Stomatal-based systems analysis of water use efficiency

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Plant Sciences

Abstract

Stomata are pores that provide for gaseous exchange across the impermeable cuticle of plant leaves. They open and close to balance the requirement for CO2 entry for photosynthesis against the need to reduce the transpiration of water vapour and prevent leaf drying. Stomatal transpiration is at the centre of a crisis in water availability and crop production that is expected to unfold over the next 20-30 years: globally, agricultural water usage has increased 6-fold in the past 100 years, twice as fast as the human population, and is projected to double again before 2030. Thus stomata represent an important target for breeders interested in manipulating crop performance. Stomatal movements are driven by solute transport - and consequent uptake/loss of water - across the cell membrane of the guard cells which surround the stomatal pore. Significantly, stomatal responses are slow compared to photosynthesis in the face of environmental fluctuations, especially of light. Improving water use efficiency (=amount of carbon fixed in photosynthesis/amount of water transpired) should be possible, without a cost to carbon assimilated in photosynthesis, if the speed of stomatal responses, especially to light, can be enhanced. However, the complexity of guard cell transport and its coupling to gas exchange and transpiration has presented a formidable barrier to systematic reverse-engineering aimed at enhancing stomatal responses through genetic manipulation and other means.

Quantitative systems analysis offers an effective approach in silico to exploring the link between microscopic gene function and the macroscopic characteristics of assimilation and transpiration. As a first step to bridging this gap in understanding, we developed previously the OnGuard software for quantitative dynamic modelling of the guard cell. OnGuard models build explicitly on the wealth of molecular, biophysical and kinetic knowledge for guard cell transport and metabolism that drive stomatal movement; they accommodate stomata of different plant species, over the full range of conditions studied in the laboratory to date; and they have been shown to incorporate the real predictive power needed to guide experiments at the cellular and physiological levels that start with molecular manipulations in silico. The next major step towards establishing in silico strategies for crop design, based on our deep knowledge of stomatal guard cells, will be to establish and validate this computational link to incorporate carbon assimilation and water use efficiency at leaf and whole-plant levels.

We propose now to develop such a strategy in models of the leaf, and scaling to the crop in the field, that capture CO2 uptake and transpiration. We will build the next-generation OnGuard models that incorporate CO2 uptake and transpiration, and we will incorporate computational statistical methods to accelerate model construction. Most important, the models will provide the essential micro-macro link to connect molecular function with physiological traits of the whole plant in water use and photosynthetic carbon assimilation and will enable scaling to the crop in the field. We will test this second generation of OnGuard models and validate their outputs to examine the longstanding hypothesis that significant erosion in the efficiency of water use by plants arises because of the mismatch in dynamic environmental responses between stomata and photosynthesis. Additionally, we will explore the connection of these traits with oscillations known to occur in stomatal aperture and in the signalling events (e.g. cytosolic-free [Ca2+]) previously documented at the cellular level in single guard cells. All studies will focus on the crop plant Vicia for which there is much data at the single-cell and whole-leaf levels, and on Arabidopsis for which we have mutants with well-defined effects on stomatal kinetics.

Technical Summary

We will incorporate transpiration and carbon fixation explicitly within the OnGuard software, and will test, by in silico modelling and experimental validation, the hypothesis that significant erosion in the efficiency of water use by plants arises because of the mismatch in environmental responses between stomata and photosynthesis. These studies will explore also the connection to oscillations known to occur in stomatal aperture and in the signalling events (e.g. cytosolic-free [Ca2+]) previously documented at the cellular level in single guard cells and reproduced in the first-generation OnGuard models. The modelling and experimental methods proposed are independent, but their combination gives added value to both. Model development will incorporate recent advances in Bayesian inference to enable fast, automated searching for computational solutions. These are proven methods and naturally compute the confidences in model predictions and their relation to observed data. Bayesian methods also address questions such as 'Which parameters are critical to defining a specific set of behaviours?', questions that are important in directing model development. The experimental work will build on methods at the research forefront in analysing water use efficiency in real time from single plants and in scaling for data capture in the field by eddy flux (covariance) and stable isotope discrimination analysis. Experiments will assess stomatal response to light, humidity and CO2 to extract stomatal kinetics and their association with oscillations in transpiration and carbon assimilation. We will use these data to parameterise models and to test the micro-macro link of the models in predicting transpiration and water use efficiency. Thus, we fully expect new and exciting insights into the behaviour of stomata in the leaf and crop canopy, much as our previous modelling efforts provided hitherto unexpected insights into the physiology of the isolated guard cell.

Planned Impact

This proposal is for fundamental research developing new concepts at the core of ideas emerging within the international plant and systems biology communities. The research will stimulate thinking around strategies for systems modelling, especially in relation to membrane transport, plant growth, development and pathology, and it should facilitate in silico methodologies for approaching crop engineering. Thus, the research is expected to benefit fundamental researchers as well as agriculture and industry through conceptual developments as well as the introduction of new computational technologies for the analysis of plant water use efficiency and productivity. The research will feed into higher education training programmes through capacity building at the postgraduate and postdoctoral levels. Additional impact is proposed through public displays and the development of teaching resources building on the background work for this proposal. Finally the research will help guide future efforts in applications to agricultural/industrial systems. The applicants have established links with industrial/technology transfer partners and research institutes to take advantage of these developments. Further details of these, and additional impacts will be found in Part 1 of the Case for Support and in the attached Impact Pathways.
 
Description The outputs of the award as published papers represent a major contribution to understanding how we can scale a molecular and biophysical model of metabolism controlling stomatal guard cells, to leaf and canopy scale responses
Exploitation Route As the basis for selecting crops for improved resilience and water use
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Energy,Environment

URL https://www.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/research/howardgriffiths
 
Description the five publications arising from this proposal have been used to inform additional research and impact activities associated with industrial collaborators, GCRF funding and outreach associated with Global Food Security Interdisciplinary Resarch Centre for which Griffiths is co-Chair
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Title A simple method to estimate photosynthetic enhancement 
Description We have developed a model which allows a relatively rapid measure of photosynthetic efficiency under contrasting O2 tensions to be used either as a high throughput screen of genetically transformed plant lines, or for the estimation of carbon concentrating mechanism or oxygenase engagement 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It will enhance high throughput physiological screening of transformed plant lines or allow the immediate testing of the impact of transgenes when directly introduced into a leaf; it will allow an immediate assessment of any increase or decrease in photosynthetic efficiency found in the modified line. 
 
Title Models to enhance analysis of photosynthesis 
Description models of gas exchange and photosystem fluorescence were combined to allow easy access for non-specialists to analyse data from readliy available equipment but informed by the latest theoretical understanding of fundamental science 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This will increase the rigour of studies on plants subject to molecular transformation and evaluation of traits 
 
Description BBSRC-DFID led meeting | UK-CGIAR crop research collaboration for impact through delivery of SDG2 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact a BBSRC-DfID jointly organised one day meeting, for Directors and senior leaders of key UK research institutions and CGIAR centres in the area of crop research.nThe purpose of the meeting is to identify innovative ways of collaboration between UK and CGIAR research centres, that will maximise the impact of UK ODA funding in crop research and will lead to improvement of agricultural productivity, food nutrition and security and will facilitate delivery against the Sustainable Development Goal 2.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Academic advisor to SAPS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Various activities include Discussions on Teaching Methods with Teachers, as well as advising on the scientific content of posters, animations and other outreach materials produced by SAPS

Various discussions with Teachers and requests to present to students in specific schools
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.saps.org.uk/
 
Description Attendance at GCRF Stategic Advisory Group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Serving on GCRF SAG is a recognition of our contribution in the sphere of global Food Security as well as the possible contribution to shaping policy and developing future funding activities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Cambridge Conference on Global Food Security 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Conference was held on 23-24 June 2016 co-hosted by Cambridge Global Food Security, the Centre of Development Studies, and Cambridge's conservation networks: the Cambridge Conservation Initiative and Forum, and the University of Cambridge Conservation and Research Initiative. Over 225 people took part, gathering in the newly opened David Attenborough Building, home to the Cambridge Conservation Campus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/symposia/2016
 
Description Cambridge Global Food Security Initiative Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Promotion of Global Food security issues and opportunities for translational research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/events/Symposium2017FOLDER
 
Description Cambridge University Global Food Security Initiative 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Events and activities are generating strategic priorities for research funding, engaging across sciences and humanities, to develop policies and initiate research in priority areas.

Activities are currently linking with international agencies (FAO, CGIAR, WTO) and Governments to promote research on Food Security, including the development of an International Crop Science Centre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description Engagement with multinational corporations related to Food Security and Climate Change 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The PI, HG, has addressed a number of high level Industrial delegations, which include AB Sugar, TATA steel, Coca-Cola, and given presentations on the implications of climate change and environmental stress on crop productivity and yield and strategies for photosynthetic enhancement. Most recently, this activity has also focussed upon the Cambridge University Global Food Security Initiative, and provided an introduction to the networks and research potential for future collaboration.

The engagement and interest in specific areas of research either directly related to enhancement of photosynthesis and evaluation of stress, or identifying potential collaborators within the University as a focus for industrial funding in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013
URL http://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description Female Leaders in Crop and Agricultural Sciences from India: A Newton-Bhabha Fund workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A The creation of 'Innovation Farms' to train women in the latest agriculture techniques came a step closer on a recent visit to the University of Cambridge by India's leading female crop scientists.

The idea to develop a series of farms across India to teach women techniques from factoring climate into crop choice to improving yield is part of a programme to empower mid-career that saw 20 female scientists from India brought 23 delegates to visit the labs and lecture halls of Cambridge this week.

Experts in plant and crop sciences from Indian and Cambridge exchanged skills and ideas during a five-day programme that included seminars, workshops and visits to laboratories.

Female scientists from across India applied to take part in the programme, with the first 20 staying at Clare College for a week and attending workshops on topics from building negotiation skills to delegating more effectively. According to the programme organisers, this was in order to help them "handle the juggling game of science and family".

The visit included a tour of the Sainsbury Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, the Innovation Farm at the National Institute Of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) and the John Innes Centre (JIC). Ultimately, it is hoped that the Innovation Farm concept will also be developed at universities and research institutes across India to train women farmers in the latest agricultural techniques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Graduate Symposium in Vienna "MInd the App" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Student Symposium "Mind the App"
"Applications that bridge biology and technology"; organized by Phd-students of the Vienna Biocenter.
"This is an interdisciplinary conference involving 15 international scientists who have unconventionally applied technology to basic research or conceived an innovative application from a scientific finding. Topics include "Molecular Toolbox", "Bioengineering Medicine", "Manipulating the Code" and "Shaping Ecosystems"."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://bme.htu.at/2016/09/14/student-symposium-mind-the-app/
 
Description Graduate seminar on food security 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact discussion on impacts of climate change on food security
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Host eminent Crop Scientist from india 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invite M S S Swaminathan- one of the fathers of the green revolution in India, to present a formal open seminar to members of the TIGR2ESSconsortium and Food Security Strategic research initiative
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Institute for Continuing Education presentation: Mosses on a roll as climate change gather pace 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Study at one of the world's leading universities this summer. Every July and August our International Summer Programmes offer adults of all ages and backgrounds an intensive learning experience with the opportunity to live in some of Cambridge's most beautiful Colleges. Over 175 courses and seminars, plus 200 supplementary lectures make up our open-access programmes: summer science programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited seminar at a major international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation gave a major overview of plant physiology and ecology in improving sustainable crop productivity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.europlantbiology2018.org/
 
Description Leader of Debate on Climate and Sustainability 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Led question-time panel and chaired discussion on actions associated with Food Security and Climate Change
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.cambridgeclimateforum.org/
 
Description Masterclass on Global Food Security for Year 12 and 13 pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 30 pupils attended for a school visit to the Sainsbury Laboratory, which sparked questions and discussion afterwards, and the school reported increased interest in related subject areas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.saps.org.uk/secondary
 
Description Meeting with delegation from multinational corporation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Top level engagement with Multinational corporations such as Pepsico, Nestle, IKEA during which general advances in science have been pitched in the context of Global Food Security and with a view to building partnerships through the EIT Food KIC, and the Cambridge Centre for Crop Science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL https://www.cambplants.group.cam.ac.uk/our-impact/3cs-cambridge-centre-for-crop-science
 
Description Member of CUPGRA executive committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Facilitated discussions between academics and potato growing industry and opportunities for philanthropic support of research; CUPGRA was set up in 1982 to encourage study and research on potatoes. It promotes the interchange of scientific research and field practice for innovative, sound commercial production of potatoes through its association with the Agronomy Research Group at NIAB CUF
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.niab.com/pages/id/464/CUPGRA
 
Description Networking event for University of Cambridge PhD students and Postdocs interested in collaborating with the food industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Participants had the opportunity to meet and hear from agri-tech and food industry representatives, and discuss possibilities for:
- research collaborations
- internships
- future careers.
**Confirmed** companies attending include:

PepsiCo

Nestle

Britvic

Koppert

Buhler

Hummingbird Technologies

Maspex

Map of Agriculture

DowDupont

ADAS

AMT Fruit

Bayer Crop Science

Entomics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/events/foodfutures2
 
Description Open Day and School visits hosted for Biological and Plant Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School visits, in association with Clare College and/of the University Open Days and Dept of Plant Sciences, included a Biological Sciences Taster Day, three full open days (July/September and hosting individual year groups (year 8/9, 10/11 or 12) to talk about plant processes and food security, impact of climate change, as well as admissions procedures
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL http://www.clare.cam.ac.uk/Information-for-Schools/
 
Description Participate in broadcast on local national and international radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact participation in interviews and live broadcasts to promote plant and crop sciences to the wider community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Participation in Cambridge Forum for Sustainability 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Forum aims to stimulate cross-disciplinary conversations about some of the great sustainability challenges the world faces in the future and the research pathways which will help to prepare for and address those challenges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.cfse.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description Participation in popular science radio programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science week Debate on plant processes attended by schoolchildren, increasing interest in subject areas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.thenakedscientists.com/
 
Description Policy workshop: Monitoring the global food system: building trust and resilience for UK citizens and consumers. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A CSaP (Centre for Science and Policy ) workshop funded through the Global Food Security Interdisciplinary Research Centre (co-Chair H Griffiths) which raised key questions regarding resilience in the food system and how policy should be developed to cope with future challenges
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/events/past/?category=1
 
Description School visit (Impington Village College) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk sparked interest in photosynthesis and stimulated discussion on fundamental science and food security issues generally

I was asked by teachers if I would be prepared to undertake similar activities in the future; advice was also offered for those undertaking university applications for science and biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2014
 
Description Science on Sundays Botanic Garden talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science on Sundays
Science on Sundays is a programme of informal, monthly drop-in plant science talks here at the Botanic Garden which run for six months of the year, from March to August.

Since its foundation, Cambridge University Botanic Garden has been a focus and stimulus for science in the University. This series of short science talks, curated by Professor Beverley Glover, Director of the Garden, aims to bring the latest discoveries in plant science to a wider audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.botanic.cam.ac.uk/Botanic/Page.aspx?p=27&ix=3035&pid=2719&prcid=4&ppid=2719
 
Description Seminar on food security, Shanghai, China: Food security,  nutrition and health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Food security occurs when all people are able to access enough safe and nutritious food to meet their requirements for a healthy life, in ways the planet can sustain into the future".
Crop Science and Food security: there is a productivity, waste and distribution "trilemma"
How should we link the technologies for crop production and distribution to environmental resilience and consumer health and nutrition?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Smart Agriculture Conclave 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attendance at Smart Agriculture Conclave, New Delhi
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/international/offices/india/indianews/310817i/
 
Description Translational Funding Morning 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact To engage with industrial sponsors and funding agencies, introducing research impact opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.cambplants.group.cam.ac.uk/news-and-events/translational-funding-morning/translational-f...
 
Description University Open Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The open days are large-scale events organised by the central Cambridge Admissions Office in conjunction with the University Colleges and departments.
Cambridge Open Days are for Year 12 students (or equivalent) and mature applicants who are considering making an application in October 2017 for entry in October 2018 (or deferred entry in October 2019).
Attendees will find out what the University and Colleges have to offer, attend presentations on courses, the application process, student support, finance, and careers. They will have the opportunity to talk to academic staff from the departments and Colleges, and undergraduate students will also be on hand to talk to about student life at Cambridge.

My participation has encouraged students to apply to Cambridge- direct feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
URL http://www.undergraduate.study.cam.ac.uk/events/cambridge-open-day
 
Description Visit to University of Lincoln to hold workshop on motivation and funding opportunities in the food security arena 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Response to an invitation by a Pro Vice Chancellor to discuss funding engagement, motivation and raising aspirations to develop external research opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop and formal Launch of TIGR2ESS programme in New Delhi, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop identified extension beyond the existing scope of funding awarded through the GCRF programme, including additional government agencies in India, as well as representatives from DFID and RCUK offices in India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.vertiver.com/tigr2ess/
 
Description appearance on Naked Scientist panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact participation in live debate on radio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.thenakedscientists.com/
 
Description engagement with Industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Engagement with multi-national industrial conglomerates to explore research collaborations, synergies and development of translational research projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.cambplants.group.cam.ac.uk/our-impact/3cs-cambridge-centre-for-crop-science
 
Description meet with representatives of eminent society or government ministry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meet CSaP visiting Policy Fellow from Royal Society and BEIS and discuss food security issues in relation to global food security and engagement with the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019