Exploiting plant root exudation of organic acids and phytases to enhance plant utilisation of soil organic phosphorus

Lead Research Organisation: The James Hutton Institute
Department Name: Ecological Sciences

Abstract

Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, essential for crop production. Uncertainties over mineral P supplies coupled with concerns for food security and environmental impact of P on waters all necessitate an improvement in agronomic P efficiencies, based on sound knowledge of the range of P forms in soils. Our research is different to previous approaches to recover P from soils in that it focuses on the organic P (Po) components and uses a novel combination of root exudates from different plants to solubilise organic P and make it bioavailable as inorganic orthophosphate.

The two fundamental problems associated with the use of soil organic P by plants are that much of it is strongly attached to soil particles and therefore inaccessible to plants, and secondly, even when not firmly attached to soil particles, the forms in which it exists are not readily available for plant uptake. Some plants possess traits that can help access organic P in soils; firstly some plants can produce organic acids from their roots, which can release the P attached to soil particles, and secondly some can release phosphatases (e.g. phytase), which can hydrolyse the organic P into forms which plants can take-up. However, crop plants generally do not possess both these traits and so combinations of plants are required, each carrying out a different role. Systems that rely on clover undersown into cereal crops to provide nitrogen (N) to the current crop, act as an overwinter green manure, and to provide N to following crops are fairly common in organic farming enterprises. We have clover lines which can produce phytase required to mineralize organic P, while some strains of barley have been shown to release organic acids, making the organic P available for mineralisation. We will investigate a clover/barley bi-cropping system as an exemplar sustainable alternative to intensive applications of P and N fertilizers, thus potentially making the arable system more efficient both economically and environmentally. Thus we shall test the overarching hypothesis that: Cropping systems with roots exuding both organic acid anions and phytase can facilitate more sustainable agricultural production by accessing soil organic P forms.

Specifically, we propose to investigate and understand the role of organic acids and phosphatases in plant mixtures in accessing the organic P from the inositol phosphate pool. We shall then explore what happens to these organic P forms in the soils and the rhizosphere and examine their potential (or otherwise) for leaching from the soil to surface waters where they may cause eutrophication. A range of experiments will be carried out to identify potentially suitable strains of barley and clover for such a system, followed by experiments incorporating different combinations of these strains, grown in soil, to assess what combinations can most efficiently access different forms of organic P, while minimizing leaching losses. By increasing the amount of P utilized from the P stored in soils we can reduce the reliance on inorganic fertilisers, increasing agricultural sustainability and improving our ability to deliver food security in coming decades.

Technical Summary

Organic phosphorus is a common constituent of the P in many soils and comprises mostly of esters of fully oxidised P where P is attached to C through an O atom. Other compounds such as phosphonates and organic polyphosphates occur in lesser amounts. Our appreciation of the extent to which crop plants can utilise organic P pools in soils is limited. The overarching aim of the project is to test the hypothesis that: Cropping systems with roots exuding both organic acid anions and phytase can facilitate more sustainable agricultural production by accessing soil organic P forms.

We will investigate and attempt to understand the role of organic acid anions and phosphatases in exemplar plant mixtures in accessing organic P in soils. We shall then explore what happens to these compounds in the soils and the rhizosphere. A range of experiments will be carried out to identify potentially suitable strains of barley and clover for such a system, followed by experiments incorporating different combinations of these strains, grown in soil, to assess what combinations can most efficiently access different forms of organic P, while minimizing the losses of P via leachate. Experiments and techniques employed will include screening of plant populations for abilities to exude organic acids and phosphatases using anion exchange resins (AERs) and DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films), HPLC, enzyme hydrolysis and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, for identification of organic P compounds and groups in soil extracts and soil water.

Planned Impact

Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource crucial to past and future agricultural productivity. The primary source of P fertiliser is mineral deposits, with 85% of the global resource being located in Morocco and Western Sahara. This concentrated geographical distribution means that global food security is threatened not only by finite supplies of rock phosphate fertiliser, but also through potential geopolitical instability. Therefore growing concerns for food security necessitate an improvement in agronomic P efficiencies, based on sound knowledge of the range and quantities of P forms in soils. This proposed project will explore technologies to improve crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency by enhancing the availability to plants of organic P in soils (which is relatively unavailable, but plentiful), whilst also minimising any potential negative environmental consequences. It therefore potentially has implications for anyone involved in crop production from agricultural research scientists, fertiliser suppliers, crop breeders, land managers through to policy makers. Knowledge of organic P species in soils is fundamental to the development of new plant varieties able to hydrolyse the organic P resources which may occur in different soil types and therefore this project is of particular interest to plant breeders. Additionally, it will assist with development of cropping techniques such as bi-cropping for maximisation of the benefits of different plant traits. A plant combining approach that increases P acquisition may be readily adopted into grassland and fodder agriculture and subsequently ways found to allow extension to intensive arable systems. This could be realised by the use of plant molecular genetics to allow both exudation of low molecular weight organic acid anions and enzymes in cereal crop varieties. It would become viable to explore these different agronomic application options once the grounding work on organic P release from the soil-plant system, as contained in this proposal, is completed.

Ultimately this work could potentially inform policy through providing information on how to maximise crop yields while minimising fertiliser inputs. Results could influence the way in which cropping systems are considered in the future, providing some fundamental science supporting their development, based on more than just yield/productivity, but also on the specific soil/plant processes involved. In the long term this work could contribute to the nation's wealth by providing guidance on more nutrient efficient cropping techniques and indicating which traits in plants should be developed, and how they may work in tandem to maximise productivity while minimising fertiliser usage. It may also mean that the nation becomes less reliant on the increasingly scarce global mineral P resources, which are not only becoming more expensive, but also in a time of political instability, could potentially become inaccessible. The basic principle behind the science proposed here is relatively simple to convey, and in combination with its strategic importance to BBSRC with regard to Food Security, makes it an ideal topic to showcase to the public. This will be done at all the participating Institutes' Open days/School Science Week events, meaning it would not only have benefits to the current scientific community, but may also stimulate a new generation of scientists into this field of research. This project addresses the BBSRC strategic research priority areas of crop science (food security) and global security. The project team have direct access to avenues for dissemination of the science into policy through the EA/DEFRA Demonstration Test Catchments, the SEPA Diffuse Pollution Management Advisory Group and the JHI Centres of Expertise for Waters.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The interaction of phytases, Po and and organic acids with the soil solid phase was investigated using a combination of plant cultivation and soil analysis techniques, including Diffusive Gradients Thin Films (DGT), soil phosphatase zymography, and the analysis of P fractions and species using solution 31P NMR spectroscopy, extract, and enzyme-based soil assays.

A range of experiments were conducted to identify cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and legume species with complementary root exudation and morphological characteristics for intercropping. Through facilitation and improved cycling of P in soils, the intercropped barley and legume lines are expected to facilitate sustainable agricultural production through improved P use efficiency, possible by acquiring soil organic P.

An intercropping experiment was designed based on the results of an initial barley and legume screening study, which recommended that barley cultivars and legume species with the most disparate exudate and morphological root characteristics would experience fewer competitive interactions and may therefore facilitate the acquisition of P from soils. The intercropping study with barley and legumes showed that complementarity occurred in some but not all plant combinations and depended on soil P availability, whereby complementarity was greatest at the sub-critical P requirement for barley.

Using model tobacco plant lines with heterologous expression of fungal phytases (Phy) and Arabidopsis citrate transporters (Cit), the beneficial interaction of citrate and phytase exudation was demonstrated in a soil with limited P availability (Podzol). Positive growth effects between intercropped (Int) citrate- and phytase-exuding plant lines coincided with the depletion of organic P in rhizosphere soils when the roots of two plants were intermingled.

An experiment was designed to investigate the importance of root intermingling in the development of complementarity between the citrate- and phytase-exuding tobacco plant lines. As observed in the first study with tobacco, positive complementarity occurred in the P limited soil when Cit and Phy plant roots intermingled. However, when plant roots were separated by a permeable mesh barrier, complementarity diminished. Whether complementarity occurred in separated root treatments depended on the source and relative mobility of the phytase being expressed. The Peniophora lycii phyA is expected to be relatively more mobile in soil (pH 5) compared to the Aspergillus niger phyA based on differences in isoelectric point. Only in Cit+Phy plant combinations containing the more mobile phytase was positive complementarity observed in separated root treatments. This study also showed that complementarity between Cit and Phy plants only occurs under conditions of limited soil P availability and scales with the rate of citrate efflux in Cit plants. Importantly, gains in shoot P content due to the interaction of these exudates in a P limited soil (+0.1-0.2% shoot P) would be adequate for many crop species to transition from physiological deficient to sufficient in P.

The interaction of citrate and phytase exudates was expected to promote the depletion of organic P forms in the rhizosphere. Specifically, tobacco plants expressing the Phy exudation trait were expected to promote the depletion of soil phytate beyond that of wild-type or vector control plant lines. Analysis of rhizosphere soils with solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the Phy trait did not lead to a greater depletion of soil organic P (in comparison to null vector and wild-type plants) when plants were grown in a soil with adequate P in plant available P (Cambisol). Pleiotropic effects of the vector plant line, including a larger root biomass, and differences in soil pH among plant treatments were likely factors effected this outcome. However, in a limited available P soil, 31P NMR analysis revealed a greater depletion of soil organic P (albeit not phytate specifically) and increase in plant available orthophosphate in soils planted with Cit and Phy tobacco combinations. The intercropped plant combinations also accumulated more shoot P than the other plant treatments, suggesting that organic P converted to orthophosphate in soil was utilised for growth by these plants.

Collectively, the experiments conducted with tobacco indicate that the interaction of citrate and phytase exudates promotes the conversion of soil organic P for plant P uptake, but only when soil available P is limited. The development of complementarity in barley-legume intercropping systems also only occurred with limited soil P availability. The development of positive complementarity and gains in shoot P content could be sufficient to improve plant P nutrition in cropping systems but will depend on exudate characteristics (rate of efflux, enzyme mobility) and distribution of exudates in soil. Furthermore, organic anion and phosphatase exudate-based strategies for improving the acquisition of soil P by plants appear to be the most effective in limited available P soils, which are also abundant in organic P.

Using the DGT method applied in soils, studies of P bioavailability, mobility and resupply from solid phase were performed in 32 UK soils and a set of controlled experiments using 2 UK soils were conducted to investigate the effect of various organic anions on solid-to-solution phase partitioning of phosphorus. This allowed a better comprehension of the phosphorus chemistry with deep insights on its agronomic use across a wide range of different UK soils and plant exudation conditions.
Exploitation Route Findings will be published in scientific journals and presented at national and international conferences
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment

URL http://soilorganicp.com/
 
Description First findings have been prepared for publication and presentation and have been made available for the scientific community and general public.
First Year Of Impact 2017
 
Description EU consultation on P Sustainability
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL http://ec.europa.eu/environment/consultations/pdf/phosphorus/EN.pdf
 
Description BUFFERTECH: Optimisation of ecosystem services provided by buffer strips using novel technological methods
Amount kr 10,000,000 (DKK)
Organisation Danish Council for Strategic Research (DSF) 
Sector Public
Country Denmark
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2018
 
Description Royal Society International Exchange Programme - China
Amount £24,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description SARISA
Amount £1,364,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L026058/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 10/2017
 
Description STARS Soil training and research postdictural training scheme PhD funding application by Stutter and Haygarth
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Organisation James Hutton Institute 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2020
 
Description Scholarship to attend Brazil-UK Workshop, "Environmental and metabolic control of plant growth and development". UNICAMP Campinas, Brazil.
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 03/2015
 
Description Scholarship to attend UK-Brazil Workshop: "Managing the Rhizosphere to Alleviate Food Poverty". ESALQ, Piracicaba, Brazil
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 06/2016
 
Description Travel award to attend the 9th International Symposium of the International Society of Root Research. Canberra Australia. 6-9 October 2015.
Amount £900 (GBP)
Organisation International Society of Root Research 
Sector Learned Society
Country Unknown
Start 09/2015 
End 10/2015
 
Description Vermont Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (VT-EPSCoR)
Amount $10,000 (USD)
Funding ID NSF-EPS # 1101317 
Organisation National Science Foundation (NSF) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2014
 
Description Young Scientist Award
Amount € 9,600 (EUR)
Organisation Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD) 
Sector Public
Country France
Start 08/2014 
End 09/2014
 
Title Phosphatase zymography 
Description Developed new image analysis techniques and calibration protocols for quantifying phosphatase activity in soils and around roots using 2D fluorescent substrate-based zymography. The method for soil zymogrphy was originally developed by Spohn and Kuzyakov (2013, Soil Biol Biochem). A nylon filter impregnated with 4-methylumbelliferylphosphate (MUP) is pressed against the surface of soil and roots (following growth in rhizobox) and hydrolysis of MUP leads to production of the fluorescent product (4-methylumbelliferone, 4-MU). When first using the method, we found the calibration, which uses 4-MU, to be sensitive to exposure time, which in subsequent tests significantly affected the calculation of phosphatase activity around roots. Additionally, an advanced image analysis tool was developed to extract grayvalue data from 2D images and quantify the intensity of phosphatase activity along root longitudinal and perpendicular axes. Collectively, the improved calibration and image analysis tools will advance the potential for soil zymography to provide quantitative data for plant and soil scientists. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The new calibration protocol, relating 4-methylumbelliferone to phosphatase activity, was developed in collaboration with University of Lincoln (L Condron) and PhD student (G. Boitt) who received training during a research visit to the James Hutton Institute in July-August 2016. a visiting student. The development of a quantitive image analysis method for processing 2D images of phosphatase activity around roots was developed in collaboration with Lionel Dupuy (James Hutton Institute, Dundee UK) and a manuscript describing the calibration and image analysis techniques is currently in progress. Preliminary results of the method applied to barley roots was presented at a workshop in the Lake District UK in September 2016. 
 
Title XRF method to confirm purity of silver phosphate 
Description A method has been developed using TXRF methods to test the purity of silver phosphate in relation to oxygen isotope studies as part of the 18O tracing on the phosphate molecule. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact In development but allows better process control in the analysis of 18O in the phosphate molecule for tracing 
 
Description Abundance of bacterial phosphatase genes in rhizosphere soils of citrate and phytase exuding tobacco plants 
Organisation University of Guelph
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Through a collaboration with Kari Dunfield (University of Guelph, Canada), the abundance of bacterial acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and beta-propellor phytase genes was determined in rhizosphere soils, which were collected from transgenic tobacco plant lines with constitutive expression of citrate efflux (Cit: A. thaliana frd3) and heterologous fungal phytase exudation (Phy: Aspergillus niger phyA, Peniophora lycii phyA) traits. The abundance of phosphatase genes was determined in soils planted with wild-type, vector control, Cit, Phy, and intercropped Cit+Phy plant combinations to determine the influence of citrate and phytase exudation traits on rhizobacterial functions (i.e., phosphatase production) expected to influence soil phosphorus availability and to identify potential feedbacks between plant exudation and microbial processes. Plant experiments, soil collection, and extraction of DNA from soils occurred at the James Hutton Institute (Dundee UK) and freeze-dried DNA samples were shipped to KD for quantitative PCR analysis.
Collaborator Contribution KD conducted the analysis of phosphatase gene abundance in the soil DNA samples collected at the James Hutton Institute
Impact This work was presented in poster format at a workshop on organic phosphorus research in the Lake District UK in September 2016
Start Year 2015
 
Description Analysis of plant root exudates for the identification of co-cropping species with the potential to exploit residual soil phosphorus 
Organisation Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Growth and analysis of root exudates collected from tobacco and legume varieties.
Collaborator Contribution Partners provided the seed-lines of interest for the characterisation of root exudates and contribute to the preparation of manuscripts for publication.
Impact 1. Manuscripts prepared and/or submitted to peer-reviewed journals: CD Giles, TS George, LK Brown et al. (in review). Does the combination of citrate and phytase exudation in Nicotiana tabacum promote the acquisition of endogenous soil organic phosphorus? Plant and Soil. CD Giles, TS George, LK Brown et al. (in preparation). Depletion of soil phosphorus forms in the rhizosphere of Nicotiana tabacum plants expressing a fungal phytase: A solution 31P NMR spectroscopy study. Environ Sci Technol. CD Giles, TS George, LK Brown et al. (in preparation). Response-based selection of barley cultivars and legume species for intercropping: An assessment of root morphology and exudation in relation to phosphorus supply and nitrogen source. Plant Physiol. CD Giles, TS George, LK Brown et al. (in preparation). Complementarity and soil phosphorus acquisition by barley and legume varieties with variable root biochemical and physiological responses to phosphorus deficiency. New Phytol. 2. Presentations related to the above studies: Interactions of Soil Microorganisms and Organic Matter (ISMOM), Soil Interfaces for Sustainable Development Meeting. McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 2015 July 5 - 10. Poster presentation: 'Phosphorus transformations and mobility in the rhizosphere of phytase-exuding plants'. 9th International Symposium of the International Society of Root Research. Canberra, Australia. 2015 October 6 - 9. (1) Oral presentation: 'Complementarity and soil phosphorus acquisition by barley and legume varieties with variable root biochemical and physiological responses to phosphorus deficiency'. (2) Poster presentation: 'Complementarity in the acquisition of phosphorus among citrate and phytase exuding tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants'.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Analysis of plant root exudates for the identification of co-cropping species with the potential to exploit residual soil phosphorus 
Organisation Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Growth and analysis of root exudates collected from tobacco and legume varieties.
Collaborator Contribution Partners provided the seed-lines of interest for the characterisation of root exudates and contribute to the preparation of manuscripts for publication.
Impact 1. Manuscripts prepared and/or submitted to peer-reviewed journals: CD Giles, TS George, LK Brown et al. (in review). Does the combination of citrate and phytase exudation in Nicotiana tabacum promote the acquisition of endogenous soil organic phosphorus? Plant and Soil. CD Giles, TS George, LK Brown et al. (in preparation). Depletion of soil phosphorus forms in the rhizosphere of Nicotiana tabacum plants expressing a fungal phytase: A solution 31P NMR spectroscopy study. Environ Sci Technol. CD Giles, TS George, LK Brown et al. (in preparation). Response-based selection of barley cultivars and legume species for intercropping: An assessment of root morphology and exudation in relation to phosphorus supply and nitrogen source. Plant Physiol. CD Giles, TS George, LK Brown et al. (in preparation). Complementarity and soil phosphorus acquisition by barley and legume varieties with variable root biochemical and physiological responses to phosphorus deficiency. New Phytol. 2. Presentations related to the above studies: Interactions of Soil Microorganisms and Organic Matter (ISMOM), Soil Interfaces for Sustainable Development Meeting. McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 2015 July 5 - 10. Poster presentation: 'Phosphorus transformations and mobility in the rhizosphere of phytase-exuding plants'. 9th International Symposium of the International Society of Root Research. Canberra, Australia. 2015 October 6 - 9. (1) Oral presentation: 'Complementarity and soil phosphorus acquisition by barley and legume varieties with variable root biochemical and physiological responses to phosphorus deficiency'. (2) Poster presentation: 'Complementarity in the acquisition of phosphorus among citrate and phytase exuding tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants'.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Characterisation of phosphorus forms in transgenic plant soils expressing citrate and phytase exudation traits 
Organisation Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Through a collaboration with Dr. Barbara J. Cade-Menun (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) additional detailed analysis of phosphorus forms in rhizosphere soils was carried out using solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Soils were generated from plant experiments with transgenic tobacco plant lines with constitutive expression of citrate efflux (Cit: A. thaliana frd3) and heterologous fungal phytase exudation (Phy: Aspergillus niger phyA, Peniophora lycii phyA) traits. Phosphorus forms were characterised in soils planted with wild-type, vector control, Cit, Phy, and intercropped Cit+Phy plant combinations to determine the influence of citrate and phytase exudation traits on soil P composition, with the expectation that the combination of Cit and Phy traits in the intercropped condition would promote the conversion of soil organic P to inorganic and plant-available forms. Plant experiments, soil collection, and extraction of soil phosphorus occurred at the James Hutton Institute (Dundee UK) and freeze-dried soil extracts were shipped to BJCM for 31P NMR analysis.
Collaborator Contribution BJCM conducted the analysis of P forms in soil extracts using solution 31P NMR spectroscopy
Impact A manuscript is in draft describing the outcomes of the plant experiment and soil phosphorus characterisation. The output is multidisciplinary and includes approaches and methodologies from plant nutrition, plant physiology, and soil biogeochemistry.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaborations on eco-engineering buffer strips for vegetation P uptake 
Organisation Aarhus University
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of methodologies to derive multiple benefits from riparian buffer strips especially in relation to maintaining a mixture of biodiversity and phosphorus transport mitigation, then accumulation of P in biomass for possible use as a green manure. Supervision on research studentship and past and planned hosting of exchange visits, joint guest editorials of two special editions of journals (STOTEN, 2014 and JEQ, 2012).
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange via the knowledge centre to farmers, lead of the BufferTech proposal (documented under 'Further funding' category).
Impact JEQ special collection on buffer strips (JEQ; 41; 2012). STOTEN special section on updated methods for diffuse pollution mitigation (STOTEN; 468-469; 2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaborations on eco-engineering buffer strips for vegetation P uptake 
Organisation Knowledge Centre for Agriculture
Country Denmark 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of methodologies to derive multiple benefits from riparian buffer strips especially in relation to maintaining a mixture of biodiversity and phosphorus transport mitigation, then accumulation of P in biomass for possible use as a green manure. Supervision on research studentship and past and planned hosting of exchange visits, joint guest editorials of two special editions of journals (STOTEN, 2014 and JEQ, 2012).
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange via the knowledge centre to farmers, lead of the BufferTech proposal (documented under 'Further funding' category).
Impact JEQ special collection on buffer strips (JEQ; 41; 2012). STOTEN special section on updated methods for diffuse pollution mitigation (STOTEN; 468-469; 2014)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Contribution of Root Hairs, Mycorrhizae and Bacteria to Organic P Use by Crops 
Organisation China Agricultural University (CAU)
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide plant genetic materials and experimental know-how developed in existing projects
Collaborator Contribution The CAU partners bring expertise in stable-isotope probing methods to isolate the impact of root exudates on specific rhizosphere microbes.
Impact One paper published and several in development.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Effect of citrate and phytase exudation on bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) 
Organisation University of Dundee
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Postdoc Courtney D Giles worked closely with Davide Bulgarelli (University of Dundee Plant Sciences, James Hutton Institute, Dundee UK) to learn the molecular and data processing techniques required to characterise bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soils. Soils for the analysis were generated by CDG and originated from transgenic tobacco plant lines with constitutive expression of citrate efflux (Cit: A. thaliana frd3) and heterologous fungal phytase exudation (Phy: Aspergillus niger phyA, Peniophora lycii phyA) traits and intercropped combinations of Cit and Phy tobacco plants. CDG conducted laboratory work and managed all data generated for tobacco rhizosphere soils.
Collaborator Contribution DB provided training, oversight, and consumable resources required for DNA extraction, PCR, and 16s amplicon sequencing and data analysis.
Impact Results of the community structure analysis in the tobacco rhizosphere soils was presented in poster format at a workshop on organic phosphorus research in the Lake District UK in September 2016
Start Year 2015
 
Description Enquiry to collaborate in P in agricultural soils from Algeria 
Organisation School of Agricultural and Life Sciences
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have had an enquiry from a colleague (Abdelkader Laribi) from Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Agronomie (ENSA) in Algiers who want to develop student links in relation to spatial evaluation of phosphorous in agricultural soils.
Collaborator Contribution In development
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Phosphate source-tracking study in an agricultural watershed of Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) 
Organisation University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Conducted study of potential non-point sources of phosphorus, including the collection and isolation of phosphate from surface water and source materials for stable isotopic analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Partners provided research infrastructure and monetary support for the study period (September 2013 to August 2014).
Impact Presentation at annual state meeting for the Vermont EPSCoR program. Poster title: Tracking Endogenous and Exogenous Sources of Phosphorus to Lake Champlain Using Oxygen Isotopes of Phosphate. August 4, 2014.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Phosphate source-tracking study in an agricultural watershed of Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) 
Organisation University of Vermont
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Conducted study of potential non-point sources of phosphorus, including the collection and isolation of phosphate from surface water and source materials for stable isotopic analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Partners provided research infrastructure and monetary support for the study period (September 2013 to August 2014).
Impact Presentation at annual state meeting for the Vermont EPSCoR program. Poster title: Tracking Endogenous and Exogenous Sources of Phosphorus to Lake Champlain Using Oxygen Isotopes of Phosphate. August 4, 2014.
Start Year 2013
 
Description 2016 Barley Away Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation on research describing 'Complementarity and soil phosphorus acquisition by barley and legume varieties with variable root biochemical and physiological responses to phosphorus deficiency'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2016 LEAF Technical Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The activity was facilitated through the Linking Environment and Farming program and took place at The James Hutton Institute's Balruddery farm. The one day event hosts farmers to come and hear about new work to assist sustainable farming practice. Tours of the farm fields were provided to visitors, where different stations were set up to showcase research relevant to sustainable farming at the institute. Our group described current research on intercropping practices in Scotland and potential benefits pertaining to nutrient use efficiency.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hutton.ac.uk/learning/leaf/technical-day-2016
 
Description A microcosm that enriches for organic phosphorus degraders present in soil. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a poster presentation at the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium (IPNC), University of Copenhagen, 21-24 August 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Aberdeen University Students 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A university of Aberdeen class "Soil Science for Food Security" visited the institute and I organised a set of talks and presented research highlights to the group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Agricultural diversification in the Highlands of Borneo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented work on roots for sustainability at the workshop in Sarawak
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBSRC International Partnering Award Workshop with INIA, Uruguay. 2-4th December 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This was a workshop to share research ideas and develop collaborations between INIA and Rothamsted Research as part of the BBSRC Partnering Award between the two Institutes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Barley Researchers Away Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk which included reference to the research performed in the OPUS Project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description CD Giles- Organic Phosphorus Workshop talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One hundred international delegates of organic P research attended a 5 day workshop in the Lake District UK. The following presentations were given by postdoc CD Giles:
1. Oral presentation 1: 'A Tale of Two Exudates: The role of citrate and phytase in unlocking the potential of soil organic phosphorus for plant nutrition'
2. Oral presentation 2: 'Meta-analysis of Organic Phosphorus Research 1945-2009'
3. Oral presentation 3: 'Output from Green Team Breakout Group'
4. Poster presentation 1: 'Interactions of citrate and phytase in the rhizosphere of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum): Plant growth, microbial community structure, phosphatase gene abundance, and phosphorus species composition'
5. Poster presentation 2: 'Quantitative measurement of phosphatase activity distribution in the rhizosphere'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Chew it over 1 - The Crunch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The event took the form of a dramatised dialogue theatre, which used an innovative format combining verbatim theatre and dialogue, to encourage conversations about food, health and the planet. The event centred around Look Left Look Right's new play 'What we talk about, when we talk about food.' The play explores food from all angles, from examining how we make consumer choices to the cultural significance of food and it makes us who we are. The conversations and discussions following this were documented in a report, that The Crunch will share with researchers and policymakers, to help inform future decisions on our food.
My role in the event to present current facts on food security and the food chain. Following break out groups I was then grilled in "Question Time" style questions from the audience on issues that had been raised during the day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://thecrunch.wellcome.ac.uk/get-involved/chew-it-over
 
Description Chew it over 2 - The Crunch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The event took the form of a dramatised dialogue theatre, which used an innovative format combining verbatim theatre and dialogue, to encourage conversations about food, health and the planet. The event centred around a brand new play based around opinions gathered from the previous workshop. The conversations and discussions following this were documented in a report, that The Crunch will share with researchers and policymakers, to help inform future decisions on our food.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://thecrunch.wellcome.ac.uk/get-involved/chew-it-over
 
Description China - Sino-German P workshop, 11th-17th November, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was a workshop marking the initiation of a Sino-German Programme of work between China Agricultural University and Hohenheim University, Germany. I was invited to give a keynote address on the work on phosphorus related topics in which I am involved.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Community gardening workshops on soil chemistry 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Workshop was led by Postdoc CD Giles. CDG provided an overview of the global issues surrounding agricultural P use and suggested ways to sustainable manage P and C outputs in private gardens. Discussions included fertiliser requirements, how nutrient recommendations are made, current nutrient efficiency approaches, and common methods for the determination of soil pH and P concentration in soils. Participants were invited to bring soils and compost from their home for the demonstration. A board game on phosphorus cycling in soils was also put on display for school age children to play, which was developed with colleagues at the James Hutton Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gWqEVPNKF58
 
Description Conference presentation by C Shand at Organic Phosphorus in the Environment: Solutions for Phosphorus Security, Lake District UK, Sept 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk 'Effects of citrate on the solubilisation of soil phosphorus' was given.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://youtu.be/FsbSLvGG39A
 
Description Conference presentation by M Stutter at Organic Phosphorus in the Environment: Solutions for Phosphorus Security, Lake District UK, Sept 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk entitled Observed nutrient stoichiometry and phosphorus speciation as an indicator of P cycling across ecosystems: the chicken or the egg. Following this several discussions were had with the audience as to the subject area. One conversation I believe has led to a current NERC grant reviewing role.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://youtu.be/7rSn-H-w7bs
 
Description Demonstration of 'The Phosphorus Game' at the James Hutton Institute, LEAF Open Farm Sunday 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'The Phosphorus Game' was developed as an educational tool for school-age students and the general public. The game format follows a board-game style with character cards which personify common soil elements (e.g., 'Sticky Soil Sally', 'Enzo the Enzyme', 'Wally Water') and are selected by players to determine how far their P moves on the board. The first player to get their phosphorus 'P' game-piece to the plant root wins. The game was well-received by very young (4-10) and adult participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Demonstration of 'The Phosphorus Game' at the Royal Highland Show, Edinburgh, Scotland June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'The Phosphorus Game' was developed as an educational tool for school-age students and the general public. The game format follows a board-game style with character cards which personify common soil elements (e.g., 'Sticky Soil Sally', 'Enzo the Enzyme', 'Wally Water') and are selected by players to determine how far their P moves on the board. The first player to get their phosphorus 'P' game-piece to the plant root wins. The game was well-received by very young (4-10) and adult participants at the Royal Highland Show, which receives thousands of visitors each day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Ecosystems and Land Use Stakeholders Engagement Group Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A stakeholder event for Scottish Government Policy Makers was held in Edinburgh to brief on the latest advances in root biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description First demonstration of 'The Phosphorus Game' at the Dundee Women in Science festival, February 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'The Phosphorus Game' was developed as an educational tool for school-age students and the general public. The game format follows a board-game style with character cards which personify common soil elements (e.g., 'Sticky Soil Sally', 'Enzo the Enzyme', 'Wally Water') and are selected by players to determine how far their P moves on the board. The first player to get their phosphorus 'P' game-piece to the plant root wins. The game was well-received by very young (4-10) and adult participants. This was the first demonstration of the game and based on its success future outreach events were scheduled.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Highlights of Research presented to BBRO (British Beet Research Organisation) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented research highlights including those from the OPUS project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Hutton Barley Away Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presented a talk on the development of soil zymography techniques for measuring phosphatase in the rhizosphere to an audience including scientists from a range of institutes. 70 people attended and the talk generated discussion on the application of the method for phenotyping of rhizosphere functions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description IFA Webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a webinar for the International Fertiliser Association titled 'Increasing the Use-Efficiency of Fertilisers' to which over 100 participants loggedon. There were two other speakers on related topics and at the end questions were raised by viewers via a moderator.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSNYAR_AWeA
 
Description Imaging Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation describing the development of quantitative approaches for 2D imaging of phosphatase activity distributions in soil and around roots using zymographic techniques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description James Hutton Institute Theme Review 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented research as part of a visiting group review of the institutes themes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Joint Workshop between James Hutton Instiute, CEH and CAAS Beijing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop was designed to foster collaborative research between researchers at the three institutes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description New crops and cropping systems for a more sustainable future 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented a seminar at a workshop on New Crops for Agricultural Sustainability at Crops For the Future in Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description OPUS Project External Review 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented highlights of the OPUS project to a visiting group of international scientists with a view to getting progress reviewed and future direction approved.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Past Present and Future Phosphorus Cycling: From the Mine to the Deep Sea 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 10-18th June 2018 I was invited to attend and talk at the 2018 ASLO (Association of Limnology and Oceanography) summer meeting in Victoria, Canada, called "Water Connects!". Specifically, I was asked to give a tutorial in a session Called "Past Present and Future Phosphorus Cycling: From the Mine to the Deep Sea"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://landwaterblog.blogspot.com/2018/07/invited-phosphorus-tutorial-at-aslo.html
 
Description Phytase Activity Demonstration to St Andrews Students 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Students will be responsible for presenting the information provided during the demonstration at a seperate event.

General enthusiasm.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Plant-Soil and Slope Interaction Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation at workshop describing 'Complementary root exudation traits for improved acquisition of soil phosphorus' at the International Society of Root Research, Plant-Soil and Slope Interactions Workshop. Dundee, Scotland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at regional meeting of the British Society of Soil Science, South West Regional Discussion Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation titled 'Characterization of phosphorus compounds in soil using solution 31P NMR spectroscopy'. Rothamsted Research North Wyke, Devon UK, 12 November 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation on Food Security - Phosphorus Game 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I presented information on Food production and Food security to primary school children in Years 1-2 and 5-7 at Dairsie Primary School in Fife. I also demonstrate a food production app and the phosphorus game developed as part of this project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to Irish Fertiliser Industry Representatives 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented highlights of research to a group of fertiliser industry representatives from Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to ZeiJiang Academy of Agricultural Science China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented highlights of research to a group of scientific academics from ZAAS China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to delegates from Qassim University, Saudi Arabia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented highlights of OPUS project to representatives of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentations at the South West Soils Group of the BSSS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A suite of presentations related to the OPUS Project where presented to the SW England Regional Group of the British Soil Science Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Rhizosheath Demonstration - LEAF Technical Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Rothamsted Festival of Ideas - 22nd-24th June 2018. Life of Phosphorus Exhibit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was the Rothamsted 'Festival of Ideas' celbrating 175 years of research at Rothamsted. The first day was dedicated to engagement with schools, VIP guests and industry partners. The second and third days were open to the public, and it is estimated that over 8,000 people attended. I was responsible for leading the 'Life of P' exhibit, which show-cased much of the work we have done and are doing on phosphorus in agriculture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/events/rothamsted-festival-ideas
 
Description SSCR Cereals Annual Winter Meeting Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented research at a meeting aimed at informing Scottish farmers of developments in cereals research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to present a seminar including research highlights from the OPUS project at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Several stands were hosted at LEAF (Linking Environment and Farming) Technical Day, Balruddery nr Dundee, Jul 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Two stands were hosted on a round the farm tour to look at innovations in the field, these comprised an exhibit on P efficiency by linking edge of field (buffer zones) and in field practices and the other on crop P acquisition. These were hosted by Stutter, Shand and Lumsdon.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Soil pH Challenge - Edinburgh Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014
 
Description Soil pH Challenge - Royal Highland Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Stutter MI. On farm innovations in managing Phosphorus. UK Nutrient Platform Meeting, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 17 September 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Outcomes of further working together and reported changes of views.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description UK Brazil Workshop - Managing the rhizosphere to alleviate food poverty 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Maximising crop production and alleviating food poverty is a major 21st century global challenge for emerging countries such as Brazil. Optimising the efficiency of crop nutrient supply and reducing dependence on expensive inorganic fertilizers are key goals towards developing a more sustainable agriculture that will benefit poorer communities. The workshop will explore the potential for agro-engineering of the soil rhizosphere to meet these goals through adaptations of soil-crop-microbial interactions. The purpose of the workshop is to develop a co-operative research framework for Brazil and UK young scientists to come together to forge new understanding and capacity building in rhizosphere science to support sustainable and profitable food production, product innovation and poverty alleviation. The workshop will also provide opportunity to interface with industry and policy stakeholders in Brazil.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.britishcouncil.org.br/events/newton-fund-researcher-links-workshop-withers
 
Description USA Phosphorus Research Cordination Meeting Attendance and Conribution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The first part of the week was a scientist meeting in Washington DC, followed by a platform presentatin by the greoup to stakeholders invited from Washington DC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://phosphorusalliance.org/files/2017/05/NSF_Report_Weintraub.pdf
 
Description Understanding the complementarity between citrate and phytase exudation on the acquisition of phosphorus by plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a presentation at the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium, Copenhagen, Denmark, 20-24 August 2017. it was to an audience of approximately 500 plant scientists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description University of Florida Delegates 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented research highlights to a group of visitors from the University of Florida, USA, who were scoping out the opportunities for collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016