IDRIS- Improving Disease Resistance In Strawberry

Lead Research Organisation: University of East Anglia
Department Name: Sainsbury Laboratory

Abstract

Berry crops have been one of the great success stories of British horticulture in recent years. During this century, the retail value of berry sales has increased from £146 million in 2000 to £783m in 2011, now representing 18.4 per cent of total UK fruit sales. Strawberries are 60% of the sector and continue to experience strong growth with sales increasing by 10% between March 2011 and March 2012. These achievements have been driven by scientific and technological advances, including improved cultivars, better control of pests and diseases and innovations allowing more intensive production. Modern cultivars have achieved a significant extension of the season, higher yields per plant, higher percentage of Class 1 fruit and improved eating quality, which has increased demand.

Despite this impressive performance in recent years, the UK strawberry industry now faces some serious challenges, with more variable and unpredictable weather conditions causing problems for growers, and the withdrawal of many fungicides and soil fumigants leading to increased crop losses from soil-borne diseases such as wilt, crown rot and red core, caused by Verticillium dahliae, Phytophthora cactorum and Phytophthora fragariae respectively. Our previous work resulted in a genome sequence for the diploid wild strawberry (through international collaboration) and molecular markers for wilt resistance that are now being deployed at EMR for marker assisted breeding. This is the first programme in the world to develop molecular markers for wilt resistance. Ongoing work aims to provide markers for mildew resistance (a major airborne pathogen), and this proposed work will provide markers which will facilitate more effective selection for resistance to crown rot and red core. This culmination of this work will lead to protection against the major soil and airborne pathogens in the UK.

Moreover, we wish to ask more basic questions about the evolution of plant-pathogen interactions and generate a draft genome sequence for the cultivated strawberry (whose genome is four times bigger than the diploid woodland strawberry, as it contains eight copies of each chromosome, rather than two). A genome sequence for the cultivated strawberry is essential for the identification of molecular pathways and processes controlling disease resistance and other agronomic traits, as well as basic studies into how genes have changed throughout evolution. For example, comparisons between the diploid wild strawberry and octoploid cultivated strawberry will improve our understanding of how relationships between plants and their pathogens change between simple and more complex plant genomes. We wish to identify plant resistance genes that recognise conserved, slowly evolving proteins in pathogens, that will allow wide host resistance to many pathogen races and lead to durable resistance.

Industry are enthusiastic to support a targeted pre-breeding programme underpinned by research that leads to a more effective molecular breeding approach, taking advantage of the latest developments in genomics to accelerate the breeding process. Ultimately, improved cultivars would become publicly available, via licensed propagators, to growers throughout the UK and the EU.

Currently, although strawberries are perennial, the standard industry practice is to maintain the plants in the ground for only 8 to 15 months, as cropping for multiple seasons usually results in a build-up of soil diseases that have deleterious effects on both yield and fruit quality. Plants with strong and reliable resistance would allow cropping for multiple years, which would lead to sustainable intensification, reduce production costs and lower fungicide inputs. For consumers this work will lead to strawberries that have had significantly fewer chemicals applied to them and a considerably lowered carbon cost of production because the energy inputs associated with frequent replanting have been reduced.

Technical Summary

This work will apply effectoromics and comparative genomics techniques to identify pathogen effectors and map resistance QTL for the oomycete pathogens, Phytophthora cactorum and Phytophthora fragariae in Fragaria spp. Race specific markers will then be effectively pyramided in parental germplasm along with markers for resistance to Verticillium dahliae and Podosphaera aphanis, and breeding lines crossed to develop a range of pre-breeding material.

To achieve this we will:
Cross multiple cultivars and breeding lines to create populations segregating for race-specific resistances to P. fragariae and resistance to P. cactorum isolates from both crowns and fruit (both P. cactorum) of differing specificities. This work will lead to the creation of a saturated linkage map for the octoploid strawberry using genotyping by sequencing.

Sequencing and transcriptomics of pathogen isolates will allow identification of variable effectors (most likely of the RxLR class). Cloning and transformation of candidate effectors into known resistant and susceptible lines will then allow screening with specific effectors, enabling accurate pyramiding of R-gene loci to improve resistance durability.

Cross infective isolates of P.cactorum from F. x ananassa will be tested on diploid Fragaria vesca to map resistance in F. vesca using GBS. Comparisons between resistance loci in the diploid and the octoploid will be made in order to identify whether the same genomic regions are controlling resistance to P. cactorum as in the octoploid and whether the same, or different effectors are controlling the virulence of the pathogen.

The common parent of the mapping population will be sequenced to high coverage with a range of super-long and shorter read sequencing technologies which can then be effectively scaffolded to yield a draft octoploid genome sequence. This can then be used to further our understanding of resistance at the candidate gene level in the octoploid.

Planned Impact

Completion of this project will attract significant attention from the science, food production, retailing and public communities worldwide; indeed this proposal has already received considerable support from across the UK horticulture industry owing to the potential step-improvement it could make in breeding disease-resistant perennial crops.

Key societal benefits that this project will lead to include:

1) Reduced fungicide applications 2) Decreased carbon cost of production 3) Less pre-harvest waste within crop production 4) Ability to produce crops in a wider range of climate conditions 5) Reduced cost of fruit production 6)Improved UK food security 7) Improved ability to meet EU legislative requirements

Academic beneficiaries

This research will train two PDRAs in a variety of molecular, bioinformatic and genetics techniques that are all of use in academic and industrial settings. These skills are vital to the UK research community as limited consideration towards pre-breeding of perennial food crops is provided by other UK academic institutions. The mapping progeny that will be generated and genotyped will be an important resource for future studies, as it is expected to segregate for a wide range of agronomically important traits (Benefit within 3-5 years). Published research from this project will facilitate the rapid development of cultivars, by international plant breeders, with improved disease resistance (Benefit within 3-5 years).

Commercial beneficiaries - (Soft fruit sector - UK)

This project, leading to disease-resistant strawberries in the UK, will help to protect and enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the UK soft fruit industry through reduced fungicidal inputs and by extending the life of field plantings (reducing production costs as current standard practice is for growers to replant every year - Benefit within 3 years). Disease resistant cultivars will also enable growers to reduce waste, and associated costs, and to produce crops across a wider range of climatic conditions - therefore benefiting the UK food security agenda (Benefit within 5-10 years). UK plant breeders, propagators, marketing companies and grower groups will all benefit from this research though subsequent commercialisation of research (as has been the case with previous research projects feeding into the EMR strawberry breeding programme). Ultimately, cultivars developed downstream form this pre-breeding will be protected by EU Plant Variety Rights to ensure maximum benefit to the UK economy. (Benefit within 2-4 years.)

Public and retail sector (especially supermarkets)

The improved disease-resistant cultivars will be ideally suited to production using integrated pest and disease management systems which are aimed at eliminating residues in fruit. This the public and retailers will have greater access to residue-free produce. More reliable production methods will similarly improve food availability and there is potential to reduce costs in the supply chain (through reduced inputs). Several UK retailers aim to double sales of UK-produced fruit by 2020; this project will assist that aim and improve UK productivity and competitiveness (Benefit within 5-10 years).

Government and policy benefits

The public will benefit through increased food security and sustainability, minimising fungicide residues and minimising the environmental impact from fungicides and soil fumigants on the environment. This feeds in to many UK Government and EU policy agendas including: pesticides (reducing residues), water (ability to grow nearer water courses), climate (growing crops perennially will improve carbon sequestration) and environment (reduced carbon and pesticides). (Benefit within 3-5 years)

Third sector

Environmental lobby groups within the third sector will benefit from this research through reduced fungicide use, less waste and cleaner water courses (Benefit within 2-4 years).

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title A biologist's poem 
Description This 'real and singular thing'. A piece of code in its own genome. A copy from the past, multipliable, repeatable, yet mutable. You couldn't help feeling that you had stolen this sequence from its owner. You had transferred a piece of life into the human consciousness. with apologies to Wim Wenders /w @SaskiaHogenhout 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Positive feedback on social media 
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/170774045435/a-biologists-poem
 
Title I Will Survive (biotroph remix) 
Description A plant pathology inspired song. I Will Survive (biotroph remix) [with apologies to Gloria Gaynor] Oh, no, not I I will survive Oh, as long as I know how to infect you I'll stay alive I've got all my life to live I've got all my spores to give And I'll survive I will survive, hey, hey 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact >15K impressions on social media and ~250 engagements 
URL https://twitter.com/KamounLab/status/1098214166723215361
 
Title Video animation: Plants have an immune system and it's complicated 
Description Just like humans, plants have an immune system that they use to fend off pathogens and pests. Research involving plant immunity was guided by Harold Flor's influential "gene-for-gene" model but this model is now supplanted by a more complex view of pant immunity. Disease resistance genes appear to work together in intricate networks that enable plants to detect and resist parasites more effectively. An in-depth understanding of the immune system can help us breed disease resistant crops. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact ~10K views on YouTube 511 engagements and >20K impressions on Twitter 
URL https://youtu.be/mlp2mQTEVtQ
 
Description Genome sequences of strawberry pathogens
Exploitation Route Genome sequences of strawberry pathogens have enabled effectoromics - effector based screens for disease resistance
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description Advisory Committee Chair, International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP18) in Boston, MA
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact ICPP 2018 adopted the theme "Plant Health is Earth's Wealth" for ISPP 2013-2018 recognising that plant pathogens don't just threaten food security and well-being. They also affect, forest and fibre systems, natural ecosystems, biodiversity and environmental harmony, and impede trade and market access. And, phytopathology research has also been a central focus for discovery and development in biotechnology and plant-microbial molecular biology. For our profession - people are the pivotal element, and while in the coming years, the ISPP will maintain a focus on plant disease impacts on food security, it should and will also foster attention to all facets of our profession through our Congresses, subject matter committees and our website, newsletter and Journal. In this light, the ISPP taskforce on global food security which has more than achieved it objectives will now become a Commission working in the same way as other ISPP Subject Matter Committees. https://www.isppweb.org/newsletters/pdf/48_8.pdf One of the major outcomes was the proposal for a code of ethics for plant health emergencies: * to foster ethical conduct * to support communication and collaboration * to ensure that decisions are based on the best available evidence See https://www.isppweb.org/newsletters/pdf/48_12.pdf
URL https://www.isppweb.org/newsletters/pdf/48_8.pdf
 
Description CABANA External Advisory Committee
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact What is CABANA? CABANA is a capacity strengthening project for bioinformatics in Latin America. It aims to accelerate the implementation of data-driven biology in the region by creating a sustainable capacity-building programme focusing on three challenge areas - communicable disease, sustainable food production and protection of biodiversity. CABANA is orchestrated by an international consortium of ten organisations - nine in Latin America and one in the UK. CABANA is funded by the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) - part of the UK Aid Budget - from October 2017 to December 2021.
URL http://www.cabana.online
 
Description Journals 2.0: a roadmap to reinvent scientific publishing
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Promoted preprints and open science and a different, more sustainable, form of scientific publishing therefore accelerating the dissemination of science and reducing the exorbitant costs of scientific publishing. This vision describes a radically different publishing model that would reinvent the concept of a scientific journal into a live and open forum of scientific debate and analysis. This model centers on a full integration of the preprint ecosystem into the journal interface. The journal would only accept submission of articles that have been posted as preprints. All evaluations and commissioned reviews of submitted articles would be published as soon as received on the journal website and linked to the preprint version. Editors would operate as always sifting through submitted papers and seeking external reviewers when necessary. But they will also consider author-led and community crowdsourced reviews, which would be appended to the preprint. As the reviews accumulate and revisions are submitted, the journal editors would initiate a consultation process, and when satisfied with a given version promote it to a formal article. The editor's role becomes more akin to moderator than gatekeeper. The process doesn't have to be static. As the community further comments on the article and follow-up studies are published, editors may decide to commission synthetic review or commentary articles to address emerging issues. I would also envision that the paper is linked to related articles in a "knowledge network" database, and that article tags are revised to reflect new knowledge, e.g. "independently validated". The journal would therefore become less of a static repository of scientific articles, and more of a moderated forum of scientific discussion.
URL https://zenodo.org/record/1466784#.XH2SPi2cawQ
 
Description Point of view: wither pre-publication peer review to reinvent scientific publishing
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Promoted open science and preprints among the research community therefore resulting in more rapid dissemination of scientific findings.
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/178573217080/point-of-view-wither-pre-publication-peer-review
 
Title Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining for Rubisco is an appropriate loading control for western blots from plant material 
Description Background - Having an adequate loading control for a western blot is essential for the interpretation of the results. There are two common loading control methods for western blots of proteins from plant material: (i) using specific antibodies to detect for a reference protein, such as actin, tubulin, or GAPDH (Li et al. 2011); and (ii) treating the membrane with Ponceau or Coomassie stains to assay the levels of a constitutively expressed protein, such as Rubisco (Zhang et al. 2017; Lim et al. 2018; Zhuo et al. 2014). Comparative studies in the mammalian biology field have determined that these loading control methods-antibody detection versus staining-are roughly equivalent in their linearity (Romero-Calvo et al. 2010; Wilender and Ekblad, 2011), and thus serve as comparable quality controls. In the plant biology field, it is sometimes debated as to whether staining for Rubisco is an appropriate loading control, due to the high abundance of this protein in the cell. Results - We undertook an experiment to determine whether the range of detection of staining for Rubisco is similar to that of antibody-based detection of a reference protein. We loaded total protein extract from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing GFP into a gel at a range of effective sample volumes, and the resulting western blot was treated with anti-GFP antibodies as well as stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) (Fig. 1a). Quantification of the GFP bands in the western blot and the Rubisco bands in the CBB stained membrane indicated that these detection methods have similar linear correlations between the loading volumes of total protein extract and the detectable band intensities (Fig. 1b). In addition, quantification of a random protein of lower abundance in the CBB stained membrane also showed similar linearity (Fig. 1b). Conclusions - These results indicate that CBB staining for Rubisco can be an appropriate loading control for western blots from plant material. This representative experiment is consistent with results from other western blot experiments that we routinely perform in our laboratory. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Feedback from social media indicates it is useful to many others. 
URL https://zenodo.org/record/2557821#.XH2gji2cbYI
 
Description #MPMI2019Posters 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact We published the Kamoun Lab posters presented at #ICMPMI2019 Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, Glasgow, July 14-18, on @ZENODO_ORG.

Kudos to all authors for their amazing contributions!

Joe Win, Mauricio Contreras, Benjamin Petre, Tolga O Bozkurt, Martin H Schattat, Jan Sklenar, Sophien Kamoun. (2019). Host-interactor screens of RXLR effectors reveal plant processes manipulated by Phytophthora. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3351297

Mauricio Contreras, Benjami
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/186817612845/mpmi2019posters-we-published-the-kamoun-lab
 
Description 2Blades: the story behind the scientist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We sat down with Sophien to find out more about the story behind the scientist:

Could you explain your research in 5 words?
Never bet against the pathogen.

Okay, now in a few more words..
Plants have an immune system, and it's complicated. This drives rapid evolution of pathogens, so we aim to understand the similarities in mechanisms of virulence and adaptation between plant pathogens and the disease-resistance toolkit and regulatory networks that underlie plant immunity.

Could you explain one technique you use regularly?
CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. We love it, it's totally transformed how we do research. The best way to explain this is that the genome is like a book, consisting of text, and with CRISPR-Cas9 we can modify just a few specific letters in the book. This is the ultimate in precision for genetic modification.

What about your field of research is most exciting to you right now?
The most exciting area to me is how we're finding evolutionary similarities between immune receptors from different plant species, in terms of how they activate immunity. These similarities are both evolutionary and functional.

What keeps you busy when you're not in the lab?
Traveling, walking, movies, food.

What would you be doing if you weren't a scientist?
I would be a scientist - there's no other option! I would be a scientist even if wasn't paid for it!

What's the most enjoyable thing about your job?
The sense of excitement when you discover something new and then sharing that experience with your colleagues.

How has the 2Blades Foundation been beneficial to your work?
2Blades has brought a high degree of professionalism and expertise to The Sainsbury Laboratory in terms of our capacity to interact with industrial partners. We didn't have this before, so it's been a highly synergistic interaction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://2blades.org/voices/prof-sophien-kamoun/
 
Description CropLife FoodHeroes Series: What inspires plant scientists and why is their job so important? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Why did you want to be a plant scientist?

I became a scientist because I grew up being extremely curious about the natural world. I wanted to know how living organisms function. How they became the way they are. Plant pathology came later after realized that I may as well study a field of biology that is important to the human condition. This inspires me to narrow the gap between fundamental and applied research. My aim is to perform cutting-edge research and significantly advance knowledge on economically important plant pathogen systems. In contrast, much research focuses on model systems and is therefore further steps away from practical applications.

Can you explain what your job involves?

As an academic scientist, I am in the business of knowledge. My job is to generate new knowledge to advance science, and to influence others to pursue new directions, generate more knowledge and apply it to address practical problems. My job is also to communicate scientific knowledge and discoveries to my peers and to a broader audience, including the general public.

What are the plant diseases that you are working on?

I work primarily on blight and blast diseases. Throughout my career, I have worked primarily on the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. More recently, I was inspired by the sense of urgency brought upon by the February 2016 Bangladeshi wheat blast epidemic to expand my research to blast fungi. I aim to apply the concepts and ideas I developed throughout my career to a problem with an immediate impact on global food security.

Can you describe how damaging these diseases can be for farmers?

Plant diseases are a major constraint for achieving food security. Losses caused by fungal plant pathogens alone account for enough to feed several billion people. Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of blast disease of cereals, is among the most destructive plant pathogens, causing losses in rice production that, if mitigated, could feed up to 740 million people. This pathogen has emerged since the 1980s as an important pathogen of wheat seriously limiting the potential for wheat production in South America. In 2016, wheat blast was detected for the first time in Asia with reports of a severe epidemic in Bangladesh. The outbreak is particularly worrisome because wheat blast has already spread further to India, and is threatening major wheat producing areas in neighboring South Asian countries. Global trade and a warming climate are contributing to the spread and establishment of blast diseases as a global problem for cereal production and a present and clear danger to food security.

Why is your profession important in the challenge to feed the world?

Plant pathology delivers science-driven solutions to plant diseases. In particular, genetic solutions through disease resistant crop varieties can be sustainable and environmentally friendly.

What inspires you about your job?

Knowledge and people. The thrill of learning something new every day is addictive. Sharing the experience with others -be they students, colleagues, stakeholders or members of the public - is priceless.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://croplife.org/industry-profile/sophien-kamoun/
 
Description Everything you wanted to know about research integrity but never dared to ask 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Sophien Kamoun's talk to the Norwich research Park PhD student. May 7, 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.slideshare.net/SophienKamoun/everything-you-wanted-to-know-about-research-integrity-but-...
 
Description FIRST INVITED SEMINAR SERIES 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact FIRST INVITED SEMINAR SERIES

Kiki Kots, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
"Shining a light on oomcyete biology; live cell imaging of the Phytophthora cytoskeleton"
Monday November 11, 2019

Huang Tan, Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, China
"Study the role of pectin in pathogen associated molecular pattern pattern (PAMP)-triggered inhibition of growth/immunity"
Monday October 14, 2019

Chuyun Gao, Nanjing Agricultural University, China
"NLR immune receptor Rpi-vnt1 provides light-dependent resistance against Irish famine pathogen by guarding chloroplast protein GLYK"
Thursday September 17, 2019

Alexandre Leary, Imperial College London
"A plant RabGAP negatively regulates autophagy and immunity to the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans"
Tuesday August 7, 2018

Soichiro Asuke, Kobe University, Japan
"Elucidating the genetic mechanism of host parasitic specialization of Pyricularia oryzae to wheat"
Tuesday June 5, 2018

Michael Schon, Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Austria
"Utilizing RNA ends for tissue-specific transcriptome assembly and degradome analysis"
Friday February 16, 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/188924706750/first-invited-seminar-series-fiss
 
Description Growing the Future-a UK Plant Sciences Federation and a Royal Society of Biology report 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Growing the future is a report from the UK Plant Sciences Federation (UKPSF), a special advisory committee of the Royal Society of Biology. Launched in January 2019, the report highlights to policymakers and others the excellence of plant science in the UK, and its importance to the biosciences, the economy, and society both at home and around the world. In Growing the future, the UKPSF describes the potential of plant science to improve fundamental knowledge, enable better diet quality, increase crop productivity, enhance environmental sustainability and create new products and manufacturing processes.

The report section on Plant health highlighted our research on potato late blight which dates back to the 1990s and has established the fundamental knowledge that has now enabled commercialisation of the first GMO potato plants among various applications.

The report also highlighted our work on gene editing in tomato, notably the development of the fungus resistant tomato line Tomelo, which was highlighted by a picture taken from our publication Nekrasov, V., Wang, C., Win, J., Lanz, C., Weigel, D., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Rapid generation of a transgene-free powdery mildew resistant tomato by genome deletion. Scientific Reports, 7:482.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/ukpsf/about-ukpsf/growing-the-future-report
 
Description Growing the Future-a UK Plant Sciences Federation and a Royal Society of Biology report featuring Innovations in #PlantHealth by TSL scientists 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Growing the Future-a UK Plant Sciences Federation and a Royal Society of Biology report has featured Innovations in #PlantHealth by TSL scientists and the broader oomycete and gene editing communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/182471762520/growing-the-futurea-uk-plant-sciences
 
Description Hello kids, I'm a biologist! 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact My presentation to the 9-10 year old children of the British International School of Tunis. March 21, 2019.

Here you can find notes, acknowledgements and links to the videos:

Slide 1. The action shot is from this interview with CropLife International. More on my background can be found on the Wikipedia English and French pages, and these interviews "Stranger in a strange land: the experiences of immigrant researchers" and ISMPMI Interactions InterViews. For popular science writing, check the PlantVillage article "https://medium.com/@plantvillage/keeping-up-with-the-plant-destroyers-9c0047899683".

Slide 3. The Australian outback ~1994 with our clunky Ford Falcon. With @SaskiaHogenhout.

Slide 4. You go there to chase insects and instead insects start chasing you #fieldworkfail #Australia

Slide 5. This Scanning Electron Microscopy shot of a tiger beetle head is courtesy of Charles R. Krause who captured it in 1982 on a Hitachi S-500 SEM.

Slide 6. Rivacindela eburneola, Cicindelidae, Coleoptera. I took this shot in 1994 at Lake Gilmore, Western Australia.

Slide 7. The fastest running insect in the world. BBC Earth.

Slide 8. Ed Yong's National geographic piece on The Predator That Becomes Blind When It Runs After Prey.

Slide 9. Cornell University Daniel Zurek and Cole Gilbert study on how tiger beetles use their antennae to sense obstacles at high speed.

Slide 10. What's in this picture? #PlantBlindness

Slide 11. The time-lapse video of potato plants infected by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans was produced by Remco Stam.

Slide 12. I received the image of the potato farmer from Dr. Tarlochan Thind, Punjab Agricultural University. He is quoted in this story about potato late blight in India.

Slide 13. Different varieties of potato are either destroyed by the blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans or fully resistant (immune). The photo is courtesy of Vivianne Vleeshouwers at Wageningen University.

Slide 14. This stunning animation of the bacterium Xanthomonas infecting tomato plants was produced by students at Halle University working with Prof. Ulla Bonas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/183672043215/hello-kids-im-a-biologist
 
Description How to select a PhD lab? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I regularly get this question from predocs. How do I select a PhD lab? How do I decide on a good supervisor? Should I select a lab based on a project? Below is a hodgepodge of the answers I generally give.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://zenodo.org/record/3531916#.Xl6WJS2cbDY
 
Description Interview with Matthew Gudgin on BBC Radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sophien Kamoun's interview with Matthew Gudgin on BBC Radio following election as Fellow of the Royal Society. This includes a discussion of plant blindness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/173740235230/sophiens-interview-with-matthew-gudgin-on-bbc
 
Description Keynote lecture at ICPP 2018: The Edge of Tomorrow - Plant Health in the 21st Century 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ICPP2018 International Congress of Plant Pathology Plenary Session - Plant Health is Earth's Wealth, Boston, USA, Monday, July 30, 2018

The talk was broadcast on a live stream and is available on YouTube https://youtu.be/MYysIKSYY_8
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/176385835530/the-edge-of-tomorrow-plant-health-in-the-21st
 
Description Le Professeur tunisien Sophien Kamoun intègre la prestigieuse Royal Society de Londres 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact News article in the North African media https://www.huffpostmaghreb.com
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/entry/le-professeur-tunisien-sophien-kamoun-integre-la-prestigieuse-...
 
Description Meeting with HE Mr. Slim Khalbous Ministre de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique of Tunisia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A busy week in Tunisia. A great honour to receive the Presidential Research Award from HE Mr. Slim Khalbous Ministre de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique. Also, present at the ceremony were Mme Samia Charfi Directrice Générale de la Recherche Scientifique et M. Abdelmajid Ben Amara Directeur Général de l'Enseignement Supérieur.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/183671401535/a-busy-week-in-tunisia-a-great-honour-to-receive
 
Description Overcoming plant blindness in science, education, and society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Plants are amazing organisms. They make up around 80% of all biomass on Earth, play important roles in almost all ecosystems, and support humans and other animals by providing shelter, oxygen, and food. Despite this, many people have a tendency to overlook plants, a phenomenon known as "plant blindness." Here, we explore the reasons behind plant blindness, discuss why some people are relatively unaffected by it, and promote education around plant science to overcome this phenomenon and raise awareness of the importance of plants in the wider community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ppp3.51
 
Description Plant pathogens at science, art, writing program (SAW). 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Several team members spent a day at a school to tell the kids about plant pathogens.

This was part of SAW http://www.sawtrust.org

See also http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/120786305365/marina-ronny-ola-and-joe-at-school-today
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/120786305365/marina-ronny-ola-and-joe-at-school-today
 
Description Presentation "The Two-Speed Genomes of Filamentous Plant Pathogens" at the 2015 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk at the 2015 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting "The Two-Speed Genomes of Filamentous Plant Pathogens"

http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/115841932400/watch-sophiens-talk-at-the-2015-doe-jgi-genomics
http://youtu.be/kogoAS_9Bgk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/115841932400/watch-sophiens-talk-at-the-2015-doe-jgi-genomics
 
Description Presentation Plant pathology in the post-genomics era at BASF Science Symposium: sustainable food chain - from field to table, Jun 23-24, 2015, Chicago 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation at the BASF Science Symposium: sustainable food chain - from field to table, Jun 23-24, 2015, Chicago.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/122151022390/plant-pathology-in-the-post-genomics-era
 
Description Presentation and debate: What are world class science outputs? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation on What are world class science outputs?
NRP Doctoral Training Programme Summer Conference 2015, The Assembly House, Norwich, Thursday 18th June
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/121748816600/what-are-world-class-science-outputs
 
Description Public Lecture: Keeping up with the plant destroyers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Tuesday 9 December, 6.30pm
Inaugural Lectures Autumn 2014
University of East Anglia

Keeping up with the plant destroyers
Professor Sophien Kamoun (School of Biological Sciences / The Sainsbury Laboratory)
Attendance is free and open to all. Free drinks reception after the talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/100740813820/tuesday-9-december-630pm-inaugural-lectures
 
Description Scoop.it page "Plants and Microbes" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Everything related to the science of plant-microbe interactions. Curated by Kamoun Lab @ TSL

>450K page views.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://www.scoop.it/topic/mpmi
 
Description Ten things we learned in 2010-2019 (aside from everything else) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This last decade has been such an exhilarating period of exploration and discovery for me, my team and my collaborators that I just can't resist the urge to write this post. The decade took us through unexpected research paths that I would have never imagined ten years ago. As I'm drafting these words during my holidays break in Sri Lanka-in between tasting the local milk rice curries and soaking the soft Indian ocean December sunshine-I'm reflecting on the local proverb above and I'm using it as my lame excuse to offer you yet another list of decadal achievements.

Please note that this is my personal highly biased perspective on ten things we have learned in 2010-2019. This list is by no means meant to be comprehensive review of advances in our research field but rather a reflection of my own personal take on the scientific topics we investigate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/190367273015/ten-things-we-learned-in-2010-2019-aside-from
 
Description TheMetaNews: Interview-<
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chercheur en pathologie des plantes au Royaume-Uni, Sophien Kamouns'est tout récemment fait pirater son identité par une revue prédatrice.

Comment vous êtes-vous rendu compte du piratage de votre identité ?
J'ai reçu un email du Research journal of plant pathology, qui a attiré mon attention car il me remerciait d'avoir "reviewé" des articles pour leur compte. Il y avait le mot de passe de "mon" profil en bas du mail, j'ai donc pu y accéder et réaliser que j'étais censé avoir rendu quatre rapports (très mauvais d'ailleurs), alors que je n'ai jamais travaillé pour cette revue.

Avez-vous contacté les éditeurs de la revue pour avoir des explications ?
J'en doutais au départ mais il s'agit de vraies personnes ! Un chercheur aux Etats-Unis, un autre en Chine, les deux assez reconnus. J'en ai parlé à l'administration de mon institut et nous avons décidé que je ne les contacterai pas personnellement, mais d'agir de manière formelle. Une lettre signée de mon institut est en cours de rédaction, à l'attention de la revue, ainsi que des deux éditeurs. C'est également mon employeur qui décidera s'il y a lieu d'engager des poursuites judiciaires.

Quel est le meilleur moyen de lutter contre les revues prédatrices ?
Par la transparence. Je suis pour un système << publish & filter >>, et non l'inverse, où le peer-review se fait sur des plateformes dédiées comme PREreview, après mise en ligne du preprint. Les maisons d'édition historiques ne sont pas forcément un gage de qualité du peer-review même si les chercheurs se cachent souvent derrière le fait qu'un article est publié dans Nature pour ne pas se poser de questions. Cela peut être très dangereux, comme nous montre le cas de l'article liant vaccination et autisme, qui a finalement été retiré mais 18 ans après sa publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://sco.lt/5RgfkO
 
Description Video commentary on the structure and activation mechanism of NLR type plant immune receptor ZAR1 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Stunning news from China! Check CCTV13 news report on the resistosome featuring Jijie Chai and Jian-Min Zhouwith a brief cameo by yours truly. This program's audience share was ~2.3% or about 30 million people give or take

More coverage via iPlants WeChat Group, which includes a cool animation by Jian-Min's Lab. Here is also the video interview commissioned by the authors and the commentary by Hiroaki Adachi and Abbas Maqbool.

It's truly cause for celebration. At long last, a structure o
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/184056312400/stunning-news-from-china-check-cctv13-news-report