevant industries. 6. Provide information and mentoring to ensure uptake of postdoctoral training schemes, including regular progress reviews and career development plans. Encourage participation in the dissemination of results, and understanding of the wider implications and applications of the research. 7. Use results as part of our regular engagement with non-academic audiences, e.g. local interest groups, schools, local and national shows, science showcases, media. 8. Involve school children and undergraduate students in a practical sense (visits, websites providing teaching resources, blogging and laboratory summer secondments for high school students and undergraduates). 9. Seek opportunities to inform the work of UN agencies and DFID (UK) in the developing world, and the CGIAR international network of germplasm repositories and strategic regional research.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description At the heart of the algal CCM is an organelle called the pyrenoid that consists of Rubisco clustered into a ball around a portion of thylakoid membranes that feed Rubisco with concentrated CO2 (Figure 4A)(refs). In the lumen of these thylakoid membranes, CO2 is produced at a high concentration from HCO3-, a reaction catalyzed by a carbonic anhydrase and powered by the low pH of the thylakoid lumen (refs). The HCO3- is thought to enter the thylakoid lumen via bicarbonate transporters from the surrounding chloroplast stroma. This HCO3- is supplied to the thylakoid membranes from outside the chloroplast via passive diffusion or active transport across the chloroplast envelope. In contrast to algae, C3 crop plants do not have clustered Rubisco and do not appear to have a CCM.
We have identified three key features need to be engineered to reconstitute a simple minimal functional pyrenoid:
1) A matrix of tightly packed Rubisco produced by a Rubisco-Rubisco linker protein;
2) Localization of the matrix around thylakoid membranes containing bicarbonate transporters
3) Conversion of bicarbonate into CO2 in the thylakoid lumen by a carbonic anhydrase.
We have developed methods and aim to allow such a minimal algal-type CCM to be reconstituted in a higher plant by expressing a small number of components.
Exploitation Route WE have applied for additional grants to develop these findings together with additional collaborators.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Energy,Environment

 
Description Our work has been used by collaborators and additional external researchers because we have: (i) provided insights into the structural and regulatory components associated with the chlamydomonas carbon concentrating mechanism and immunofluorescence markers for sub-cellular localisation (Cambridge); developed a novel insertional mutagenesis method for use in algae, as well as unique nanosensor systems to demonstrate internal inorganic carbon pools and pH (Stanford) which are available for use in other organisms; shown that algal constituents can be expressed and located in appropriate sub-cellular components of higher plant leaves (JIC/Edinburgh); our work has also trained a substantial body of young researchers who have become both technically adept and motivated towards additional research in plant sciences.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Education
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description BBSRC/NSF Photosynthesis Ideas Lab for Enhancing Photosynthesis
Amount £450,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/I02451/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 08/2017
 
Description Bharti Foundation award to University of Cambridge
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Bharti Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country India
Start 08/2017 
End 12/2020
 
Description GCRF Growing Capacity Call: TIGR2ESS
Amount £7,800,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P027970/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 12/2021
 
Title A simple method to estimate photosynthetic enhancement 
Description We have developed a model which allows a relatively rapid measure of photosynthetic efficiency under contrasting O2 tensions to be used either as a high throughput screen of genetically transformed plant lines, or for the estimation of carbon concentrating mechanism or oxygenase engagement 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It will enhance high throughput physiological screening of transformed plant lines or allow the immediate testing of the impact of transgenes when directly introduced into a leaf; it will allow an immediate assessment of any increase or decrease in photosynthetic efficiency found in the modified line. 
 
Title Models to enhance analysis of photosynthesis 
Description models of gas exchange and photosystem fluorescence were combined to allow easy access for non-specialists to analyse data from readliy available equipment but informed by the latest theoretical understanding of fundamental science 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This will increase the rigour of studies on plants subject to molecular transformation and evaluation of traits 
 
Description PSIL CAPP BBSRC/NSF 
Organisation Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This has resulted in a series of Collaborative exchanges: Dr Leif Erickson visited Cambridge in June 2012 and worked in our laboratory for one week; Ms Madeline Mitchell worked on the collaborative programme with Dr Jonikas and colleagues in Stanford in July- September 2012; Mr Oliver Caspari worked upon on the collaborative programme with Dr Jonikas and colleagues in Stanford in July- September 2013, and for the same period in 2014, and also developed a programme with Prof Arthur Grossman. We undertook measurements which complimented the ongoing mutagenesis screen which was being developed at Stanford, allowing us to identify specific mutants of interest with our specialist methods.
Collaborator Contribution The collaboration has provided us with a number of target Chlamydomonas mutants which may be of interest either because their predicted insertional site may have interrupted CCM activity, or because we have used our methods to screen these mutants and so we know they have altered cell ultrastructure consistent with interrupted CCM activity. These mutant lines are now being analysed in more detail in our laboratory.
Impact Contributed to data for PhD thesis of Madeline Mitchell and Oliver Caspari; forthcoming research publications will reflect this collaboration.
Start Year 2011
 
Title Algal components of the pyrenoid's carbon concentrating 
Description Identification of a protein which plays a major role in binding Rubisco during the formation of the algal chloroplast pyrenoid and facilitates the operation of the algal carbon concentrating mechanism 
IP Reference US62333807 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact The identification of the linker protein represents a major contribution to understanding the form and function of one of the key means by which microalgae sequester carbon, and could represent a significant component of crop productivity if transferred, with other components, into higher plants
 
Description BBSRC-DFID led meeting | UK-CGIAR crop research collaboration for impact through delivery of SDG2 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact a BBSRC-DfID jointly organised one day meeting, for Directors and senior leaders of key UK research institutions and CGIAR centres in the area of crop research.nThe purpose of the meeting is to identify innovative ways of collaboration between UK and CGIAR research centres, that will maximise the impact of UK ODA funding in crop research and will lead to improvement of agricultural productivity, food nutrition and security and will facilitate delivery against the Sustainable Development Goal 2.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Academic advisor to SAPS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Various activities include Discussions on Teaching Methods with Teachers, as well as advising on the scientific content of posters, animations and other outreach materials produced by SAPS

Various discussions with Teachers and requests to present to students in specific schools
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.saps.org.uk/
 
Description CCM9: The IXth International Symposium on Inorganic Carbon Utilization by Aquatic Photosynthetic Organisms 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Organisation of major international symposium and edited volume of outputs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/research/howardgriffiths/ccm9
 
Description Cambridge Conference on Global Food Security 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Conference was held on 23-24 June 2016 co-hosted by Cambridge Global Food Security, the Centre of Development Studies, and Cambridge's conservation networks: the Cambridge Conservation Initiative and Forum, and the University of Cambridge Conservation and Research Initiative. Over 225 people took part, gathering in the newly opened David Attenborough Building, home to the Cambridge Conservation Campus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/symposia/2016
 
Description Cambridge Global Food Security Initiative Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Promotion of Global Food security issues and opportunities for translational research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/events/Symposium2017FOLDER
 
Description Cambridge Partnership for Plant Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Cambridge Partnership for Plant Sciences (CPPS) exists to strengthen and integrate pure and applied research in plant sciences in and around Cambridge. We provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and to promote research opportunities between the academic arena, research institutes and local industry.

CPPS provides a forum for fundamental and applied research in plant sciences to be developed throughout the Cambridge region, between University Departments, Research Institutes and Industry. Participating organisations are encouraged to provide a designated Hub, who acts by forwarding information from each organisation, and by disseminating news of CPPS activities and information to their colleagues. Individuals are also welcome to apply to join the mailing list.

A number of collaborative proposals for research grants and training awards have arisen from the networking opportunities supported and organised by CPPS each year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2007,2008,
URL http://www.cpps.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description Cambridge University Global Food Security Initiative 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Events and activities are generating strategic priorities for research funding, engaging across sciences and humanities, to develop policies and initiate research in priority areas.

Activities are currently linking with international agencies (FAO, CGIAR, WTO) and Governments to promote research on Food Security, including the development of an International Crop Science Centre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description Engagement with multinational corporations related to Food Security and Climate Change 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The PI, HG, has addressed a number of high level Industrial delegations, which include AB Sugar, TATA steel, Coca-Cola, and given presentations on the implications of climate change and environmental stress on crop productivity and yield and strategies for photosynthetic enhancement. Most recently, this activity has also focussed upon the Cambridge University Global Food Security Initiative, and provided an introduction to the networks and research potential for future collaboration.

The engagement and interest in specific areas of research either directly related to enhancement of photosynthesis and evaluation of stress, or identifying potential collaborators within the University as a focus for industrial funding in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013
URL http://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description Female Leaders in Crop and Agricultural Sciences from India: A Newton-Bhabha Fund workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A The creation of 'Innovation Farms' to train women in the latest agriculture techniques came a step closer on a recent visit to the University of Cambridge by India's leading female crop scientists.

The idea to develop a series of farms across India to teach women techniques from factoring climate into crop choice to improving yield is part of a programme to empower mid-career that saw 20 female scientists from India brought 23 delegates to visit the labs and lecture halls of Cambridge this week.

Experts in plant and crop sciences from Indian and Cambridge exchanged skills and ideas during a five-day programme that included seminars, workshops and visits to laboratories.

Female scientists from across India applied to take part in the programme, with the first 20 staying at Clare College for a week and attending workshops on topics from building negotiation skills to delegating more effectively. According to the programme organisers, this was in order to help them "handle the juggling game of science and family".

The visit included a tour of the Sainsbury Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, the Innovation Farm at the National Institute Of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) and the John Innes Centre (JIC). Ultimately, it is hoped that the Innovation Farm concept will also be developed at universities and research institutes across India to train women farmers in the latest agricultural techniques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gatsby Summer School Tutor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Round table discussion on key issues in climate change and food security

Interest promoted in methods for enhancing photosynthesis and ongoing research in my lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.slcu.cam.ac.uk/outreach/gatsbyplants
 
Description Graduate Symposium in Vienna "MInd the App" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Student Symposium "Mind the App"
"Applications that bridge biology and technology"; organized by Phd-students of the Vienna Biocenter.
"This is an interdisciplinary conference involving 15 international scientists who have unconventionally applied technology to basic research or conceived an innovative application from a scientific finding. Topics include "Molecular Toolbox", "Bioengineering Medicine", "Manipulating the Code" and "Shaping Ecosystems"."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://bme.htu.at/2016/09/14/student-symposium-mind-the-app/
 
Description Graduate seminar on food security 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact discussion on impacts of climate change on food security
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Host eminent Crop Scientist from india 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invite M S S Swaminathan- one of the fathers of the green revolution in India, to present a formal open seminar to members of the TIGR2ESSconsortium and Food Security Strategic research initiative
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited seminar at a major international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation gave a major overview of plant physiology and ecology in improving sustainable crop productivity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.europlantbiology2018.org/
 
Description Masterclass on Global Food Security for Year 12 and 13 pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 30 pupils attended for a school visit to the Sainsbury Laboratory, which sparked questions and discussion afterwards, and the school reported increased interest in related subject areas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.saps.org.uk/secondary
 
Description Meeting with delegation from multinational corporation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Top level engagement with Multinational corporations such as Pepsico, Nestle, IKEA during which general advances in science have been pitched in the context of Global Food Security and with a view to building partnerships through the EIT Food KIC, and the Cambridge Centre for Crop Science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL https://www.cambplants.group.cam.ac.uk/our-impact/3cs-cambridge-centre-for-crop-science
 
Description Member of CUPGRA executive committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Facilitated discussions between academics and potato growing industry and opportunities for philanthropic support of research; CUPGRA was set up in 1982 to encourage study and research on potatoes. It promotes the interchange of scientific research and field practice for innovative, sound commercial production of potatoes through its association with the Agronomy Research Group at NIAB CUF
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.niab.com/pages/id/464/CUPGRA
 
Description NIAB Innovation Farm Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk promoted discussions with agricultural extension and farmers

Requests for additional information and visits to CAPP website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL https://www.innovationfarm.co.uk/
 
Description Networking event for University of Cambridge PhD students and Postdocs interested in collaborating with the food industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Participants had the opportunity to meet and hear from agri-tech and food industry representatives, and discuss possibilities for:
- research collaborations
- internships
- future careers.
**Confirmed** companies attending include:

PepsiCo

Nestle

Britvic

Koppert

Buhler

Hummingbird Technologies

Maspex

Map of Agriculture

DowDupont

ADAS

AMT Fruit

Bayer Crop Science

Entomics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/events/foodfutures2
 
Description Open Day and School visits hosted for Biological and Plant Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School visits, in association with Clare College and/of the University Open Days and Dept of Plant Sciences, included a Biological Sciences Taster Day, three full open days (July/September and hosting individual year groups (year 8/9, 10/11 or 12) to talk about plant processes and food security, impact of climate change, as well as admissions procedures
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL http://www.clare.cam.ac.uk/Information-for-Schools/
 
Description Participate in broadcast on local national and international radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact participation in interviews and live broadcasts to promote plant and crop sciences to the wider community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Participation in Cambridge Forum for Sustainability 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Forum aims to stimulate cross-disciplinary conversations about some of the great sustainability challenges the world faces in the future and the research pathways which will help to prepare for and address those challenges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.cfse.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description Participation in popular science radio programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science week Debate on plant processes attended by schoolchildren, increasing interest in subject areas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.thenakedscientists.com/
 
Description Policy workshop: Monitoring the global food system: building trust and resilience for UK citizens and consumers. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A CSaP (Centre for Science and Policy ) workshop funded through the Global Food Security Interdisciplinary Research Centre (co-Chair H Griffiths) which raised key questions regarding resilience in the food system and how policy should be developed to cope with future challenges
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/events/past/?category=1
 
Description Presentation at AAAS, Vancouver 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Talk was associated with subsequent media session and engagement with journalists

Interactions with a number of professionals involved in outreach activities interested in climate change and photosynthesis enhancement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.aaas.org/
 
Description Presentation to agricultural industrial reps 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Brief presentation about research and techniques followed by networking with representatives from business and industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentations to undergraduate societies and organisations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Several talks and panel discussions chaired as part of their activities which led to media interest and stimulated debate within and between participants and external speakers

Raised awareness of the fundamental importance of plants to society in general
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://camtriplehelix.com/
 
Description Research Grant Outreach Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Website is the outreach portal developed by successive summer students supported by the CAPP programmes.
The CAPP project is funded through the Ideas lab, supported by a British-US collaboration between two large funding bodies: BBSRC and NSF . It involves international collaboration between scientists from 4 different Universities/Institutions:
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL https://cambridgecapp.wordpress.com/about-us/
 
Description Seminar on food security, Shanghai, China: Food security,  nutrition and health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Food security occurs when all people are able to access enough safe and nutritious food to meet their requirements for a healthy life, in ways the planet can sustain into the future".
Crop Science and Food security: there is a productivity, waste and distribution "trilemma"
How should we link the technologies for crop production and distribution to environmental resilience and consumer health and nutrition?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Smart Agriculture Conclave 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attendance at Smart Agriculture Conclave, New Delhi
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/international/offices/india/indianews/310817i/
 
Description Translational Funding Morning 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact To engage with industrial sponsors and funding agencies, introducing research impact opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.cambplants.group.cam.ac.uk/news-and-events/translational-funding-morning/translational-f...
 
Description Undergraduate Training through Summer Vacation Studentships 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact In previous years, we have used Departmental funds to support summer studentships, where undergraduate students can be involved directly in ongoing research programmes; for the BBSRC PSIL Enhancing Photosynthesis, students have been directly involved in laboratory work in terms of developing techniques, analysing images and successively creating the CAPP website (http://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/) and associated teaching resources. Students specifically benefitting from this support have included: Rachel Purdon (2011), Jessica Finch and Richard Perez-Storey (2012), Oliver Terrett and Ninhghui Shi (2013) and Charlie Whittaker (Rank Prize Fund award, 2014); Other students have been working on climate change and moss-lichen interactions in Antarctica

The website and associated eductional resources and Rubisco game have attracted considerable attention and hits; many of the students have been attracted into studying plant science in Final Year and have graduated with excellent degrees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011
URL http://cambridgecapp.wordpress.com/
 
Description University Open Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The open days are large-scale events organised by the central Cambridge Admissions Office in conjunction with the University Colleges and departments.
Cambridge Open Days are for Year 12 students (or equivalent) and mature applicants who are considering making an application in October 2017 for entry in October 2018 (or deferred entry in October 2019).
Attendees will find out what the University and Colleges have to offer, attend presentations on courses, the application process, student support, finance, and careers. They will have the opportunity to talk to academic staff from the departments and Colleges, and undergraduate students will also be on hand to talk to about student life at Cambridge.

My participation has encouraged students to apply to Cambridge- direct feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
URL http://www.undergraduate.study.cam.ac.uk/events/cambridge-open-day
 
Description Visit to University of Lincoln to hold workshop on motivation and funding opportunities in the food security arena 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Response to an invitation by a Pro Vice Chancellor to discuss funding engagement, motivation and raising aspirations to develop external research opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop and formal Launch of TIGR2ESS programme in New Delhi, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop identified extension beyond the existing scope of funding awarded through the GCRF programme, including additional government agencies in India, as well as representatives from DFID and RCUK offices in India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.vertiver.com/tigr2ess/
 
Description appearance on Naked Scientist panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact participation in live debate on radio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.thenakedscientists.com/
 
Description engagement with Industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Engagement with multi-national industrial conglomerates to explore research collaborations, synergies and development of translational research projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.cambplants.group.cam.ac.uk/our-impact/3cs-cambridge-centre-for-crop-science
 
Description meet with representatives of eminent society or government ministry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meet CSaP visiting Policy Fellow from Royal Society and BEIS and discuss food security issues in relation to global food security and engagement with the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019