Improving the control of liver fluke infection in cattle in the UK

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Institute of Infection and Global Health

Abstract

Liver fluke is a common parasite that affects sheep and cattle in the UK. It is found throughout the world and in some countries it affects humans too, causing serious and sometimes fatal disease.
Fluke infected cattle lose weight, become anaemic, lethargic and stop being productive. This has a serious effect on the welfare of the animal and serious economic consequences for the farmer. It is thought that fluke costs UK agriculture at least £300million pounds a year through direct losses, but real costs are probably much higher.
Fluke has become much more common over the past 10 years, due in part to our changing weather patterns, wet summers and mild winters favour the development of the parasite and its vector - a mud snail, found commonly throughout Britain. In a recent study we found 75% of dairy herds had evidence of fluke infection. Future climate change is predicted to have a significant impact on prevalence of infection, changing the epidemiology and increasing incidence of disease. Increased cattle movements and changes to both farm management and environmental schemes are exacerbating the problem. A limited range of drugs is available to control fasciolosis. Only one drug - triclabendazole (TCBZ), is effective against early and late juvenile and adult stages of the parasite and is used extensively for prophylaxis and treatment of disease. There is growing evidence of resistance to TCBZ in fluke populations, moreover the European Medicines Agency has recently revised its advice on drugs used to treat fluke such that they are now contra-indicated in dairy animals.
Targeted use of drugs, at specific times of year will slow the development of drug resistance and reduce the overall quantity of drug used, but a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission of disease is vital if we are to develop control programmes that rely on improved on farm management practises rather than depending solely on drugs. This ultimately will be a sustainable and cot-effective way to control both clinical and sub-clinical disease in cattle and is the express desire of the livestock industry.
Specifically requested by the farming industry, the purpose of this project is to produce new, sustainable, bespoke control programmes for beef and dairy farms, to reduce losses associated with fluke infection.
In order to achieve this we must first develop diagnostic tests to identify infected herds. We already have good tools that we can use on milk samples to detect infected dairy herds but we need similar tests that are appropriate for beef herds. In addition we are aware of a newly emerging parasite problem, the rumen fluke. It is not clear if this parasite causes disease but it has the potential to interfere with the diagnostic tests we are developing for fluke. Therefore we will also develop a molecular test for rumen fluke.
Secondly we will develop a system to categorise snail habitats that can be used to analyse satellite maps on a regional geographic scale to obviate the need to visit every farm to investigate snail habitat. We will also investigate how cow behaviour affects how the parasite gets to a snail host and from the snail host back to the cow.
These are risk factors for fluke infection on a farm. Other risk factors, particularly husbandry practices, physical and environmental factors will be obtained from a study of 250 farms and these data fed into statistical and mathematical models to determine theoretically which of these factors are the most important in determining whether a farm has fluke or not. Concurrently we will assess the cost-benefit of changing these practices. Finally we will conduct a trial to evaluate if changing farm practice is effective in reducing levels of infection. We are working in partnership with the Agricultural Levy boards of the UK to implement improved control of fluke infection to benefit animal health, welfare and profitability of livestock farming in the UK.

Technical Summary

Requested by the farming industry, the purpose of this project is to produce new, sustainable, bespoke control programmes for beef and dairy farms, to reduce losses associated with F. hepatica. This is a focussed, integrated project combining cutting-edge mathematical and economic models, informed by data collected from the field culminating in farm level intervention programmes to fully evaluate the theoretical outputs from the models. The project is divided into five interlinked workpackages:
WP1: Development and validation of herd level diagnostic tests, to identify farms with fluke infection and to discriminate between Fasciola and paramphistome infection
WP2: Field level classification of snail habitats and identification of factors that influence contacts between cows, snails and the parasite.
WP3: Identification of on farm risk factors for F. hepatica infection in dairy and beef enterprises and development of statistical and mathematical models to predict the likely benefits of implementing changes to farm practice on fluke prevalence
WP4: An economic analysis to define costs of fluke infection at herd and national level
WP5: Evaluation of on-farm intervention programme on reducing prevalence of fluke infection on dairy and beef farms.
The disease is of such importance and relevance to the industry that all five UK agricultural levy boards are making significant contributions to this project. To ensure the outputs of the research are fed back to the industry the final component of the project is an implementation and impact programme in collaboration with the levy boards.

Planned Impact

This project, aimed at "Improving the control of liver fluke infection in cattle in the UK" will benefit the commercial private sector, policy makers and the wider public.
Commercial impact
Liver fluke has been identified as a threat to animal welfare, productivity and profitability by the agricultural industry; this proposal is submitted with full support from the 5 UK Levy Boards. Fasciolosis is a significant constraint on beef and milk production in the UK. The parasite affects feed conversion, growth rates and milk yield and has a negative impact on farmers' incomes, abattoir profitability (in 2010 this was estimated to cost the industry about £3.2million in England, Wales and Scotland) and availability of meat and dairy products for export and home consumption. Cereal costs are increasing world wide - this is severely affecting the cost and profitability of producing beef and dairy and appears to be driving a move to grass reared beef. Grass-fed cattle are at an increased risk of exposure to liver fluke. In addition, warmer and wetter winters, environmental protection schemes, resistance of liver fluke to drugs, and the potential withdrawal of treatment products from the market may add to the risk of infection and limit the options for disease control. The outputs from this project will directly benefit beef and dairy farmers, enabling them to improve fluke control on their farms, reducing reliance on blanket drug treatment and improving productivity and biological efficiency. Abattoirs will have a secure supply of animals with reduced waste, dairy processing companies will benefit from improved milk yield and the retail sector will benefit from improved local production. Overall this will benefit the wider UK economy.
Policy impact
The UK has international (Kyoto Protocol) and domestic (Climate Change Act 2008) targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enteric fermentation in ruminants makes a significant contribution to agricultural GHG emissions (htp://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/climate_stats/gg_emissions/gg_emissions.aspx). Disease management has been specifically identified as a tool to improve agricultural productivity whilst reducing GHG emissions (Foresight. The Future of Food and Farming, 2011). This project will produce validated protocols, epidemiological and economic models and robust guidelines for detection and management of liver fluke on cattle farms, which will contribute to the dual policy aim of providing food security whilst limiting agriculture's carbon footprint. Another policy goal of the UK and devolved governments is to protect the country's Ecosystem Services. For example, it is part of Defra's business plan to establish nature improvement areas (http://www.number10.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/DEFRA-2012-Business-Plan.pdf). However, environmental protection schemes may result in unintended side effects as shown by the increase in liver fluke risk in association with the Agri-environment schemes that encourage wetter grassland conditions for breeding and migrating birds and invertebrates, including liver fluke host snails. Improved understanding of on-farm risk factors for liver fluke, including snail ecology, will help policy makers to balance demands from competing ecosystem services, such as food production and conservation of biodiversity. Involvement of the Levy Boards will ensure direct dissemination of the outputs to both commercial beneficiaries and policy makers.
Wider public
The reliable availability of affordable and healthy food is in the interest of the wider public. Beef and dairy product supplies, their quality, environmental impact and price depend on an international balance of trade which will be affected by the prevalence of fasciolosis. Our economic models will include an assessment of impacts on national markets and hence indicate consumer benefits from a more secure supply of food, produced to higher environmental and welfare standards.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Final project report:
This project, funded by BBSRC and AHDB Beef & Lamb; AHDB Dairy; Hybu Cig Cymru, Quality Meat Scotland and Agrisearch Northern Ireland is aimed at improving the control of the common and highly pathogenic parasite, Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke). It is well established that rainfall is a key driver of the fluke life cycle and high rainfall normally results in increasing risk of fluke. But farm specific factors play an important part in determining if a farm has fluke. This project was designed to identify those factors so that farmers can modify their management systems to reduce the risk of fluke. To be able to do that, it is important that we have good diagnostic tests and fully understand the costs of fluke to beef and dairy production so that cost-effective measures can be put in place.
The project had five work packages:
• WP1: Development and validation of herd level diagnostic tests, to identify farms with fluke infection and to discriminate between Fasciola and paramphistome (Calicophoron daubneyi) infection
• WP2: Field level classification of snail habitats and identification of factors that influence contacts between cows, snails and the parasite.
• WP3: identification of on farm risk factors for F. hepatica infection in dairy and beef enterprises and development of statistical and mathematical models to predict the likely benefits of implementing changes to farm practice on fluke prevalence
• WP4: An economic analysis to define costs of fluke infection at herd and national level
• WP5: Evaluation of on-farm intervention programme on reducing prevalence of fluke infection on dairy and beef farms.

Workpackage 1
A commercial copro-antigen ELISA was shown to be consistently less sensitive than individual and composite FEC in detecting liver fluke infection in beef cattle. A composite faecal egg detection test to identify infected beef herds was developed and validated (Graham-Brown et al doi: 10.1136/vr.105128). Herd-level testing protocols for subsequent field and lab work were based on a composite FEC strategy and a bulk tank milk ELISA for dairy herds. With additional funding from AHDB B&L the antibody detection ELISA was modified extrapolated to a lateral flow test.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were developed using cattle faecal samples and were shown to be more robust and consistent than previous PCR-based methods. They were capable of distinguishing between rumen fluke and liver fluke.
A news release summarising the development of the composite FEC from this workpackage was used to disseminate findings to the industry.

Workpackage 2
Contact between cows, snails and parasites: We identified which areas of pasture where the snail intermediate host is most likely to be found and where cattle choose to graze. We showed that more snails are found in unimproved pasture, particularly where rushes and water (wet) flushes are found. Interestingly although cattle spend most time grazing improved and sparse rush pasture, dung is dropped in wet flush and dense rush areas where snails are most likely to be found.
Field level classification of snail habitats: Forty farms in Shropshire (a subsample of the 195 farms sampled for WP3) were mapped for presence of fluke habitat with the following results:
• Snail habitats were diverse and often diffuse, which makes identifying contaminated areas, problematic.
Perfect snail habitat is
• Wet (but not underwater)
• Bare mud (but not recently disturbed)
• Open (not shaded by hedges, trees or long vegetation)
• Depressions caused by tractor tyre ruts, poaching, natural landscape features
• Cleared drainage ditches
• Banks on the sides of streams or ponds
• Soft ground around leaking water taps or pipes
Knowing where snail habitat is on a farm is critical to avoiding highly contaminated pasture in the autumn, the danger time for fluke. However these findings suggest that snail habitat is localised, variable and diffuse. Plant species such as rushes, meadow sweet and valerian, were positively associated with damp pasture, where snails were found. A wide variety of snail species including Galba truncatula were found.
A leaflet was published and included in farmer facing newspapers to disseminate these findings.

Workpackage 3
To identify factors that increase a farm's risk of fluke infection, 195 farms in the Shropshire/Staffordshire area of England were recruited. Each farm was visited, their cattle sampled and a detailed questionnaire answered to provide information on farm management, pasture use and type and other management information. Of the farms tested, 42.6% were fluke positive by composite egg count and 41% of dairy farms were positive by bulk tank milk ELISA. Overall, considering 2014 was a dry year in Shropshire thus considered to be a relatively low risk year for fluke, these results demonstrate how common fluke is in British cattle herds. The data from the questionnaires, maps obtained from the Rural Payment Agency and FEC/BMT results for each farm have been uploaded onto a database and verified. Logistic regression analysis was used and identified three highly significant farm level risk factors for fluke infection. These are (1) presence of sheep on the farm; (2) policy of buying in cattle onto the farm and (3) presence of snail habitat on farms, and grazing management that uses pastures associated with snail habitat at high risk times of year.
A mathematical model based on Turner et al 2016 (doi: 10.1038/srep23345) was used to analyse the likely effect of implementing changes to farm practice on fluke prevalence. This was used to inform the economic model in WP4.
A series of farmer and vet workshops organised through AHDB, was used to disseminate findings.
Workpackage 4
Evaluation at the herd level, the individual animal impacts of liver fluke in cattle: The impacts of liver fluke infestation of the individual animal were evaluated at the herd-level by the development of a suite of bio-economic models, one for each of the three main UK production systems: dairy, beef suckler herds and growing cattle. The development of the model structure involved expert industry consultation and input. The economic methodology used was partial-budget analysis (PBA). In PBA the projected gains are the sum of the extra revenue and the costs saved by making a change. The projected losses are the estimated revenue forgone and extra costs due to making a change. By subtracting the projected gains from the projected losses the net effect is estimated.
Several assumptions were made and consensus was sought from experts for the decisions made. The models were run for the theoretical situation of fluke versus no fluke in the same herd-year. The outcome measure is the average loss per infected animal in the herd per year (£/year) or ALPIAHA.
The results showed that:
• the higher the yield of dairy herds the higher the median average loss per infected animal in the herd per year (£/year). Fluke is estimated to reduce milk yield by 15%
• the median ALPIAHA for the autumn/winter calving beef suckler herds was substantially lower than for the spring/summer calving beef suckler herds. Losses for a spring born beef suckler calf are estimated to be £193
The sensitivity analysis showed that reduced milk yield was the main parameter to influence the dairy model, while for Spring/Summer calving suckler herds it was fluke prevalence in adult cows. For the growing animal model the most influential parameter was the impact of fluke on the estimated daily live weight gain.
Impact of fluke infection at the national level using use economic welfare methodology: An economic welfare model was used to estimate the economic winners and losers as a consequence of liver fluke in the UK. On aggregate, the UK loses out financially as a result of liver fluke with the absolute economic losses/gains for the dairy herd system relatively higher than those for the beef finishing systems. Farmers of dairy and beef herds infected with liver fluke and milk/beef consumers lose out financially as a result of liver fluke, while farmers of uninfected beef and dairy herds benefit. The winners (i.e. farmers of uninfected herds) gain more as herd-level prevalence increases and gain less as herd-level prevalence decreases. The losers (i.e. farmers of infected herds and milk/beef consumers) lose more as herd-level prevalence increases and lose less as herd-level prevalence decreases.
From the results, it can be hypothesized that intervention to reduce the national herd-level prevalence of liver fluke could favour milk/beef consumers and farmers of infected herds in the UK.

Workpackage 5
The final component of the project was an intervention study in which strategies to mitigate the three risk factors identified in WP3 were implemented to reduce the transmission of fluke on cattle farms. We identified six intervention farms, ethical approval was obtained and the study conducted between April and November 2018 (an unusually dry year).
The results showed that testing and treating sheep was feasible and farmers were keen to adopt this intervention.
Three farms bought in cattle over the course of the study, quarantine testing and treatment compliance was poor. Farmers were reluctant to keep animals separate and send samples for testing prior to treatment. They were keen for bought in animals to join the main herd immediately.
Grazing management: snails were found on all six farms but it was not possible to identify occupied snail habitat without close inspection. Of 637 snails found, 2.4% were F. hepatica positive by PCR, a similar prevalence to previous studies. It was not practical to fence off or alter grazing management to avoid areas of snail habitat.
All six farms relied heavily on use of flukicidal products, none did any diagnostic testing, choice of drug seemed haphazard; triclabendazole resistance was detected on one farm.
The principle outputs from the intervention study that have been fed back to the industry are:
• Controlling access to areas of potential snail habitat on farms is not a feasible option for most farms.
• Testing and treating sheep in spring using a product that targets adult fluke reduces egg contamination of pasture.
• There is considerable confusion amongst farmers about when to treat and what product to use at specific times of year.
• Diagnostic testing is not practiced but would inform farmers when to treat and would help in choice of product to use.

A series of farmer workshops providing specific, bespoke treatment plans were held in six regions of North Wales.
Exploitation Route Outputs from the project are having a direct impact already on farms. A significant amount of KE has been delivered from the project and all the objectives in the pathways to impact were achieved.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description Members of the consortium have participated or organised numerous workshops and presentations to farmers groups, industry, vets through CPD and the public. This has raised awareness of the impact of fluke infection in cattle, in terms of disease and welfare of individual animals but also the economic impact of sub-clinical infection. Much of our outputs are fed through the industry advisory groups, COWS (control of worms sustainably) and SCOPS (sustainable control of parasites in sheep). We have written large numbers of articles for the farming press and outputs disseminated through social media. We are currently providing monthly updates on fluke risk in both sheep and cattle http://www.scops.org.uk/news/279/farmers-urged-to-take-advice-to-deal-with-complicated-liver-fluke-situation/. Fluke news on the COWS website is provided by UofLiverpool (Williams) http://www.cattleparasites.org.uk/fluke.html An A5 sized postcard to advertise the Liverpool Liver fluke control programme has been commissioned and distributed to a wide range of organisations to raise the awareness of options for fluke control for cattle and sheep farmers. We are working with farmers to assess how the outputs from the project are enabling them to change practice and improve control, relying less on use of chemotherapeutics. Investigator J Graham-Brown is now the veterinary advisor for NADIS (National Animal Disease Information Service).
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description EU Discontools
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description STAR IDAZ
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description GIS-based Liver Fluke Risk Forecasting System
Amount £395,770 (GBP)
Funding ID 104619 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 05/2020
 
Description pathfinder follow-on-fund
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R013349/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Title Dairy and beef farm data 
Description Full dataset from 200 farms in UK with management, climate, animal signalment, topography, soil, farm maps 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Paper published with details of data set and led to collaboration with University of Bristol and a high level paper published 
 
Description Collaboration with Mologic 
Organisation Mologic
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution collaboration over development of lateral flow test for diagnosing fluke infection in sheep and cattle
Collaborator Contribution Mologic brought their expertise in lateral flow technology
Impact BBSRC pathfinder follow on fund application and award
Start Year 2017
 
Description N8 Agri-food 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution large consortium, led by Newcastle involving food producers (nestle) and conservation groups
Collaborator Contribution investigating how agri-environmental, ecosystem services and flood mitigations schemes affect disease transmission, this led by Liverpool.
Impact grant application under development, multidisciplinary.
Start Year 2016
 
Description N8 Agri-food 
Organisation University of Newcastle
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution large consortium, led by Newcastle involving food producers (nestle) and conservation groups
Collaborator Contribution investigating how agri-environmental, ecosystem services and flood mitigations schemes affect disease transmission, this led by Liverpool.
Impact grant application under development, multidisciplinary.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Predictive Tools for the Sustainable Control of Liver Fluke Infection in Sheep and Cattle. 
Organisation British Geological Survey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Application to the BBSRC/NERC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Innovation Club Liverpool (lead), Universities of Edinburgh, Leicester and British Geological Survey. Pre-proposal approved, full proposal submitted February 2016. not funded but has led to development of other ideas with Wales, with an application to the Welsh EIP programme in collaboration with Farming Connect.
Collaborator Contribution Led by Liverpool as recognised experts in fasciola research.
Impact Further grant application and it is multi-disciplinary. Involved sociologists, remote sensing experts from the British Geological Survey and a leading farm animal veterinary group.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Predictive Tools for the Sustainable Control of Liver Fluke Infection in Sheep and Cattle. 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Application to the BBSRC/NERC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Innovation Club Liverpool (lead), Universities of Edinburgh, Leicester and British Geological Survey. Pre-proposal approved, full proposal submitted February 2016. not funded but has led to development of other ideas with Wales, with an application to the Welsh EIP programme in collaboration with Farming Connect.
Collaborator Contribution Led by Liverpool as recognised experts in fasciola research.
Impact Further grant application and it is multi-disciplinary. Involved sociologists, remote sensing experts from the British Geological Survey and a leading farm animal veterinary group.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Predictive Tools for the Sustainable Control of Liver Fluke Infection in Sheep and Cattle. 
Organisation University of Leicester
Department Department of Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Application to the BBSRC/NERC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Innovation Club Liverpool (lead), Universities of Edinburgh, Leicester and British Geological Survey. Pre-proposal approved, full proposal submitted February 2016. not funded but has led to development of other ideas with Wales, with an application to the Welsh EIP programme in collaboration with Farming Connect.
Collaborator Contribution Led by Liverpool as recognised experts in fasciola research.
Impact Further grant application and it is multi-disciplinary. Involved sociologists, remote sensing experts from the British Geological Survey and a leading farm animal veterinary group.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Predictive Tools for the Sustainable Control of Liver Fluke Infection in Sheep and Cattle. 
Organisation Westpoint Farm Vets
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Application to the BBSRC/NERC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Innovation Club Liverpool (lead), Universities of Edinburgh, Leicester and British Geological Survey. Pre-proposal approved, full proposal submitted February 2016. not funded but has led to development of other ideas with Wales, with an application to the Welsh EIP programme in collaboration with Farming Connect.
Collaborator Contribution Led by Liverpool as recognised experts in fasciola research.
Impact Further grant application and it is multi-disciplinary. Involved sociologists, remote sensing experts from the British Geological Survey and a leading farm animal veterinary group.
Start Year 2015
 
Description STAR-IDAZ 
Organisation European Union
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Collaborated in designing the research needs roadmap for veterinary helminth diseases of livestock for the EU
Collaborator Contribution STAR-IDAZ was charged by EU country states to develop research needs roadmaps for global animal diseases. I led the diagnostics for liver fluke section of the veterinary helminth diseases roadmap and contributed to the overall roadmap. The results will be presented to the DISCONTOOLS meeting in Brussels in April 2020.
Impact DOI: 10.1111/tbed12682.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Transitions to Resilient Dairy 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partner and coapplicant on GFS 2 funded project exploring how to make dairy farming in the uk more resilient to external pressures such as climate change, economic change and consumer choices. Investigation of how PES changes disease risk on farm.
Collaborator Contribution Lead - Newcastle University, exploring farmer - business interactions. Co-app Leeds University measuring impact of PES on biodiversity and ecology.
Impact Multi-disciplinary, business linked. GFS funded grant.
Start Year 2017
 
Description AHDB Farmer Innovation Grant workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was involved in advising a meat processor on liver fluke control on three farms which had a high rate of liver condemnations associated with liver fluke. the advice was put into practice with funding from AHDB's Farmer Innovation Grant scheme. Using effective diagnosis and grazing management reduced losses at the abattoir, enhancing profitability and efficiency in farming systems for everyone concerned. Outputs were published in the AHDB annual newsletter and website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Agrichat evening event on twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Agrichat session on twitter - two hour long question and answer event involving farmers, vets and SQPs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Agrisearch day at Hillsborough, NI 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Held a one day farmer workshop following one of our annual project meetings. Six talks plus Q&A with farmers from the region, invited by Agrisearch Northern Ireland. Very well received with extensive local press coverage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Beef Expo May 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited to host a stand at Beef Expo, highlighting BBSRC project, new results and how to improve control of liver fluke on beef farms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description COWS farmer workshop April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact FArmer workshop following a COWS steering committee meeting. Knowledge exchange, providing information about fluke and its life cycle, routes of transmission, diagnosis and control. This led to an article in the Farmers Weekly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description COWS steering group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I am a member of a steering group for COWS, the Control of Worms Sustainably. this is an industry supported group with farmers, vets, representatives from VMD, NFU and academics, who feed information on best practice for parasite control to the industry - farmers and vets principally. We have a facebook page, extensive use of Twitter and also functions such as Agrichat UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://www.cattleparasites.org.uk/
 
Description COWS technical chapters updated 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I rewrote the Fasciola hepatica technical chapters for the Control of Parasites Sustainably [https://www.cattleparasites.org.uk/] for the farming industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://www.cattleparasites.org.uk/
 
Description Cattle breeders conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented a paper at the British Cattle Breeders conference - also prepared a 'Digest Paper' which was published on their website - "Development of a Pen-side Diagnostic Test for Liver Fluke Infection in Cattle and Sheep"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.cattlebreeders.org.uk/digests/71/papers/341/
 
Description Cumbria BVA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talk on fluke control to the British Veterinary Association, mainly farm vets but also horse vets interesting in our new project on fluke in horses
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Farmers meetings organised by Arla, McDonald's and the Soil Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Series of farmer's meetings to discuss results of liver fluke diagnosis in organic dairy farms and improve control with less reliance on anthelmintics

Increased uptake of diagnostic tests on offer (through dairy companies), increased level of participation in new research project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Farmers' meeting and consultation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Discussion prompted farmers to improve monitoring and control of disease in their herds

FArmers submitting samples for diagnosis on a regular basis to inform treatment plans and herd health schemes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Farming connect clinics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Farming Connect regional clinics (six regions of North Wales, visiting 24 cattle and sheep farms to discuss bespoke parasite control)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Hybu Cig Cymru ON-Farm 2016 Technical Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact discussion of best ways to control fluke on sheep and cattle farms in Wales. 50+ farmers plus agriculture and veterinary students attended. Feedback from the meeting very positive - tweeted event via the HCC twitter account for broader dissemination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Liverpool Fluke Plan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Produced the Liverpool Fluke Control Plan, postcard sized control plan distributed to farmers, vets and farming press on a number of occasions including the Animal Health Distributors Association annual conference, January 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Monthly SCOPS/COWS fluke updates 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Contributed to production of monthly alerts sent out by NADIS, SCOPS & COWS, advising farmers and veterinarians about fluke risk over the autumn and winter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description Presentation to the Research and Development Board of Hybu Cig Cymru 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented results of the BBSRC IPA research grant to the HCC board - they part funded the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Two leaflets for The Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (AHDB), for farmers summarising the outputs from the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Two leaflets/newsletters were produced based on findings from the project. One was on diagnosis of fluke in cattle, the second was on how to identify marshy ground that potentially supports Galba truncatula populations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Vaxa conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact One hour symposium on control of liver fluke to dairy and beef producers in Sweden. Wide industry representation, farmers and vets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description five regional farmer and vet workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact five regional workshops organised by AHDB to present findings from BBSRC IPA award: Improving control of liver fluke in cattle in the UK. Attended by over 50 farmers and vets at each meeting. Day long workshops with presentation and then farm walk to assess fluke habitat on farm and consider control programmes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description press articles 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Press articles on liver fluke control:
Farmers Weekly 30/09/2015
Farming Futures 11/09/2015
Farmers Weekly 30/07/2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description series of workshops with farmers for Farming Connect, Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact workshops on fluke, KE advice on improving control of liver fluke on farms. One farmer brought me a dead sheep, it had died from fluke!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016