An integrated model for predicting bumblebee population success and pollination services in agro-ecosystems

Lead Research Organisation: University of Exeter
Department Name: Biosciences

Abstract

It is now widely recognized that both wild and managed pollinators provide a vital ecosystem service, essential for the maintenance of biodiversity in natural and semi-natural ecosystems, and necessary for crop production in ~75% of the world's crop species. Recent estimates suggest that crop pollination in the UK is worth £440 million. The main crop pollinators in the UK and throughout the temperate northern hemisphere are honeybees and bumblebees; honeybee populations are threatened by health issues, while many bumblebee species have undergone range declines, probably primarily due to habitat loss. There is thus an urgent need to develop farm management strategies which sustain both healthy populations of pollinators and crop yields. For bumblebees, we lack a detailed understanding of the relationships between the growth and survival of bumblebee nests, the spatial and temporal distribution of the floral resources on which they depend, and the spatial distribution of pollination services they provide. We cannot predict how many bumblebee nests a landscape can support, or how many crop plants they can pollinate. We do not know how many flowers are needed to support a single healthy nest, or how important predators and parasites are in removing bees and whole nests. This project proposes to use a systems approach to answer these questions, combining simulation models with a range of field and genetic studies to provide a new insight into factors governing bumblebee populations in agroecosystems. We will quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of pollen (protein) and nectar (sugar) provided by flowers in 10 representative landscapes (5 in England, 5 in Scotland) using GIS-based maps. In lab studies we will quantify the resources (protein and sugar) needed for healthy growth of a nest. Using novel camera systems developed by the applicants we will monitor wild bumblebee nests to establish rates of predation of nests and of individual bees. These data will feedin to models which will be developed to simulate the growth of realistic numbers of bumblebee nests seeded into our ten landscapes, with models also simulating the foraging of individual workers (agents) from each nest, estimating which food patches they are likely to exploit. Colonies will interact in the landscape through exploitation of resources, and be subject to realistic rates of predation and parasitism. The model will be validated by measuring actual colony growth rates of experimental nests placed into these landscapes, and by measuring the number of nests of different bumblebee species exploiting particular patches of forage within these landscapes (quantified using genetic techniques to identify sisters). Once validated, the models will then be used to predict the spatial distribution of crop pollination services for field beans, and these predictions tested by field measurements of bee visitation rates. The models will also be used to simulate the consequences of adding floral resources to the landscape in terms of pollen and nectar strips, enabling us to quantify how many extra bee nests, and how much extra crop pollination, can be supported. The project will build on and contrast with honeybee models currently being developed in a BBSRC-funded project at Rothamsted. Overall this project will, for the first time, provide us with mechanistic links and quantitative, validated predictions linking bumblebee populations, wildflowers, bee predators and crop pollination.

Technical Summary

We propose to use a systems approach to enable us to understand the mechanistic links between bumblebee populations, the distribution of floral resources in the landscape, bee predators and parasites, and delivery of crop pollination. We will develop, parameterise and validate simulation models in which individual bees (agents) from multiple nests operate within replicated synthetic landscapes based upon 10 real agro-environments, 5 in central England and 5 in Scotland. Bees from nests will interact through resource depletion, and both individual bees and nests will be subject to realistic levels of predation and parasitism. Sub-models based on forager behaviour will predict where foragers from particular nests are likely to feed. Predictions will be validated by measuring growth of real colonies in these landscapes, and by using genetic techniques to quantify the number of colonies of different bumblebee species which are visiting patches of forage in these landscapes. Validated models will be used to predict the spatial distribution of pollination services within these landscapes, which will be tested for field beans. The models will also be used to simulate the effectiveness of adding areas of pollen and nectar flower strips to the landscape in boosting bee populations and pollination services. The models will provide a powerful tool for designing sustainable management practices for pollinators and pollination services in agroecosystems.

Planned Impact

The impact of this project will be a substantially enhanced understanding of the dynamics of an important group of pollinators (bumblebees) in farmland and their subsequent service to crops. This can be used to predict how crop management and environmental changes are likely to alter provision of this ecosystem service, and provide opportunities to mitigate negative effects to ultimately enable us to farm in sustainable systems. It is therefore of high relevance to many stakeholders.

As well as scientific publications, the project will deliver models that can be used as tools to inform policy makers, farmers, land managers and conservationists about the potential usefulness of management initiatives and for ensuring the survival of bumblebee populations. Furthermore, pollination is crucial for farmers, and the results will help ensure bees can be deployed practically and sustainably to provide good yields for appropriate crops. This will become increasingly important as summers become warmer and drier and new crop species are planted e.g. sunflower.

Who will benefit and how?

Policy makers (e.g. Defra)
The project will provide outputs to policy makers and regulators in regional, national, EU and other agencies. These will serve as the basis for the development of sound policies with respect to pollination and agri-environment schemes, as well as practical advice and recommendations to practitioners in the land-based industries.

Farmers and the associated agri-food industry
We translate our scientific outputs into practical advice for farmers and the agri-food chain (including providers of agricultural chemicals, seeds and software) via workshops, seminars, reports and farm walks in association with organisations that link directly to the farmers. The findings of this study will also be used by Syngenta to focus and optimise the beneficial effects of their "Operation Pollinator" encouraging farmers to sow nectar and pollen mixtures. The model of foraging bumblebees can be used alongside our honeybee model to improve the agrochemical industry's understanding of how different bees are likely to be exposed to its products (see letter of support).

The NGO community: wildlife, conservation and environmental organisations and advisors.
Conservation organisations and stakeholders, such as Natural England, British Trust for Ornithology, the RSPB, The Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust, Butterfly Conservation and the British Beekeepers Association already collaborate with us and utilise the results we publish to enhance public awareness and advise land managers. In particular, Prof Goulson is the founder of the Bumblebee Conservation Trust (BBCT), which has 8,000 members and the data from this project will be fed into the first national Bumblebee monitoring scheme, "BEEWALKS" which was launched by the BBCT in 2010, and more generally will be used to inform the conservation strategies of the Trust.

The public
The public at large are fascinated by bees and pollination, and rely on them for production of food to ensure a healthy and balanced diet. The applicants have an excellent track record in reaching a wide audience with high profile and exciting science, via talks, specific events (workshops, Open Days, Chelsea Flower show exhibits etc) and all forms of media (web, press, radio, television). We will continue to use all these types of communication to maximise impact. In particular, Goulson's direct involvement in the BBCT provides an ideal opportunity to publicise the results and get the public involved. Thanks to recent funding successes, BBCT is launching a new nationwide project, "Bees for Everyone". Each year from 2012-14 this will deliver: 75 talks to local interest groups; 30 guided walk and bee identification days; 10 farmer liaison days; 3 bumblebee conservation symposia (England, Wales & Scotland). These events provide an ideal medium for disseminating the results of the proposed research.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description While demands for agricultural products are increasing, insect pollinators delivering ecosystem services, are in decline. Bumblebees play an important role in pollinating crops and wild flowers, as they not only visit flowers neglected by honeybees but they can also be more efficient pollinators.
We have developed a model of bumblebees, Bumble-BEEHAVE (Becher et al 2018). This agent-based model simulates bumblebee populations over multiple years in realistic landscapes (dimensions e.g. 5x5 km). It can simulate the development of multiple bumblebee species (currently the six most common UK species) at the same time. Semi-natural habitats consist of a multitude of flower species. The bees make their forage choice based on handing times calculated from flower shapes and the bees' tongue lengths and energetic efficiency. Foraging success and brood care affect the growth of the colonies and finally the production of males and queens, which hibernate and found colonies in the following year.
The model allows us to explore in silico how many bumblebee colonies can be maintained in a given landscape, where they go to collect nectar and pollen (and hence their potential pollination services) but also how they compete with each other on interspecific and intraspecific level.

Running the model requires data on nectar and pollen availability in the landscape but also on the probabilities to find certain flower patches. We hence developed the spatially explicit landscape model BEESCOUT (Becher et al. 2016) to translate crop maps provided by the user into input files for the BEEHAVE and Bumble-BEEHAVE models. Individual scout bees can explore the landscape in search of food sources. Their flight patterns are based on empirical data, recorded with the harmonic radar technique. With this approach we can estimate the likelihood of scouting bees finding a certain food source.

In collaboration with Rothamsted Research and the University of Sussex we have mapped habitat types in 10 landscapes (dimension: 5x5km) in Sussex and Hertfordshire (five in each county) using GIS. Our collaborators also recorded abundances of more than 25 most important forage plants for bumblebees in each habitat type. Furthermore, nectar and pollen production for each forage plant was quantified. These data allowed us - via input files created in BEESCOUT - to run the Bumble-BEEHAVE model in these 10 real landscapes. Results were then compared to our own empirical surveys and reports from the literature. We can show that the model output is in accordance with empirical data on the individual, colony and population level in terms of foraging behaviour, colony development, colony investment into males and queens, and emerging colony densities. Hence, Bumble-BEEHAVE is the first bumblebee model to predict population size in a given landscape on the basis of forage availability and individual task performance.
Exploitation Route Like the honeybee model BEEHAVE, Bumble-BEEHAVE is freely available to anyone interested with a detailed model description, and a user manual provided. User will also be supported via the Facebook group "Beehavers" where they can ask questions and provide feedback. We expect that the new model will be heavily used by bee researchers, but also industry, policy makers and farmers will be interested.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment

URL http://www.beehave-model.net
 
Description The BumbleBeehave model developed in this project has been used to develop a user friendly interface that can be used by practitioners and land owners to support decision-making in terms of land management to support bumblebees and pollinators. This Beesteward model is now starting to be used by farmers, practitioners and NGOs across the SW of UK. This has resulted in 15 landowners pledging pollinator friendly interventions on their land. We use our website (http://beehave-model.net/) and the BEEHAVE presence on Facebook (https://en-gb.facebook.com/BeehaveModel/ and "Beehavers" FB group) to communicate recent advances and publications. We were awarded the BBSRC Innovator of the Year Award for Social Impact for using our bee models with landowners, farmers, governments and agencies to promote pollinator friendly land stewardship
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Consulted on Cornwall Pollinator Action Plan
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description NERC Innovation
Amount £100,778 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2018
 
Description NERC Innovation Impact Internship
Amount £24,143 (GBP)
Funding ID SW-07634 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Description Safeguarding Pollination Services in a Changing World: theory into practice (SURPASS2)
Amount £1,428,848 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/S011870/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2021
 
Description South West Partnership for Environment and Economic Prosperity (SWEEP)
Amount £4,108,113 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P011217/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 07/2022
 
Title BEESCOUT model 
Description BEESCOUT is a spatially explicit model, to theoretically examine how bees might explore a landscape and distribute their scouting activities over time and space. An image file can be imported, which is interpreted by the model as a "forage map" with certain colours representing certain crops or habitat types as specified by the user. BEESCOUT calculates the size and location of these potential food sources in that landscape relative to a bee colony. An individual-based model then determines the detection probabilities of the food patches by bees, based on parameter values gathered from the flight patterns of honeybees and bumblebees. Various "search modes" describe hypothetical search strategies for the long-range exploration of scouting bees. The resulting detection probabilities of forage patches can be used as input for the recently developed honeybee model BEEHAVE, to explore realistic scenarios of colony growth and death in response to different stressors. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Still in progress 
URL http://www.beehave-model.net
 
Title Bumble-BEEHAVE model 
Description Bumble-BEEHAVE is an agent-based computer model to simulate the development of bumblebee populations in a given landscape. The model is implemented in the freely available programming language NetLogo. Landscapes are defined by a number of food sources (> 1000) located on a 2-dimensional map. Each food sources represents a specific forage plant that can provide nectar and pollen during a certain period of the year. By having two or more food sources at the same location, semi-natural habitat with complex flowering patterns can be implemented. Forage species differ in their timing of flowering, in the amount of nectar and pollen provided per area, in the sugar concentration of the nectar, but also in the flower size and shape (corolla depth) which affects handling times to collect a nectar load. Bee populations start with a user-defined number of initial queens of up to six common UK bumblebee species. Bees can either be implemented as individual or (to save computing time) as cohorts (groups of 12 bees, created on the same day). Bees can either rest or become active in one of four main tasks: egg laying, nursing, pollen foraging and nectar foraging. Decisions making results from a stimulus-threshold approach, where an environmental stimulus (e.g. amount of nectar stored in the colony) needs to exceed an individual threshold (e.g. a bees' disposition to forage nectar) to trigger the bee's engagement in a task. Nests can only be founded in suitable habitats and queens may die while searching nests sites. Before they start egg laying, nectar and pollen resources have to be collected and once brood is present it needs to be attended for incubation and feeding. Lack of food or incubation can delay the brood development and increase brood mortality. The amount of pollen fed to larvae affects their growth and weight as adults, which defines their tongue length, the amount of nectar and pollen bees can carry and their energy consumptions rates. Towards the end of the colony development quuens and males can be produced. Queens then mate and go into hibernation, with winter mortality being affected by the relative weight of the queens. The model can run for many years with population dynamics and colony densities being the result of weather conditions and forage availability in the landscape. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We use our website (http://beehave-model.net/) and the BEEHAVE presence on Facebook (https://en-gb.facebook.com/BeehaveModel/ and "Beehavers" FB group) to communicate the publication of the model. We expect that the new model will be heavily used by bee researchers, but also industry, policy makers and farmers will be interested. 
URL http://www.beehave-model.net
 
Description Blueberry pollination UBC, Canada 
Organisation University of British Columbia
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution After a 1 week research visit of Matthias Becher at UBC, we are now collaborating with Prof Rebecca Tyson on modelling blueberry pollination. This includes further development of the existing model.
Collaborator Contribution Application of the bumblebee models to study blueberry pollination and a 4 month research visit of UBC PhD student Sarah MacQueen at Exeter University
Impact Further development of the model to address blueberry pollination
Start Year 2018
 
Title BEEMAPP 
Description An App for mapping the location of bee forage resources in a landscape, around an apiary or farm 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Used to encourage beekeepers and farmers to examine how useful the landscape is for bee foraging. Results can be used as data input files in the BEEHAVE honeybee colony dynamics model. 
URL http://beehave-model.net
 
Description "Protecting bees and balancing food security" article on the University of Exeter's Innovation Impact and Business website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This was an article on the use of the bee models BEEHAVE, BEESCOUT and Bumble-BEEHAVE. The purpose was to share impact work of the university with the public and businesses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.exeter.ac.uk/business/expertise/environment/agriculture/protectingbees/
 
Description BBC Inside Out: TV piece with artist Kurt Jackson 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Appearance on TV sparked questions about bumblebee ecology and diseases

*
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BEEHAVE validation meeting UFZ 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting of BEEHAVE users from industry (Bayer, Syngenta, BASF) and academia to discuss the validation of the model with existing data set and future changes to the model.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BEEHAVE website www.beehave-model.net maintenance and updating 2017-2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Maintenance of www.beehave-model.net along with regular (bi-monthly) blogs on updates on the model, conferences and meetings and the latest research using the models (GTD). Purpose was to provide online information about the models (BEEHAVE, BEESCOUT, Bumble-BEEHAVE), a place to download the models and their associated documentation and articles. Results were that the website was launched in August 2016 and has been regularly updated and maintained. Impact has been that, since February 2017- 4,062 users/9,347 page views with 1,055 different users on the download page, Blogs on the News page 541 users and 810 page views. Views from all over the world. The most important impact is that since September 2016 we have nearly doubled our users and page views which have increased by 2,457 and 4,773 respectively.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL http://www.beehave-model.net
 
Description Blog on www.beehave-model.net site 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a blog on the teams win for BBSRC innovator of the year award 2017 "BEEHAVE team win Innovator of the Year award for social impact". The purpose was to provide the latest news on the team win for Innovator of the Year 2017. The Impact was that blogs on the News page 541 users and 810 page views. Views from all over the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://beehave-model.net/beehave-team-win-innovator-of-the-year-award-for-social-impact/
 
Description British Beekeepers Association Annual Convention 2015: 2 Talks & poster on stand 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talks sparked questions and discussion
Posters led to direct engagement with individuals throughout the convention

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bumble-BEEHAVE/Beesteward talk Enys Bee Fayre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A 45 minutes presentation incl. discussion at a bee/beekeeper event at Enys Garden, Cornwall. Ca. 20 attendees (general public, beekeepers)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Bumble-BEEHAVE/Beesteward talk at Eurbee Ghent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 15 minute talk and discussion at the EURBEE conference in Ghent, Belgium. Audience: bee researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.eurbee2018.org/
 
Description Environment and Sustainability day, March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The activity was facilitation for a workshop for groups of Year 10 Secondary school children (Key stage 4) from Cornwall about the ESI's research on "maintaining a balanced Ecosystem" (GTD). Purpose was to highlight environmental challenges associated with maintaining a balanced Ecosystem and how we are finding solutions to these challenges at the ESI. Resulted in debate and discussion during the workshops and at the evaluation event at the end and questions raised by the pupils and answered during the workshop.
Impact was that "Maintaining a balanced Ecosystem" was voted as second most important challenge by the pupils and GTD was requested to run a Pollination Activity at the 2017 E&S Day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.exeter.ac.uk/esi/news/title_503714_en.html
 
Description European Conference on Mathematical and Theoretical Biology, Nottingham, July 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity was a presentation on BEEHAVE, Bumble-BEEHAVE and Beescout. Purpose was to showcase the models to a mathematical modelling audience and gain specialist feedback. The results were that the talk in a parallel session attracted 30 participants, raising questions and discussions and the abstract would have reached 850 participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ecmtb2016.org/
 
Description Exhibit: Royal Cornwall Show 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stand at the Royal Cornwall Show. Exhibit displaying bumblebees, and our research and encouraging the public and show visitors to engage with the importance of bees in our ecosystem. Lively discussion and enthusiastic interest in the bee colonies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description IALE UK Conference on Landscape Characterisation, September 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on Bumble-BEEHAVE and the forage landscape (GTD). The purpose was to showcase the applications of Bumble-BEEHAVE and Beescout to a landscape ecology audience (International Association for Landscape Ecology) and gain feedback from other academics and practitioners. Results were that the presentation sparked interest and discussion on potential applications and model comparisons. The Impact was that approximately 100 delegates were at the session and discussion with Dr. Richard Smithers- former president of IALE UK and senior Ecosystem Services consultant resulting in a planned seminar at the ESI hosted by GTD for June 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://iale.uk/conference2016
 
Description International Congress of Entomology, Florida, September, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact MB was invited to talk for a double session on the newly published model Beescout and its advances in modelling behaviour at the symposium for "Modelling the movement of arthropods in agricultural landscape". The purpose was to showcase Beescout and its advances in behaviour modelling. Resulted in showing how Beescout can be used to explore differences between honeybees and bumblebees in finding food sources and how this could affect their vulnerability to environmental pressures. The impact was that the talk attracted 50 participants, sparking interest and discussion as well as the abstract being distributed to 6000 delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ice2016orlando.org/
 
Description Invited Seminar Talk at University of Guelph, Canada; 15.02.2018 Bumble-BEEHAVE: An agent-based population model for bumble bees and its application as a decision tool for farmers. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar talk on modelling bees (BEEHAVE, Bumble-BEEHAVE, Bee-Steward) at the University of Guelph. Audience: Students and staff, ca. 20, plus video live stream
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.uoguelph.ca/ses/events/2018/02/ses-seminar-guest-dr-matthias-becher
 
Description Invited Seminar Talk at University of Ontario, Canada; 14.02.2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar talk on modelling bees (BEEHAVE, Bumble-BEEHAVE, Bee-Steward) at the University of Ontario/Institute of Technology. Audience: Students and staff, ca. 20
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Talk at the "Pollinators and Pollination Modeling" workshop, Fields Institute, Toronto, Canada, 26.-28.02.2018 Title of the presentation "Bumble-BEEHAVE: An agent-based population model for bumble bees and its application as a decision tool for farmers." 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Pollinators and Pollination Modeling" workshop, attended by > 50 international researchers (modellers, mathematicians, ecologists)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.fields.utoronto.ca/activities/17-18/MathBiology-pollination
 
Description Invited public talk at BEE Fayre, Enys Gardens, UK: 20./21.8.16: "BEEHAVE: Using simulations to help with bee colony survival" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of the BEEHAVE and BEESCOUT model for the general public and beekeepers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Mullion School Eco Soc workshop, October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The activity was a lunch-time activity for Mullion School Eco Soc consisting of secondary school children in the Ecological Society (GTD). Purpose was to share the bee groups research and use pollination game "HABEETAT" with the school to learn about pollination the balance between nature conservation and food production and get feedback on how we can make the game better. Results were that we got excellent feedback from pupils and teachers on the potential of the game. The impact was that we were requested to do another session with an advanced version of the game.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Penrice Academy Science Day, March 2nd 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Purpose was to highlight research on pollinators and interdependent ecosystems that relates to the national Curriculum and how to balance pressures of conservation and food production. Using the bee groups created "School Lesson pack for Secondary Biology Key Stage 4" from 2016. Results were that Debate and discussion during the workshops and at the evaluation event at the end. Questions raised by the pupils and answered during the workshop. the impact was that we were requested to run the event again in 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Penryn Town Fair 26th August 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Rosalind Shaw and Grace Twiston-Davies took public engagement activities to the Penryn Town Fair, including colour a bumblebee, spot the difference between bees and hoverflies, HABEETAT card game and a microscope with some examples of insects that provide ecosystem services to the Penryn Town Fair. Approximately 40 members of the general public passed through the village hall and interacted with the activities. We met two of the local town councilors. We also trialed a method based on Open Farm Sunday Pollinator Surveys to engage people with counting pollinators in pollinator friendly habitat in Penryn. While the method worked the stand was not ideally placed to take advantage of people passing by. The local council is keen for the University to be involved in improving pollinator habitat in Penryn.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at International Pollinator Conference, UC Davis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk was given at an international conference in front of ca. 250 researchers from 15 countries, working on bees or pollination. The presentation was followed by a number of intense discussion, mainly with researchers for the US.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://honey.ucdavis.edu/pollinatorconference2019
 
Description Presentation at the Bumblebee working group, March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity was a presentation at the Bi-annual conference on the latest research on Bumblebee behaviour and conservation (MB). The purpose was to present the new Bumble-BEEHAVE model and preliminary validation to the Bumblebee working group. Results were that the group shared our latest with discussion and advice from leaders in the field of bumblebee conservation and ecology. Impact was that the meeting and talk was shared globally on social media using #BBWG16 on Twitter and was shared on Jeff Ollerton's Biodiversity Blog "Simulating bumblebee colony dynamics with the Bumble BeeHave model is producing comparable results to field data on male and queen production (Matthias Becher)"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://jeffollerton.wordpress.com/2016/04/01/what-i-learned-at-the-bumblebee-working-group-meeting/
 
Description Presentation at the National Honey Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker at the National Honey Show 2019 in Esher, audience: ca. 70 people, mainly beekeepers and researchers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.honeyshow.co.uk/
 
Description Presentation at the Royal Entomological Society meeting on "progress in pollination and pollinator research", April 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to members of the Royal Entomological Society special interest groups introducing Bumble-BEEHAVE and its potential applications (GTD). The purpose was to introduce the applications of the Bumble-BEEHAVE model and gather feedback from the community. Results were that we presented Bumble-BEEHAVE to approximately 100 delegates in the Insect Pollination and Insects and Sustainable Agricultural Special Interest Groups. Impact was that advice and discussions on future uses and collaborations with the model from academics from the University of Reading and CEH.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description RIFCON modelling workshop 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I had a three hours slot on a two days workshop on mechanistic effect modelling at the consulting company RIFCON (Germany) for a presentation and exercises on our bee models. There were 8 participants and ca. 6 employees involved.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.rifcon.de/en/workshop
 
Description Radio Interview, Pirate FM Science Sessions, July 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The activity was an interview as part of the University of Exeter's "Science Session" hosted by Pirate FM (GTD). The purpose was to share the research on bee models to a wider audience and discuss how we collect data in the field to feed into the models. Result was that a 5 minute radio interview was conducted in the field whist GTD collected data. Impact was that Science Sessions received on average 500 downloads per episode.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.pirateextra.co.uk/shows/cornwalls-science-sessions.php
 
Description Re-branding and design on the BEEHAVE website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity was the facilitation of the re-branding and design of www.beehave-model.net, along with monthly blogs on updates on the model, conferences and meetings and the latest research using the models (GTD). Purpose was to provide online information about the models (BEEHAVE, Beescout, Bumble-BEEHAVE), a place to download the models and their associated documentation and articles. Results were that the new website was launched in August 2016. impact was that since September 2016- 1,605 users and 4,573 page views 490 different users on the download page, Blogs on the News page 226 users and 368 page views. Views from all over the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://www.beehave-model.net
 
Description Researcher Case Study for Next Steps Southwest, June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Activity was the creation of Case-study of researcher (GTD) working on bee models. The purpose was was to showcase the bee groups novel research to inspire local school children to consider a STEM career and to provide an example of a local researcher and their progression. Results were that Case-studies were sent out to schools, for outreach, widening participation, careers and recruitment events. Impact was that the profile was on the Next Steps South West website and printed copies - 1800 copies were distributed across 32 schools in Cornwall.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL https://www.nextstepscornwall.co.uk/case-studies/grace-twiston-davies-learn-new-t
 
Description Rolling out of School Lesson pack for Secondary Biology Key Stage 4 2017-2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We have been rolling out of National Curriculum resources (GTD lead, RS and JK) Funded by Exeter using the bee-groups research.These are 2 double lesson school packs with resources, PowerPoint and lesson plan. One on "Interdependence in Ecosystems, and the role of pollinators in farmed landscapes" and one on "Land Campaign- what factors can influence decisions about allocating land usage and what is the environmental impact of this".The purpose was to link the bee-groups research to the national curriculum provide high quality and relevant resources for inspiring and engaging biology lessons.Results were that the lesson plan boxes being used as flagship resources across schools in the South-west. The most important impact was that copies of both lesson plan boxes created for outreach in Devon and Somerset delivered by Exeter Streatham Campus..Impact was that a great deal of interest in using the boxes for a range of activities. Used to showcase at teacher events and as the flagship lesson plan resource for the Next Steps South west widening participant program. Used for year 9th at Brannel School (23/11/2017) by the outreach team to ~100 pupils.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://nextstepssw.ac.uk/resource-boxes/
 
Description School Lesson packs for Secondary Biology Key Stage 4 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Creation of National Curriculum resources (GTD lead, RS and JK) which was funded by the University of Exeter using the bee-groups research. Creation of 2 double science lesson school packs with resources, PowerPoints and lesson plans. One on "Interdependence in Ecosystems, and the role of pollinators in farmed landscapes" and one on "Land Campaign- what factors can influence decisions about allocating land usage and what is the environmental impact of this". The purpose was to link the bee-groups research to the National Curriculum by providing high quality and relevant resources for inspiring and engaging Biology lessons. Results were that 2 high-quality lesson boxes were created, translating the bee groups research to the National Curriculum as downloadable and loanable resources. "Interdependence in Ecosystems" consisted of a lesson plan, PowerPoint, worksheets, 7 minute video on the bee groups work on plants, pollinators and the environment with interviews from JO, GTD, RS and JK. This resource showcased the Beescout and Bumble-BEEHAVE model and its practical implications as well as the groups work in BESS (RS) and with agricultural companies (JK). This pack also contained "HABEETAT"- an educational card game that showcases the challenges of managing landscapes for pollinator conservation and pollination for food production (created by GTD) and highlights the complex relationship between pollinators, their habitats and the crops they pollinate.
"land campaign" included a lesson plan, PowerPoint, worksheets and evidence packs including summarised information from the following JO papers; Carvell et al 2015, Basic and Applied Ecology; Osborne 2012, Nature; Vanbergen et al 2013, Frontiers in Ecology and Environment and Osborne et al. 2008, Journal of Applied Ecology. The impact was that there was a great deal of interest in using the boxes for a range of activities. GTD and JK ask to deliver "Interdependence in Ecosystems" as a short STEM workshop for Penrice Academy on 2nd March reaching 150 pupils. Used to showcase at teacher events and as the flagship lesson plan resource for the Next Steps South West widening participant program.Copies of both packs requested for outreach in Devon and Somerset delivered by Exeter Streatham Campus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL https://www.nextstepscornwall.co.uk/info-and-resources/for-teachers-and-advisers/lesson-resources-fr...
 
Description Seminar Talk at Fields Institute, Toronto, Canada; 23.01.2018 Individual-based models to simulate the effects of multiple stressors in bees 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar talk at Mathematical Institute of the University of Toronto, audience ca. 20 (post-doctoral) fellows plus live stream on internet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.fields.utoronto.ca/talks/Individual-based-models-to-simulate-effects-multiple-stressors-b...
 
Description Seminar talk at Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was a seminar talk, hosted by Mathieu Lihoreau at the Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France, which may result in future collaborations. Ca. 20 people attended, mainly students and honeybee researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Seminar talk at the University College Dublin, Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was a seminar talk, hosted by Dara Stanley at the University College Dublin, Ireland, which may result in future collaborations. Ca. 20 people attended, mainly students and bee researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Talk 2015: Enys Bee Fayre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked lively discussion

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at Enys Bee fayre, August 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The activity was a talk on using the cutting-edge computer models at the ESI for bee research. The purpose was to share the groups research with the local community and resulted in talk attracted participants from a range of backgrounds with questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk to the Bishop of Truro and his office, February 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity was a talk to the Bishop of Truro Right Reverend Tim Thornton about the groups research on pollinators and pollination at the ESI (GTD). The purpose was to share the bee groups research on bee conservation and pollination as part of the ESI. This resulted in questions raised sustainability for bees and making Cornwall "bee friendly". Impacts were seen in the quote "the visit to the Penryn campus provided the opportunity for Bishop Tim to learn more about the unique and often ground breaking work being undertaken in Cornwall on the environment" and articles in Regional print media and Diocese of Truro website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.exeter.ac.uk/esi/news/title_496120_en.html
 
Description Talk: BOAD Cornwall Beekeepers Event 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to their Annual Event which has about 100 audience members of beekepers and interested general public- many questions and met with much enthusiasm. Beekeepers engaged in debate about future research funding proposal which they would like to co-create with us
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk: Cheshire Beekeepers Annual Convention Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk and Discussion - sparked interest to follow our research outcomes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk: Devon Apicultural Research Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk and full discussion of research priorities and outcomes. Participants interested in being involved in co-creating future projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk: Holsworthy Beekeepers Spring Convention 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at Spring Convention of Holsworthy Beekeepers. Lively discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Tregothnan Cornwall Bee Summit - expert panel member 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lively debate and discussion after summit.

Sarah Newton, MP, hosted debate in House of Commons (Oct 2014) the week afterwards citing the summit conclusions as evidence of Need for national Pollinator Strategy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://tregothnan.co.uk/about/news/
 
Description Workshop on Bumble-BEEHAVE and Beescout at the ESI Showcase, May 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity was a workshop on the bee groups models BEEHAVE, Bumble-BEEHAVE and Beescout (MB, GTD, TP). The purpose was to showcase the groups models, advances in research and stakeholder engagement and to gain feedback from other academics and the public. The results were that we showed a range of participants the bee models with demos and discussion. The impact was that the models and its applications with stakeholder engagement showcased to Professor Nick Talbot (Deputy Vice chancellor of the University of Exeter) and Professor Dame Georgina Mace.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.exeter.ac.uk/esi/news/title_517512_en.html
 
Description www.beesteward.co.uk website launched 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A website was launched www.beesteward.co.uk to provide online information about the BEE-STEWARD model and link to the www.beehave-model.net webpage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.beesteward.co.uk/
 
Description www.habeetatgame.com website launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This was the set up of the Habeetat website which provides information on the game on balancing bee conservation with pollination which was created as part of the lesson plan boxes for outreach by the University of Exeter. The purpose was for the website to be used by schools, teachers, educators, public to find out more about the Habeetat game and about the role of bumblebees in food security.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL http://www.habeetatgame.com/