Modelling Campylobacter survival and spread through poultry processing: a population genomics approach.

Lead Research Organisation: Swansea University
Department Name: Institute of Life Science Medical School

Abstract

Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in the developed world. This organism is a common constituent of the gut micro-biota of birds and other animals and human infection is usually associated with the consumption of contaminated meat or poultry. Considerable effort has gone into investigating the root to human infection and there is substantial evidence that strains associated with chicken are a major source of disease. This is not thought to be because chicken types are more pathogenic but because chickens have high levels of contamination on the farm and this is maintained all the way through processing to retail. The mechanisms by which Campylobacter, an organism that is poorly adapted to survival outside of the host, spreads and potentially increases through poultry processing are poorly understood. Eliminating Campylobacter on the farm could tackle the problem but it requires expensive biosecurity interventions and there may other points through processing where interventions could be effective and practicable in the modern poultry industry. In this project we will use state-of-the-art means of determining the entire genetic code (genome) of Campylobacter strains from key stages through poultry processing and human disease. This genetic information will be used to examine how variation in the physical traits (phenotype), such as survival in a particular stage/niche, are determined by changes to the genes (genotype). Changes in the genetic structure of the population will be used to inform a mathematical model that simulates the passage of Campylobacter through processing based upon selection for certain genes, for example those required by the organism to survive outside of the chicken gut. By running model simulations with different parameters we will investigate (i) how the strains change through processing, (ii) the factors responsible for the survival and proliferation of disease associated lineages, and (iii) points in processing where Campylobacter can be most effectively pushed to extinction. This systems approach to understanding Campylobacter survival and spread will inform targeted interventions.

Technical Summary

By identifying the genetic elements and associated phenotypes that enable some chicken-associated genotypes to survive poultry processing and infect humans, the aim of this proposal is to inform targeted interventions to reduce Campylobacter. A modelling approach based upon comparative functional genomics data will address fundamental questions about the genetic basis of genotypic variation from farm chickens to retail poultry. We will exploit recent advances in Illumina GA resequencing technologies, specifically high through-put isolate multiplexing, to sequence multiple genomes in individual and pooled samples to identify genomic differences associated with source. Data from association mapping will feed into the stochastic evolutionary genetics simulation model that incorporates many of the features involved in the generation and maintenance of sequence diversity at a population level including: initial number of genotypes, population size, mutation and recombination rate, growth rate, the fitness of particular genes and niche structure. Variables will be changed to reflect input from real systems enabling hypotheses based on the genome association studies to be tested. Specifically, fitness functions for particular genes will be derived from real data and selective sweeps acting on genes identified as important for survival will simulate the effect of various stages in poultry processing. Predictions from simulations will be tested in replicate experiments by tracking the changes in the genetic structure of Campylobacter populations in the same batch of chickens leaving the farm and at points through processing. Where the relative abundance of particular genes or alleles, identified by PCR, deviates from predictions in silico the model parameters will be adjusted (eg. allele fitness). Simulations will then be run using the validated model to identify points in processing were the Campylobacter population is vulnerable to targeted interventions.

Planned Impact

(i) Business and Commerce BioCote Ltd. (www.biocote.com), the industrial partner named in this grant proposal, presents itself as the world's leading antimicrobial brand providing antimicrobial technology, technical and marketing support, and research to commercial organisations working in hygiene-critical environments. The results of commissioned studies and collaborations are presented in the scientific literature including the recent Biocote-Oxford University study in which the microbiological impact of antimicrobial treatment of poultry transportation crates was quantified. This has recently been accepted for publication in the Journal of Applied Microbiology and influenced this proposal. There are distinct commercial requirements for the system modelling approach in this proposal. Evidence for procedure/product claims including efficacy, effective period, and undesirable consequences has become increasingly important and can provide a competitive advantage. The commercial organisations affiliated to this study, including BioCote Ltd and its industry collaborators, will benefit through enhanced intervention development and also though differentiating themselves from similar products on a global scale. The list of commercial organisations associated with BioCote that potentially benefit from this study is restricted but there is highly significant interest from manufacturers of products and interventions for the poultry industry because of the inclusion of BioCote Ltd. Commercial benefit is difficult to quantify but given the scale and volume of the poultry processing industry, both in the UK and globally, there are considerable prospects of an increased market share for companies supplying the poultry industry who have adopted or can adopt interventions informed by this study's conclusions. Other commercial beneficiaries include organisations that supply infection control/decontamination aspects of poultry processing to whom antimicrobial technology is not applicable or relevant. Output data from simulations has the potential to dictate product development, formulation, composition and deployment and drive manufacturers towards more defined and efficacious products and strategies. (ii) Public health Campylobacter is the largest cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world and our recent research has shown the most significant source of human infection in the UK is chickens. While education and food preparation practices are important a major reduction in the human disease burden requires action to reduce Campylobacter in poultry. Interventions in the poultry industry abroad have resulted in dramatic decreases in human infection rates. For example, in Iceland flocks that tested positive before slaughter were frozen, together with on-farm measures, this led to a 10-fold reduction human disease. There is increasing pressure on UK poultry producers to tackle the problem of Campylobacter and government (FSA) targets are to be set for reduction in levels in raw chicken by 2015. Evidence based programmes are required to achieve this and are dependent upon high quality baseline data and analysis to inform the most effective targets for interventions such as improved on-farm biosecurity, improved hygiene, antimicrobial transport crates, chlorine washes at abattoirs, poultry freezing etc. Testing specific interventions to reduce Campylobacter at key stages through processing is relatively straight forward it is difficult develop effective strategies to break the transmission chain without investigating the system as a whole. This is where the modelling approach has its greatest advantage. When properly validated by detailed data from real systems our model will allow exhaustive testing of scenarios for reducing Campylobacter in the food chain and by informing interventions, translate to public health benefit.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Campylobacter populations change through poultry processing with strains found in clinical samples representing a subset of those identified from farm chicken and faecal samples. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic and functional traits associated with human transmission through survival through the food chain, using 393 whole-genome sequences of C. jejuni and C. coli from isolates sampled at various stages of the processing chain and from clinical cases. The GWAS focused on the two main host generalist lineages of C. jejuni, ST-21 and ST-45 complexes, and the consistency of the genomic association was examined in 9 other complexes. Associated SNPs were totally distinct in the two clonal complexes. Linkage disequilibrium between them was very high, and even organised in a haplotype block in ST-45 complex. Several corresponding associated genes had predicted functions in oxidative stress response and consistently, clinical isolates showed a higher in vitro fitness than farm isolates in presence of increasing atmospheric oxygen concentrations. The cj1377c gene was also associated with human transmission through survival in the food chain in ST-45 complex. We functionally linked cj1377c to formate metabolism, as its deletion in a reference strain abolished formate dehydrogenase (FDH) activity. Consistently, clinical isolates from ST-45 complex isolates showed an average reduced FDH activity. This work provides robust evidence that different Campylobacter lineages have distinct genomic and ecological signatures of survival and transmission from farm to humans and that this complex trait could involve increased resistance to oxidative stress and a reduction of FDH activity.
Exploitation Route Knowledge of the genetic elements associated with Camplobacter that survive through poultry processing will inform targetted interventions.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description The main publications from this study have now been published. These give a better understanding of the strains that survive best from farm to fork and will inform targeted interventions and additional funding has been acquired to develop an autologous vaccine based on this work. The abstracts of these papers are given below: 1. Title: Genomic plasticity and rapid host switching promote the evolution of generalism in the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter Abstract: Horizontal gene transfer accelerates bacterial adaptation to novel environments, allowing selection to act on genes that have evolved in multiple genetic backgrounds. This can lead to ecological specialization. However, little is known about how zoonotic bacteria maintain the ability to colonize multiple hosts whilst competing with specialists in the same niche. Here we develop a stochastic evolutionary model and show how genetic transfer of niche specifying genes and the opportunity for host transition can interact to promote the emergence of host generalist lineages of the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter. Using a modelling approach we show that increasing levels of recombination enhance the efficiency with which selection can fix combinations of beneficial alleles, speeding adaptation. We then show how these predictions change in a multi-host system, with low levels of recombination, consistent with real r/m estimates, increasing the standing variation in the population, allowing a more effective response to changes in the selective landscape. Our analysis explains how observed gradients of host specialism and generalism can evolve in a multihost system through the transfer of ecologically important loci among coexisting strains. 2. Title:Genome-wide association of functional traits linked with Campylobacter jejuni survival from farm to fork Abstract: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, primarily associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni lineages vary in host range and prevalence in human infection, suggesting differences in survival throughout the food chain. From 5556 MLST-characterised isolates, we sequenced 600 C. jejuni and C. coli from various stages of poultry processing and clinical cases. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) in C. jejuni ST-21 and ST-45 complexes identified genetic elements over-represented in clinical isolates that increased in frequency throughout the food chain. Disease-associated SNPs were distinct in these complexes, sometimes organised in haplotype blocks. The function of genes containing associated elements was investigated in deletion mutants, demonstrating roles for cj1377c in formate metabolism, nuoK in oxidative respiration, and cj1368-70 in nucleotide salvage. This work provides evidence that major C. jejuni lineages have distinct genotypes associated with survival within the host specific niche, from farm to fork.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description FSA
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Work supported by this project has informed policy makers and UK government inclduing FSA/Defra Joint Working Group on Campylobacter translating findings into public health advice on the FSA Website: http://food.gov.uk/policy-advice/microbiology/campylobacterevidenceprogramme/#.UnJmP_mGrm5
URL http://food.gov.uk/policy-advice/microbiology/campylobacterevidenceprogramme/#.UnJmP_mGrm5
 
Description CLIMB
Amount £8,400,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 04/2020
 
Description DEFINING THE MECHANISMS DRIVING GENOMIC VARIATION AND VIRULENCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND IDENTIFYING THE GENES/ALLELES RESPONSIBLE
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Funding ID HS-14-54 
Organisation Health and Care Research Wales 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description Enhanced molecular based surveillance and source attribution of Campylobacter infections in the
Amount £1,500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Food Standards Agency (FSA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2013 
End 06/2016
 
Description Generating tools for the molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter coli by next generation genome
Amount £120,461 (GBP)
Organisation Food Standards Agency (FSA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2013 
End 06/2016
 
Description Genomics of a Tuberculosis outbreak in Wales
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Welsh National College 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description Helicobacter virulence and gastric cancer
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2013 
End 06/2014
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of ESCAPE pathogens in Wales
Amount £240,000 (GBP)
Organisation Health and Care Research Wales 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description Society of General Microbiology Public Engagement Fund
Amount £295 (GBP)
Organisation Society of General Microbiology 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2011 
End 12/2011
 
Description The Discovery of Campylobacter in asymptomatic children
Amount £4,290 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 07/2014
 
Description Travel award
Amount £750 (GBP)
Organisation Healthcare Infection Society (HIS) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 10/2013
 
Description UK-US Partnership Award, Campylobacter genomics
Amount £31,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2012 
End 01/2014
 
Title Bacterial genotyping and phenotyping 
Description DNA sequencing and microbial phenotyping methods developed as part of this project are now widely used. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Swansea servers now host the large scale bacterial genome databases with thousands of genomes. These Mirror databases in Oxford and are a national resource for bacterial population genomics. Swansea servers now host the large scale bacterial genome databases with thousands of genomes. These Mirror databases in Oxford and are a national resource for bacterial population genomics 
URL http://zoo-talisker.zoo.ox.ac.uk/perl/bigsdb/bigsdb.pl?db=staphylococcus_sheppard
 
Title Genome analysis models 
Description This project has supported the develoment of models for analysis of bacterial genomes. Including recombination between lineages (1,2), genome wide association studies (3) and stochastic evolutionary modelling (4). 1. Yahara K, Didelot X, Jolley KA, Kobayashi I, Maiden MC, Sheppard SK, Falush D. The landscape of realized homologous recombination in pathogenic bacteria. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2015 (in press). 2. Yahara K, Didelot X, Ansari MA, Sheppard SK and Falush D. Efficient inference of recombination hot regions in bacterial genomes. Mol Biol Evol. 2014 (in press). 3. Sheppard SK, Didelot X, Meric G, Torralbo A, Jolley KA, Kelly DJ, Bentley SD, Maiden MCJ, Parkhill J, Falush D. Genome-wide association study identifies vitamin B5 biosynthesis as a host specificity factor in Campylobacter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul 16;110(29):11923-7. 4. Woodcock DJ, Krusche P, Strachan NJC, Forbes KJ, Cohan FM, Méric G, Sheppard SK. Genomic plasticity and rapid host switching promote the evolution of generalism in the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (submitted) 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact In particular, we published the first bacterial GWAS method. This has been influential in bacterial genomics research. 
 
Title BIGSdb 
Description Hosted in Oxford University (Martin Maiden), BIGSdb is a widely used bacterial genome sequence database. Work from this project contributes to the ongoing development of this resource. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact BIGSdb is used by numerous research groups studied bacterial genomics and epidemiology. 
URL http://pubmlst.org/software/database/bigsdb/
 
Description Microbiology and Infection Translational Research Group 
Organisation Public Health Wales NHS Trust
Department Specialist Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Several members of the research group were co-applicants of a successful bid for a Microbiology and Infection Translational Research Group in Wales funded by WORD.
Collaborator Contribution Made mutually available strain collections and started collaborative research.
Impact Project manager has been appointed and set-up of translational research network is commencing.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Ongoing Campylobacter research collaborations 
Organisation Johns Hopkins University
Department Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing, assembly of genomes and bioinformatic analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Samples and / or genomes. Specialist expert help with specific Campylobacter techniques.
Impact Ongoing work for publication with specific partners. Sequenced over 600 Campylobacter genomes since 2012 (-Nov2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ongoing Campylobacter research collaborations 
Organisation Moredun Research Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Sequencing, assembly of genomes and bioinformatic analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Samples and / or genomes. Specialist expert help with specific Campylobacter techniques.
Impact Ongoing work for publication with specific partners. Sequenced over 600 Campylobacter genomes since 2012 (-Nov2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ongoing Campylobacter research collaborations 
Organisation Nottingham Trent University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing, assembly of genomes and bioinformatic analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Samples and / or genomes. Specialist expert help with specific Campylobacter techniques.
Impact Ongoing work for publication with specific partners. Sequenced over 600 Campylobacter genomes since 2012 (-Nov2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ongoing Campylobacter research collaborations 
Organisation Public Health Agency of Canada
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sequencing, assembly of genomes and bioinformatic analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Samples and / or genomes. Specialist expert help with specific Campylobacter techniques.
Impact Ongoing work for publication with specific partners. Sequenced over 600 Campylobacter genomes since 2012 (-Nov2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ongoing Campylobacter research collaborations 
Organisation Quadram Institute Bioscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing, assembly of genomes and bioinformatic analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Samples and / or genomes. Specialist expert help with specific Campylobacter techniques.
Impact Ongoing work for publication with specific partners. Sequenced over 600 Campylobacter genomes since 2012 (-Nov2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ongoing Campylobacter research collaborations 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sequencing, assembly of genomes and bioinformatic analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Samples and / or genomes. Specialist expert help with specific Campylobacter techniques.
Impact Ongoing work for publication with specific partners. Sequenced over 600 Campylobacter genomes since 2012 (-Nov2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ongoing Campylobacter research collaborations 
Organisation University of Helsinki
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing, assembly of genomes and bioinformatic analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Samples and / or genomes. Specialist expert help with specific Campylobacter techniques.
Impact Ongoing work for publication with specific partners. Sequenced over 600 Campylobacter genomes since 2012 (-Nov2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ongoing Campylobacter research collaborations 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing, assembly of genomes and bioinformatic analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Samples and / or genomes. Specialist expert help with specific Campylobacter techniques.
Impact Ongoing work for publication with specific partners. Sequenced over 600 Campylobacter genomes since 2012 (-Nov2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description PHW 
Organisation Public Health Wales NHS Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The collaboration provides the collection of bacterial isolates form the Singleton (Swansea) and Heath (Cardiff) hospitals, facilitated by an honorary clinical scientist position held by Sheppard. Analysis from this study is informing clinical microbiologists within the hospitals.
Collaborator Contribution Partners provide bacterial isolates.
Impact This collaboration has provided isolates for papers detailed in the publications section.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Health and Care Research Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Public Health England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Public Health Wales NHS Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Singleton Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Southmead Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation University Hospital of Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thailand Collaboration 
Organisation Chiang Mai University
Country Thailand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples for sequencing.
Impact Nascent research collaboration with a view to improving our collection of bacterial samples and developing pathogen genomics techniques in Thailand.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Thailand Collaboration 
Organisation Chiang Mai University
Country Thailand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples for sequencing.
Impact Nascent research collaboration with a view to improving our collection of bacterial samples and developing pathogen genomics techniques in Thailand.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Thailand Collaboration 
Organisation Chulalongkorn University
Country Thailand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples for sequencing.
Impact Nascent research collaboration with a view to improving our collection of bacterial samples and developing pathogen genomics techniques in Thailand.
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Genomics Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of analysis piplines and databases for investigating bacterial evolution, ecology and epidemiology.
Collaborator Contribution The partners carried out genome sequencing of bacterial isolates.
Impact The increasing availability of hundreds of whole bacterial genomes provides opportunities for enhanced understanding of bacterial epidemiology and the genes and alleles responsible for important phenotypes and how they evolved. Numerous isolates were sequenced from human infection, farm animals, and retail food, in association with this project and isolate records were archived in BIGSdb: http://zoo-talisker.zoo.ox.ac.uk/perl/bigsdb/bigsdb.pl?db=campy_maiden Building on this platform we developed a gene-by-gene whole genome MLST approach for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypes in diverse bacteria includig E.. coli, Staphylococcus and Campylobacter. Further developing these pipelines to include non-homologous sequence variation in genes that are differentially present in the population, we established a comparative genomics approach that simultaneously approximates core and accessory genome variation in pathogen populations. The number of accessory genes increases with the number of isolates but, as an example, for 7 published Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli genomes the reference pan-genome comprised 3,933 loci with 1,035 cores genes ubiquitous in the isolates and accounting for 59% of the genes in each isolate (average genome size of 1.68 Mb). A total of 21 genes were present only in C. coli and 27 only in C. jejuni, providing information about functional differences associated with species and novel epidemiological markers for population genomic analyses. Our GWAS pipelines developed for this project are now widely used and the GERM stochastic evolutionary model will be released in a manuscript currently in review.
Start Year 2012
 
Description VLA 
Organisation Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Insight from Campylobacter studies has enhanced understanding of epidemiology and spread of campylobacter. This has informed policy and under pinned research directions at the VLA. Furthermore, genome analysis pipelines and outputs have promoted the use of next generation sequencing technologies in VLA pathogen survey and research programs.
Collaborator Contribution VLA provide isolates for this study.
Impact This collaboration provided isolates for Campylobacter studies detailed in the publications list associated with this award.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute 
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Sequecing at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Centre has contributed to this project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration has resulted in the development of piplines for analysis of bacterial genomes and research findings relating to pathogen ecology, epidemiology and evolution
Impact Several publications have been facilitated by this collaboration.
Start Year 2006
 
Description School Hand Hygiene Demonstration 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Class of 25 year 6 pupils participated in hand hygiene demonstration including short talk on general microbiology and hygiene.

Raising awareness amongst pupils about science and microbiology in particular.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011