The Contribution of Phytophthora effectors to host range and non-host resistance

Lead Research Organisation: The James Hutton Institute
Department Name: Cell & Molecular Sciences

Abstract

An increasing world population and impacts of climate change place ever-greater demands on the world food supply. A major constraint to global food security is crop loss due to plant pests and diseases. With the increasing stringency of conditions under which chemicals are approved for agriculture, the choice of effective fungicides and pesticides will become more limited in the near future. Furthermore, as introgressed host resistance genes are rapidly defeated by pathogens and pests in the field, there is an urgent need to explore sources of disease and pest resistance that are durable and will provide long term food security.
Plants face a constant barrage of pest and microbial threats and defend themselves by employing at least two layers of inducible defence responses. The first layer involves recognition of Pathogen-Associated-Molecular-Patterns (PAMPs) by cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to mount PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful (adapted) pathogens secrete and deliver molecules, effectors, inside host cells to suppress these defences. The second defence layer involves recognition of effectors by immune receptors, or NB-LRR proteins, to evoke effector-triggered immunity (ETI). This recognition is often based on detection of changes by NB-LRRs in the conformational/biochemical state of host proteins that are targeted by effectors.
Most plants are resistant to most pathogens, which is termed non-host resistance (NHR). By definition this is effective against all genetic variants of a pathogen species, and thus durable. Effector recognition by NB-LRR proteins has been proposed to be a major determinant of NHR in plant species that are closely related to the pathogens' natural hosts. In contrast, evidence exists that inducible NHR in plant species that are distantly related to the pathogen's natural host(s) is the result of the inability of effectors to appropriately target plant proteins and suppress immunity. Recent progress in the identification of plant pathogen effectors, and their targets, has opened new avenues to investigate the contributions of these proteins to determining non-host resistance.
This proposal aims to generate a key understanding of the role of effectors, their targets, and NB-LRR proteins in non-host resistance in the Solanaceae. The Solanaceae include economically important food crops, such as pepper, tomato, and potato, the latter being the world's fourth largest food crop, and the second largest in Europe after wheat.
We will exploit effector sets from 2 important solanaceous pathogens with differing host ranges: the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans (infects potato and tomato but not pepper) and P. capsici (infects pepper and tomato but not potato). We will assess the contribution of Phytophthora effectors to defining host range. Our key objectives are to (i) assess whether effectors trigger NB-LRR-mediated immunity in non-host solanaceous plants, and (ii) whether inducible NHR in Arabidopsis, constitutes a failure of effectors to modify intended targets and thus suppress PTI. We will exploit the genome sequences of potato, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. sylvestris and pepper to identify targets for P. infestans and P. capsici effectors. We will then be able to investigate their role in mediating effector recognition in non-host solanaceous plants.
The proposed work will shed light on the contribution of NB-LRRs, and the effector targets they monitor, to NHR within solanaceous crops. We will establish an essential platform that determines the molecular basis of NHR, identifies the critical effectors that activate NHR and paves the way to targeted searches for associated genes. Moreover, we will identify Arabidopsis PTI regulatory components, insensitive to effector activity, that can be deployed in Solanaceous crops. This approach will build a highly durable barrier to infection.

Technical Summary

Effector recognition by NB-LRR proteins has been proposed to be a major determinant of non-host resistance (NHR) in plant species that are closely related to a pathogen's natural hosts. In contrast, evidence exists that inducible NHR in plant species that are distantly related to the pathogen's natural host(s) is often based upon the inability of effectors to appropriately target and disable PTI (Schultze-Lefert and Panstruga 2011).This proposal aims to understand the molecular constraints governing host range of two economically important pathogens of Solanaceae crops, and thus the molecular basis of non-host resistance (NHR). . More specifically, we will test: 1) whether RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans and P. capsici can interact with/modify their plant targets and suppress PTI in non-host Solanaceae; 2) whether non-host resistance within the Solanaceae is thus largely based upon detection of effectors by NB-LRR immune receptors to activate ETI; and 3) whether a breakdown in effector-target interaction, or a failure to appropriately manipulate its target results in NHR in distantly-related plant species, such as Arabidopsis. The work will provide a knowledge platform that will direct future searches for naturally occurring nonhost NB-LRRs that protect against these key pathogens. Specifically, transfers of these immune receptors, singly or in combination, from non-host to host solanaceous crops could provide broad-spectrum resistance against economically important pathogens such as P. infestans or P. capsici. If based on PTI, approaches making use of intended targets that escape effector activity but retain their function in activating PTI in Solanaceous hosts, should enable the generation of durably resistant crops.

Planned Impact

Solanaceous crops form an essential component of the world's food supply with potato ranking as the most important global non-cereal food crop. Pests and diseases are a major constraint to achieving food security. Up to 50% of crop losses in developing nations are due to pests and diseases. New, durable and sustainable means of combating crop disease therefore offer an opportunity to make a significant impact on food security across the world. The proposed research is expected to benefit a) growers worldwide, especially those in developing countries, b) consumers, c) biotechnology and industry, d) researchers investigating crop diseases and disease resistance and e) the environment by reducing the amount of chemical sprays required for crop protection.
Historically, growers in Europe have relied on pesticides to produce most of their crops in the face of pressure from pests and diseases. Recent EU directives however, have prohibited or restricted the use of many active ingredients. Thus, growers now face diseases which are difficult to control. Breeding offers an environmentally benign method of controlling diseases by intogression of resistance genes but is inefficient to deal with rapidly changing virulent pathogens. Furthermore, resistances are often not readily deployable into cultivars.
Non-host resistance underlies the inability of a pathogen to cause disease in all plants outside its host range and is thus, by definition, durable. This proposal aims to understand the molecular constraints governing host ranges of distantly related pathogens/pests of Solanaceae crops, and thus the basis of non-host resistance between closely-related species in the Solanaceae. Understanding the molecular basis of non-host resistance offers the prospect of durable resistance against damaging pathogens and thereby a reduction of chemical inputs (including fungicides) and economic losses to growers. This allows sustainable use and management of ecosystem resources; a key aims of the LWEC programme. In addition to addressing food security, resistance transferred from non-host plants offers the prospect of sustainable pathogen management and crop production. This will be of great benefit to consumers, especially in the developing world where food is scarce. Importantly, this proposal aims to translate conceptual advances emerging from fundamental research on both Solanaceae models and Arabidopsis thaliana to important crops. The outcomes of this proposed research will impact the biotechnology industry. Critically, this is an IPA proposal, with the companies Simplot and Syngenta directly investing in the research as Industrial Partners. They aim to assess and exploit the potential of disease resistance-associated genes arising from this work to achieve durable resistance in Solanaceous crops, with Simplot focussing on potato late blight, and Syngenta focussing on Phytophthora diseases of tomato and pepper.
The work described in this proposal is timely as it will exploit genome information for 2 economically important oomycete pathogens, and the recently completed potato, tomato, pepper and N. benthamiana genome sequences. Outcomes of the project will have a high impact on the research community and raise the profile of research staff involved through peer-reviewed publications and invitations to conferences. This project will provide excellent training and career development opportunities for two PDRAs, and exposure directly to commercial exploitation of their research.
We will engage with the public and stakeholders at regular, institute organized events such as Potatoes in Practice, open days and school visits. We will involve our biotechnology industry partners Simplot and Syngenta in the direction and progress of the research, seeking to accelerate the use of resistance-associated genes from nonhost plants in economically important Solanaceous crops.

Publications

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He Q (2018) Plant pathogen effector utilizes host susceptibility factor NRL1 to degrade the immune regulator SWAP70. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Strachan SM (2019) Mapping the H2 resistance effective against Globodera pallida pathotype Pa1 in tetraploid potato. in TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

 
Description This project commenced on the 27th of January 2014 and aims to generate a fundamental understanding of the contribution of Phytophthora virulence determinants (effectors), their plant targets, and host resistance proteins to non-host resistance (NHR). The first Objective was to investigate whether effectors from each pathogen trigger non-host specific resistance responses. As part of this objective, we cloned priority effectors from P. infestans and P. capsici into plant expression vectors. Following microarray studies performed in-house for P. infestans, 90 RXLRs-containing virulence determinants were cloned into agro-binary vector pGRAB, and have also been cloned into the viral vector pGR106 (PVX). Following homology-based MCL clustering and microarray studies for P. capsici, 48 RXLR-containing virulence determinants have been cloned or synthesised and have been transferred into plant expression vectors. The second part of this objective was to identify recognition events of RXLR-containing virulence determinants in non-host plants. We determined that PVX was the best vector for RXLR expression screens in genotypes of potato, pepper, and tomato. However, agro-infiltration of expression constructs into Nicotiana sylvestris provides the most reproducible and facile screening procedure for potential NHR recognition. N. sylvestris emerged as a promising route to seek candidate NHR resistance genes - it is diploid, the genome has been sequenced, and transient expression is as facile as in N. benthamiana. Critically, as a common non-host, any follow-up work to seek R genes could involve cloning all R gene candidates from only this plant for subsequent functional assays in N. benthamiana with recognised effectors from both P. infestans and P. capsici. We have screened over 90 P. infestans effectors and identified a total of 4 effectors that consistently triggered cell death response in Nicotiana sylvestris. Only 1 of these effectors, PITG_04145, also yielded cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, whereas PITG_10540, PITG_16195, and PITG_18215 did not produce visible symptoms in N. benthamiana. A similar screen of 48 P. capsici effectors identified 8 RXLRs that yielded a recognition response in N. sylvestris (PcRxLR008, PcRXLR011, PcRXLR018, PcRXLR019, PcRXLR030, PcRXLR089, PcRXLR138 and PcRXLR467). Of these, PcRXLR030, PcRXLR089 and PcRXLR0138 did not produce visible responses in N. benthamiana.

Similarly, we have included tomato accessions that carry Rpi_Ph2 or Rpi_Ph3 resistances alongside susceptible controls. After screening of more than 100 RXLR effectors, 5 Avr-Ph3 candidates were identified. Indeed, PITG_16240, PITG_16427, PITG 23015, PITG_23226 and PITG_11484 were triggering HRs in the Rpi-Ph3 tomato lines only. Phylogenetic analysis of these Avr-Ph3 candidates revealed that PITG_16240 and PITG_16427 are related, as are PITG_23015 and PITG_23226.

We reported in 2013 on the conception and implication of RenSeq, a method to enrich for NB-LRR genes prior to sequencing (Jupe et al 2013). We have successfully adapted this technology to pathogen RXLR effectors (PenSeq). The platform has been adapted to facilitate enrichment and sequencing of P. infestans and P. capsici RXLR effectors. A proof of concept study has been conducted by multiplexing 6 P. infestans and 6 P. capsici isolates, respectively. Included in the analysis were the reference isolates T30-4 and LT1534. We have submitted a manuscript detailing PenSeq to New Phytologist and are working on a revision for an invited resubmission. The main findings are: Target enrichment sequencing of 579 P. infestans and 574 P. capsici genes was conducted in parallel for twelve isolates. Under high-stringent mapping conditions, PenSeq reads displayed a higher than 50 % on-target rate and over 87 % of all targeted genes from the reference genomes were fully represented. PenSeq revealed presence/absence variations and sequence polymorphisms for known Avr genes across different pathogen genotypes. Hybridization of P. infestans and P. capsici-derived baits identified 30 additional RXLR effectors in novel parts of the T30-4 genome. A subsequent de novo annotation identified 1367 putative RXLR-containing regions of which 631 displayed evidence of expression in at least three publically available RNAseq datasets.
We conclude that PenSeq enables the massively parallel sequence polymorphism study of effectors, facilitating the molecular characterization of Phytophthora isolates for population studies. The technology provides a novel diagnostic tool to predict the efficacy of host resistances in the face of pathogen population shifts. A large number of novel RXLR candidates were identified through PenSeq and a de novo analysis. We published PenSeq in 2019 (Thielliez et al., 2019 and Jouet et al., 2019)

Objective 2 aimed at establishing whether effector activity determines pathogen host ranges within Solanaceae and/or Arabidopsis by identifying host protein targets of candidate effectors from P. infestans and P. capsici. On a previous grant (BBSRC LOLA), more than 70 Pi effectors have been screened to considerable depth in a potato-P. infestans interaction Y2H library. This has revealed approx. 200 potato proteins as candidate targets of these effectors. As our ultimate aims are to transfer Arabidopsis (At) orthologues of Pi/Pc effector targets into Solanaceous crops (potato, tomato, pepper), the group in Warwick has focused on Arabidopsis as a main priority. As part of the previous grant indicated above, 90 P. infestans RXLRs have been screened against the set of 12000 Arabidopsis genes cloned into yeast that has recently been reported for screening by effectors from G. orontii (Wessling et al 2014 Cell Host-Microbe 16:364-375). This has formed a basis to compare the non-host interactome of Pi-At with the host interactomes of At with H. arabidopsidis (Hpa), P. syringae tomato (Pst) and G. orontii.

The group in Warwick has identified Arabidopsis orthologues of potato proteins bound by P. infestans effectors and screened these to see a) whether the P. infestans effectors can bind the Arabidopsis orthologues and b) whether Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis effectors bind the Arabidopsis orthologue proteins. 128 Arabidopsis orthologues have been screened against 90 P. infestans effectors and 200 H. arabidopsidis effectors. Interactions of host vs non-host effectors with plant targets fall into 4 categories depending on whether interactions are conserved or not, and whether H. arabidopsidis effectors target the same protein. One Arabidopsis orthologue protein remains to be screened against the library of effectors.

As part of the collaboration knockout mutants for potato target proteins and for Arabidopsis orthologues of potato, targets have been generated and demonstrated that many of these effector target proteins play a role in pathogen defence. We have a number of additional Arabidopsis lines knocked out for orthologues of effector target proteins which need screening for any altered susceptibility to H. arabidopsidis.

We have also identified effectors that suppress PTI in non-host Solanaceae and seen that effectors are less likely to enhance pathogen colonisation in a non-host compared to a host plant. We have a small number of effectors which have been overexpressed in Arabidopsis but the transgenic lines have not yet been characterised for pathogen susceptibility.

We have identified two such target proteins indicating that transfer of "orthologues" unable to be correctly targeted by P. infestans effectors into the Solanaceae may be a strategy to enhance resistance to P. infestans. Priority Arabidopsis orthologues have been tested in N. benthamiana and two candidates have been sent to Simplot to generate transgenic potatoes to test for reduced infection.
Exploitation Route The Industrial partners Simplot and Syngenta have expressed significant interest in the Arabidopsis orthologues genes of Solanaceae host targets that evade the interactions with P. infestans/ P. capsici RXLR effectors. This work will be part of Objective 4 that is due to commence in year two. Following this screen and verification, selected Arabidopsis orthologous genes are currently being transformed into Solanaceous plants for detailed resistance testing.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description The progress of this project has been reported to the scientific community at various national and international meetings including the OMGN meetings (Norwich 2014, California 2017), MPMI (Rhodes 2014), COST FA 1208 (Zakopane, Poland), COST Action FA1208 SUSTAIN (Workshop-on-Pathogen-Informed-Crop-Improvement 2015; Wageningen, The Netherlands), 9th World Potato Congress (Beijing, 2015), EUCARPIA Section Potato (Italy, November 2015), Invited Speaker; Durham University (February 2016), Invited Speaker; National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia (June 2016); Selected Speaker; Plant Science Scotland PI meeting (June 2016), Selected Speaker; EAPR meeting (August 2016); Key Note Speaker; European Society of Nematology, Braga, Portugal (August 2016); Invited Speaker; Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU), Wuhan, China (October 2016); Invited Speaker; Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yunnan, China (October 2016, 2017), Invited Speaker; Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (February 2017), Selected Speaker OMGN meeting March 2017), keynote speaker (EAPR meeting Germany 2018) Keynote speaker (6th plant genomics and gene editing congress, Rotterdam; 2018). A number of peer-reviewed publications have arisen thus far. The data have been presented to the Industrial partners at progress meetings in 2014, 2015 and 2016 and Simplot has agreed to take forward some of the Arabidopsis orthologues genes of P. infestans host targets that evade interactions with P. infestans effectors if their transient expression in N. benthamiana promotes resistance. The concept was also presented at Potato in Practise (Dundee, 2015). A manuscript detailing Pathogenicity factor enrichment and sequencing (PenSeq) which enables massively parallel diagnostic analysis of avirulence genes and revised genome annotation of Phytophthora infestans RXLR effectors has published in New Phytologist in 2019 (Thielliez et al., 2019 and Jouet et al., 2019). In addition, we have published a manuscript entitled: Phytophthora infestans RXLR effectors act in concert at diverse subcellular localisations to enhance host colonisation in JXB (Wang et al., 2018)
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Policy document for 'knowledgescotland'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.knowledgescotland.org/briefings.php?id=399
 
Description BBSRC - Subcontracting from the University of Dundee to the JHI
Amount £118,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N009967/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2019
 
Description BBSRC - subcontract
Amount £1 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P019595/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 02/2020
 
Description COST ACTION
Amount € 2,500 (EUR)
Funding ID COST-STSM-FA1208-30782 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 03/2016 
End 05/2016
 
Description Innovate UK
Amount £1,320,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Innovate UK MCAP2 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Title GenSeq enrichment tool 
Description A new, enrichment-sequencing based approach to map novel traits in potato. The manuscript detailing the technology has been accepted for publication in the journal Theoretical and Applied Genetics (TAG) 2018 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication 
URL http://solanum.hutton.ac.uk
 
Title PenSeq 
Description We have developed pathogenicity factor target enrichment and sequencing (PenhSeq) to include P. infestans and P. capsici secreted proteins and RXLR effectors, to facilitate the massively parallel elucidation of polymorphisms in effectors and known avirulence determinants. Results: Target enrichment sequencing of 579 P. infestans and 574 P. capsici genes was conducted in parallel for twelve isolates, six from each species, and included the reference isolates T30-4 for P. infestans and LT1534 for P. capsici. Under high-stringent mapping conditions PenSeq reads displayed a higher than 50 % on-target rate and over 87 % of all targeted genes from the reference genomes were fully represented. PenSeq revealed presence/absence variations and sequence polymorphisms for known Avr genes across different pathogen genotypes. Hybridization of P. infestans and P. capsici-derived baits identified 30 additional RXLR effectors in novel parts of the T30-4 genome. A subsequent de novo annotation identified 1367 putative RXLR-containing regions of which 631 displayed evidence of expression in at least three publically available RNAseq datasets. Conclusions: PenSeq enables the massively parallel sequence polymorphism study of effectors, facilitating the molecular characterization of Phytophthora isolates for population studies. The technology provides a novel diagnostic tool to predict the efficacy of host resistances in the face of pathogen population shifts. A high number of novel RXLR candidates were identified through PenSeq and a de novo analysis. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Predicting the durability of deployed resistances by studying the diversity of P. infestans effectors including Avr genes. Thielez et al., 2019 and Jouette et al., 2018 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30288743
 
Title dRenSeq - a new tool for potato disease resistance breedings 
Description We can identify and validate the sequence of all currently known NB-LRRs genes in potato wild accessions and cultivars. We are using the technoloyg (dRenSeq) as part of breeding efforts to identify the best complementary parents for disease resistance gene stacking. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We are using the technology at James Hutton Limited and have had requests from companies SIMPLOT, Agrico, Syngenta and Solana for potential collaborations. The manuscript detailing the approach is currently under review in Nature Biotechnology 
 
Title SolArray 
Description This website describes the results of microarray experiments in Potato. Sequence ID's are based on the gene and transcript IDs from the PGSC DM assembly annotation (v4.03). The microarray probes are from the Potato 60K Agilent array, and were designed to the PSGC transcripts. You can use a probe ID from the Potato 60K Agilent Microarray chip or a PGSC gene ID or transcript ID in the search forms below. Alternatively you can use the BLAST utility to search your own DNA or protein sequences against the PGSC transcripts to find related sequences. Finally the transcripts have been annotated using the top BLAST hit found in the Tomato (ITAG) and Arabidopsis thaliana (TAIR) predicted peptides, and you can use the keyword search form to filter the transcripts for terms of interest. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Hormone-specific marker genes have been developed for potato and are currently being used in fundamental and applied research studies. 
URL https://ics.hutton.ac.uk/solarray/
 
Description Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution RenSeq and dRenSeq analysis on late blight resistant chinese potato cultivars
Collaborator Contribution Providing plant material and DNA, phenotyping populations, effector recognition studies
Impact We have submitted a grant proposal under the ASTIP programme
Start Year 2017
 
Description Compass: COMbat crop diseases through PAthogen informed Selection of resistance gene Stacks in resilient varieties and their deployment in changing environments 
Organisation University of Wageningen
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have jointly prepared and submitted an application for EU H2020; Proposal in the framework of H2020 research programme; SFS-03-2016: Testing and breeding for sustainability and resilience in crops
Collaborator Contribution Leading the European consortium
Impact Exchange of plant material and genetic resources
Start Year 2016
 
Description LB diversity in the US 
Organisation Cornell University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have been studying the diversity of P. infestans effectors on a molecular level using PenSeq. We have focused the research on typical genotypes (e.g. US23 and US24) from the US.
Collaborator Contribution Christine Smart and Niklaus Gruenwald have sent us well characterised isolates and DNA and helped with the interpretation of results.
Impact Grant applications to the BBSRC and USDA, Support of a PhD student in the US through the data that we generated
Start Year 2016
 
Description Potato in China 
Organisation Huazhong Agricultural University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution dRenSeq analysis revealed that quantitative resistance to late blight in segregating population is based on R8. We have shared the probe library design for RenSeq with partners in China. In addition we mapped a novel PVY resistance with RenSeq to the bottom end of LG9
Collaborator Contribution Phenotyping of potato populations that segregate for LB and PVY resistances
Impact Preparation of manuscripts detailing dRenSeq and mapping of PVY resistance
Start Year 2014
 
Description SGC ODA GCRF - Vietnam Zhonghua rice 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We developed RenSeq for Rice and mapped. Through RenSeq we achieved the mapping and marker development for the Zhonghua source of resistance to root-knot nematodes in rice. The collaboration includes partners in France and Vietnam.
Collaborator Contribution Crossing of rice, phenotypic analysis of segregants and establishment of bulks for bulked segregant analysis.
Impact Map position for Zhongua-based disease resistance in rice towards root-knot nematodes.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Tomato resistance to LB 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Hosted a PhD student for training purposes funded through COST ACTION SUSTAIN. Shared P. infestans RXRL libraries
Collaborator Contribution Characterised PH2 and PH3 segregating populations; Identified tomato 'specific' RXLRs from P. infestans isolates that preferential infect tomato rather than potato
Impact COST ACTION STSM funding for PhD student
Start Year 2014
 
Description Verticillium nonalfalfae and mechanisms of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) resistance to verticillium wilt 
Organisation University of Ljubljana
Country Slovenia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Effector co-localization studies in Nicotiana benthamina and setting up yeast-two-hybrid approach to identify interacting host genes
Collaborator Contribution Identification of candidate effectors from Verticillium that cause hyper-virulence in hop
Impact Successful COST Action STSM application
Start Year 2016
 
Description : Keynote Speaker /Chair 6th plant genomics & gene editing congress, Rotterdam 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote Speaker /Chair 6th plant genomics & gene editing congress, Rotterdam
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Article in Holyrood current affairs magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Article about the positive impact of genome sequencing for crop protection
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.holyrood.com
 
Description BSPP outreach event: The plant Doctor, Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Engaging with the public at the Edinburgh International Science Festival

Raising public awareness about plant pathology and the impact on food crops
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bspp.org.uk/outreach/article.php?id=91
 
Description EPSO Agricultural Technologies Working Group member 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of the EPSO working group on Agricultural Technology, we have writen responses to the ECJ ruling on CRISP/CAS9 and distributed this to policy makers and the members of EPSO
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://epsoweb.org/working-groups/agricultural-technologies/
 
Description Fascination of Plants Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Display of wild potato species and explaining the cloning of disease resistance genes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.hutton.ac.uk/events/fascination-plants-day-0
 
Description Invited Keynote speaker at EAPE meeting, Warnemuende, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote speaker on potato disease resistance at EAPR meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.potatopro.com/potato-conferences-tradeshows/19th-joint-meeting-eapr-section-'breeding-va...
 
Description Invited Speaker (COST ACTION SUSTAIN, FA1208; Wageningen, The Netherlands) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a talk at the workshop Pathogen-Informed Crop Improvement describing our RenSeq approach and the use of effectors in the search for host and non-host resistance. Following the meeting we hosted a student from Wageningen at our lab to apply RenSeq to RLP and RLK-like sequences. We successfully mapped a novel PRR receptor to LG9.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited Speaker at the opening of a research facility at ZARI Zambia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to present our work at the opening of a new research facility at ZARI in Zambia. Subsequently, I have been advising students on research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited Speaker; Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Speaker; Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China - this was a workshop to identify collaborations between CAAS and UK institutes (JHI, CEH). We have prepared a joint project proposal on potato and late blight resistance
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Speaker; Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU), Wuhan, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Speaker; Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU), Wuhan, China. This workshop was part of an appointment as a 'high end foreign expert' and is relevant to host and non-host resistances. Future project for potato crop protections were discussed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Speaker; National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited Presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Speaker; Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yunnan, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Speaker; Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yunnan, China
This invitation had arisen after the Sino-Scottish workshop. The main purpose was to discuss late blight resistance and breeding from a commercial prospective
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Visit to Wuhan Huazhong Agricultural University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the 'High-End Foreign Recruitment program' in China, I was invited to visit the Huazhong Agricultural University for one week and gave formal presentations as well as workshops. I am involved in the Co-supervision of a PhD student who is working on late blight resistance. We have now used RenSeq to fine-map this resistance to LG9 alongside a novel PVY resistance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited speaker to International Workshop on Potato Quantitative Traits: Genetic Analysis and Perspectives (October 14-16, 2014 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The feasibility of joint PhD studentships is currently being discussed as part of a wider UK-China network.

We are most likely receiving a PhD student from Wuhan University to explore effector recognition in Solanaceae plants and also to learn RenSeq technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Key Note Speaker; European Society of Nematology, Braga, Portugal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Key Note Speaker; I highlighted the importance of using effectors to characterise non-host and host resistance and introduced target enrichment approaches such as PathSeq and RenSeq. I had requests now for collaborations and developing similar approaches for various plant/pathogens.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.esn-online.org
 
Description OMGN meeting in Norwich 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact We presented data relevant to the non-host grant as well as RenSeq technology and established a collaboration with Wageningen University. Known late blight resistance genes were sent to us as a consequence. The possibility to adapt RenSeq technology to pathogen effectors and plant pattern recognising receptors are being explored.

We have agreed to host a scientist from Wagening to establish an enrichment for plant pattern recognising receptors
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014
URL http://omgn.org/
 
Description Potatoes in Practise 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We had a display of the Commonwealth Potato Collection and introduced the concept of dRenSeq as a new breeding tool
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.hutton.ac.uk/events/potatoes-practice-2017
 
Description Presentation at Durham University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to Durham University to present our work on potato as part of the University's effort on Crop Protection
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at SLU Sweden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I visited SLU Alnarp, Sweden to conduct a VIVA of a PhD student. I was invited to present our work at the University during a seminar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Royal Highland Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We displayed dRenSeq technology and the impact of disease resistance gene deployment in potato cultivars since the early 1800.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.royalhighlandshow.org
 
Description Royal Highland Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We presented at the Royal Highland Show the impact of disease resistance breeding in potato as a consequence of the Irish potato famine.
We had on display heritage potato cultivars grown during the time of the famine (Lumper, Pink Fir Apple, Skerry Blue), current potato cultivars (Maris Piper, King Edward and Maris Piper) and wild potato species (S. verrucosum, S. polyadenium and S. bulbocastanum) with novel resistances. In addition, we had information about each cultivars in respect to the R genes that they contained (or lacked) as established through dRenSeq.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.hutton.ac.uk/news/hutton-science-show-royal-highland-show
 
Description Selected Speaker and Organiser; UK-China Workshop, Dundee 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of Potato in Practise, we had organised a Sino-Scotland workshop specifically focused on potato and potato diseases/resistances
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Selected Speaker; EAPR meeting; Dundee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Selected Speaker at European Association for Potato Research (EAPR) Pathology & Pests Section
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://eaprpathology2016.webarchive.hutton.ac.uk
 
Description Selected Speaker; Plant Science Scotland PI meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a gathering of PI from Scotland that are engaged in Plant Sciences. The scope was to establish further links between Institutes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Street food 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact dRenSeq technology in plants and CPC wild potato species
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.dundeesciencecentre.org.uk/local/events/event.php?eventgroupID=202&categoryID=10
 
Description Teaching (University of Dundee) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a 2 hour tutorial about modern genetics with a focus on utilising next-generation sequencing technology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015