Understanding assessment strategies during aggressive encounters in pigs to improve welfare following regrouping.

Lead Research Organisation: SRUC
Department Name: Research

Abstract

Global demand for pig meat is increasing, with over one billion pigs slaughtered annually. Production has become increasingly intensive with most pigs in the UK and EU being raised indoors and reaching slaughter weight within 6 months. During this production cycle, regrouping of unfamiliar pigs is common practice, typically occurring several times during a pig's life. This sudden mixing of unfamiliar pigs represents a major animal welfare concern.

The social structure of domestic pigs is based on a dominance hierarchy. In the wild, migration between social groups occurs gradually, and hierarchies are formed with minimal aggression. In contrast, when pigs are mixed into new groups (regrouped) under commercial conditions, dominance hierarchies are formed through vigorous fighting, with many pigs receiving 100 or more skin scratches caused by biting. This is stressful for pigs, resulting in injuries, increased risk of infection, and reduced weight gain. This proposal is aimed at addressing the problem of regrouping aggression in pigs.

The information gathering and decision making processes used by pigs to resolve aggressive encounters are poorly understood. However, there is a large body of research on contest behaviour in numerous other animal species. This work has benefitted greatly from the application of theoretical models that are based on particular information gathering rules. Two classes of model have been developed that differ in the strategies used during contests. In the first class, termed self assessment, animals make fight decisions based purely on their own fighting ability and stamina, using internal cues and without reference to the fighting ability of an opponent. After a certain (threshold) amount of energy has been spent on fighting, the individual will give up, and the opponent with the lower threshold will be the loser. In the second class of model, termed mutual assessment, animals self assess but also use information about the fighting ability of an opponent. Although more complex, it has greater benefits as an animal can quickly withdraw from a fight it is likely to lose.

Whether pigs settle fights using a self or mutual assessment strategy has major implications for the degree of escalation. With self assessment animals will always fight up to a threshold, whereas with mutual assessment the use of information about the opponent will allow the weaker animal to quickly abandon a fight it is likely to lose. By examining aggressive interactions between pairs of unfamiliar pigs and employing a suitable statistical framework, this proposal will identify the assessment strategy used.

Similar to human personalities, pigs show individual differences in aggressiveness, with some individuals being more aggressive than others. How these differences influence fight outcomes and the types of assessment detailed above is currently unknown. This will be revealed using a technique to measure aggressiveness. Additionally, the importance of fight experience for developing mutual assessment ability will be examined by comparing pigs that have experienced regrouping in comparison to individuals with no prior fighting experience.

An important aspect of this project is aimed at optimising the assessment abilities of pigs to minimise levels of aggression when regrouped. We will investigate whether socialising piglets during early life, by allowing adjacent litters to mix prior to weaning, equips pigs with the necessary skills for mutual assessment during aggressive encounters later in life.

Finally, the above research outcomes will be translated to the regrouping situation. Group composition will be manipulated to optimise the capability of individuals for mutual assessment. This will facilitate hierarchy formation with minimal fighting. Achieving this objective and translating this knowledge to industry has the potential to improve the welfare of the vast majority of commercially produced pigs.

Technical Summary

Regrouping of unfamiliar pigs occurs routinely during production, resulting in aggressive behaviour, with dominance hierarchies formed through vigorous fighting. This practice is a considerable welfare concern. However, the information gathering and decision making processes used by pigs to resolve such encounters are poorly understood and there is little knowledge regarding how to facilitate hierarchy formation in a manner that could be commercially adopted.

We detail a game theoretical approach to identify the assessments made by aggressively interacting pigs. Contest models fall into two broad categories: Self assessment models, presume that each contestant has some knowledge of its own fighting ability, termed resource holding potential (RHP) but gathers no information about the opponent. Mutual assessment models involve individuals gathering information concerning the fighting ability of the opponent and comparing this against their own ability. Existing work on pig aggression has failed to consider self assessment. The assessment strategy used has major implications for the costs of fights, with self assessment predicting that animals should always fight up to a threshold of costs whereas mutual assessment predicts that the use of information about the opponent will markedly reduce fight costs. Moreover, consistent individual differences in aggressiveness are well recognised in pigs but how these differences interact with RHP and assessment strategies is unknown. We will: (i) examine how aggressiveness influences RHP, (ii) determine the assessment strategy used, (iii) examine how fight experience influences assessment ability, and (iv) optimise assessment ability through early life socialisation. Finally, (v) we will translate these research findings to the regrouping scenario, manipulating group composition at mixing with respect to RHP, aggressiveness and previous socialisation to facilitate rapid hierarchy formation at minimal fight cost.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research?

Managed animals and animal welfare: The aggression that follows regrouping of unfamiliar pigs is a significant welfare concern, and addressing this problem will be of major benefit to individual animals.

Pig Producers: By engaging with industry representatives, both nationally (e.g. BPEX, QMS) and internationally (e.g. Danish Pig Research Centre) as well as targeting individual producers with specific events, research findings will be effectively translated.

Welfare accreditation schemes: The findings of this proposal will help deliver the goals and expectations outlined in a number of welfare accreditation schemes and codes of practice.

Research staff: The named researcher and technicians will gain valuable transferable generic skills related to the project.

Wider public: Consumers are increasingly aware of animal welfare problems associated with the housing and management of animals in intensive agriculture.

How will they benefit from this research?

Managed animals and animal welfare: This proposal addresses fundamental knowledge gaps in the understanding of the information gathering and decision making processes underlying aggressive interactions between unfamiliar pigs. Translating this acquired knowledge to reduce fighting amongst regrouped pigs has the potential to improve the welfare of the vast majority of commercially produced pigs, given that regrouping is common practice and involves animals at all stages of the production cycle.

Pig Producers: Negative consequences of regrouping include; injuries, reduced weight gain, poorer food conversion efficiency, immunosuppression, a heightened risk of infection and lameness and, in sows, compromised foetal implantation. These are not only welfare concerns but represent a significant economic burden for producers. By reducing regrouping aggression, the present proposal will therefore enhance the economic performance of production systems. This is especially important in an industry with traditionally low and variable profit margins that does not receive subsidy support. Moreover, the associated improvements in animal welfare can be promoted by the industry to improve public attitudes towards this agricultural sector.

Welfare accreditation schemes: A number of farm and abattoir accreditation schemes that certify welfare standards measure outcomes of aggression as a key component (e.g. Red Tractor, RSPCA Freedom Foods, all major retailer codes). The Defra Codes of Practice on Welfare of Pigs and the EFSA Report of the Scientific Veterinary Committee also require actions to be taken to minimise fighting. None of these auditing schemes or codes provide adequate advice on the actions that can best minimise fighting, either to farmers, abattoir managers or legislators. The impact of such schemes will be strengthened by our findings, providing advice on how the goal of reducing fighting can be achieved in a manner that is commercially applicable. Research findings will also be of interest to animal welfare charities (e.g. RSPCA), pressure groups (e.g. CIWF), expert groups that advise policy makers (The Farm Animal Welfare Committee, European Food Standards Agency) and policy makers themselves (e.g. Defra).

Research staff: Will gain useful skills in experimental design, data collection, analysis and manuscript preparation, as well as developing oral communications skills through presentations to a variety of audiences. Benefits will also be gained from working for SRUC and being based within the Roslin Institute Building. Career development will benefit from being exposed to this environment, which provides the ideal opportunity for networking and gaining knowledge.

Wider public: By reduced regrouping aggression, this proposal will have a positive effect on pig welfare which will be of interest to citizens concerned with the welfare of animals in intensive agriculture.
 
Description Our main findings have been published in scientific journals, listed in the Publication section.
The data gathered in this project showed that there is large variation in aggressiveness as a personality trait in pigs. Pigs that are more aggressive attack earlier and respond more impulsively in aggressive encounters. Aggression was not a factor contributing to the fighting ability of the animal, meaning that an aggressive animal was not more likely to win than an unaggressive animal. We showed that pigs do not apply mutual assessment in contest situations, which means that they do not compare their own strength with that of their opponent. Across publications we have pointed out, based on our data, ways in which the field of contest research can progress in general, mainly through improved methods of analysing data. A novel finding was that males strongly differ in their aggressive behaviour from females, even pre-pubertally, and almost always won when staged against a female. Experience of fighting, as well as early life socialization of piglets, reduces aggression in future encounters. These results can contribute to reducing aggression on farm, and thereby improve animal welfare. Additional papers have been published as a result of this grant that showed that high contest costs in terms of skin lesions negatively affect the emotional state (as perceived by human observers) of winners to a similar degree as losers and that both winners and losers have a pronounced peripheral thermal response to the moment of a retreat at the end of a contest which is greater than the thermal response to escalated aggression. Both lines of evidence suggest that winners can also be physically but probably also emotionally challenged by engagement in intense aggression. We have also shown that facial expression differs before the onset of aggression between eventual winners and losers of a contest and can be used as a measure of intent. We also took the opportunity to examine contests for evidence that lateralisation (the tendency to use either the left or right side of the body to attack an opponent) can affect contest duration and outcomes. In line with predictions, animals showing strong lateralization (irrespective of direction) had a shorter contest duration but winners did not differ from losers in their strength or direction of lateralization. This suggests that cerebral lateralization may aid in conflict resolution, but does not directly contribute to fighting ability, and will be of value in the study of animal contests.
Exploitation Route Our work has pointed out areas where current theoretical frameworks of contest behaviour can be improved. For example, game theory models are based on measures of contest duration. We showed that this measure is a poor reflection of costs and provide alternatives to this. These findings have been reported in relevant high impact scientific journals and are expected to be taken forward in future studies by others.
Results on the socialization of piglets show that aggression is reduced in piglets that have been socialized with other piglets pre-weaning. This result can be taken forward by research and industry to reduce aggression on farm and thereby improve animal welfare.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education

URL http://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?user=jkiRo6MAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=sra
 
Description Turner has presented the key findings at most of the major pig farmer discussion groups in the UK and the main veterinary conference (Pig Veterinary Society annual meeting, Belfast 2018). This has raised awareness of the between-animal variability in aggressiveness, the economic and welfare costs of aggression and, together with outcomes from other work, we have highlighted the most effective management solutions to aggression. At this stage we expect to have substantially improved awareness but are not yet in a position to follow this up and demonstrate changed farmer behaviour.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description AFRI Food Security Challenge Area
Amount $749,000 (USD)
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2017
 
Description SRUC PhD studentship
Amount £53,577 (GBP)
Organisation Scotland's Rural College 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 04/2019
 
Description SRUC Studentship
Amount £53,577 (GBP)
Organisation Scotland's Rural College 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2021
 
Description USDA AFRI Food Security Challenge Area
Amount $999,000 (USD)
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 07/2017 
End 07/2020
 
Description Walsh Fellowship
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation Walsh Fellowship Foundation 
Sector Academic/University
Country Ireland
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2017
 
Title Blood sampling pigs 
Description Blood sampling pigs is commonly a very stressful event for the animals. We obtained measures of blood glucose and blood lactate by a drop of blood collected from the ear vein by a small pin prick. This method is very fast and does not cause any harm to the animals. Animals were habituated to have their ears touched and the majority could be sampled without aversive effects. Sampling was completed within 1 minute. Glucose and lactate meters developed for humans were used as the blood of pigs is very similar to that of humans. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This method can be used in research to refine studies (3Rs) for the welfare of pigs. 
 
Title Data Lethal Aggression 
Description Online survey amongst pig farmers about the occurrence of lethal aggression between pigs. In addition there is data on pig mortality numbers from one farm due to this type of aggression. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data will be prepared for publication and this may have a notable impact on the perceived importance of this topic in the animal welfare community. 
 
Title Data PhD Peden - Farmers survey 
Description Data of survey responses from pig farmers about how they perceive pig aggression 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Being prepared for publication. This data will support the notion how important it is to engage farmers in mitigation strategies to improve animal welfare 
 
Title Data PhD Peden - Video study 
Description Data on the responses of farmers to watching videos showing pig aggression. Social science study to investigate perception of animal welfare and desentisization to aggression. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Data is being prepared for publication - this data will reveal if farmers are desentizised to seeing aggression between pigs and how this concequently affects their motivation to change this animal welfare issue. 
 
Title Dataset 1. Contests between weight matched pigs 
Description Dataset including information on the behaviour and physiology of 125 pigs which were staged in dydic contests. Dyads were matched for weight and differed in their aggressiveness as a personality trait (High, Intermediate, Low aggressiveness). The dataset includes amongst others individual aggressiveness levels, latency times till the initiation of aggressive behaviours in resident-intruder tests and a contest, the duration of the dyadic contest, and measures on body weight, blood glucose and blood lactate levels. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database will provide the information required to amongst others assess the relationship between aggressiveness as a personality trait and contest duration, which is one of the hypotheses of the research project. 
 
Title Dataset 2. Data on experiment 2 
Description Data collected from multiple tests on 316 pigs. Data includes scores on various personality tests (human approach test sow, backtest, human approach test pigs (3x), resident-intruder test (2x)), dyadic contests (2x), group mixing (2x), physiology (blood glucose and blood lactate), growth rates, and body confirmation. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact With this dataset we will be able to distinguish between assessment strategies which pigs may use during contests and we will be able to determine the influence of personality and experience. This is expected to result in several publications. 
 
Title Dataset 3. Experiment 3 Socialization 
Description Data set of an animal experiment on the social behaviour of ca 600 pigs 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data is being prepared for publication, and is expected to harvest at least 2 publications in peer reviewed journals 
 
Title Dataset Facial expressions 
Description Facial expressions of 38 pigs during aggressive encounters have been collected. In total, 572 images were collected in different situations. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Results of this database are being prepared for publication on the facial expression of emotions in pigs. 
 
Title Dataset Farmers Survey 
Description Data from a survey about aggression between pigs, which has been collected in summer 2015. The database contains roughly 150 responses. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data has been analysed and a research publication is being prepared. The topic has been invited for submission to a Special Issue of Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 
 
Title Dataset Lateralization 
Description Dataset on strength and direction of lateralization of pigs during the contest in the 1st experiment (Dataset 1). The data was collected by Sophie Menneson, a MSc student visiting from France. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data has been analysed and a manuscript for scientific publication is currently being prepared. 
 
Title Dataset QUB: Play in piglets pre-weaning 
Description Behavioural observations, focussed on play behaviour, were made from piglets in the farrowing environment. Observations were made from video recordings, recorded during the trial on socialization as part of this BBSRC project. The behavioural observations have been carried out by a PhD student at QUB, with who we collaborate. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The data is currently being analysed and will contribute to a chapter in a PhD thesis. It has also being used for a conference abstract which has been submitted. 
 
Title Dataset Qualitative Behaviour Assessment study 
Description Database containing the outcomes of a Qualitative Behaviour Assessment study which has been carried out in Autumn 2015 with 20 participants. QBA footage was obtained from the experiment related to Database 1, and included information from Database 1. The study was carried out by Mieke Peijnenburg, an internship student from The Netherlands. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data of the QBA study has been written into a scientific manuscript and has been submitted for publication. 
 
Title Dataset Socialization of piglets 
Description This dataset hold records of 380 pigs on their behaviour, physiology (weight, glucose, lactate) and contest outcomes. Pigs were either socialized in early life or not and this treatment effect was studies in contest behaviour. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The results show that socialization of piglets can reduce aggression in later life. These results are prepared for publication and will also be communicated to farmers. The data has been shared with our collaborator at Queen's University, where the data is now contributing to a substantial part of a PhD study. 
 
Title Dataset Thermal Images 
Description Thermal images of 312 pigs during dyadic contests. Images were taken every 5 seconds. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database can be used to study the link between behaviour, emotions and body temperature in pigs. 
 
Title Dataset Third party interaction 
Description Dataset containing information on third-party involvement into fights between pigs. Footage from which this data has been collected originates from a completed PhD study. The data has been collected by Lucie Sarramia, an internship student from France. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data has been analysed and has been presented on the regional ISAE meeting in Cork, Ireland, in November 2015. The data is currently being prepared for a manuscript for scientific publication. 
 
Description Collaboration KU Leuven 
Organisation University of Leuven
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration between SRUC and KU Leuven to use video data collected on this BBSRC proposal for designing new algorithms for automatic behavioural recording.
Collaborator Contribution In progress - expected contribution will be insight in how animal behaviour can be automatically recorded from videos
Impact No outputs yet. A review manuscript is being prepared under this collaboration.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration SRUC Studentship 2018 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution SRUC PhD studentship with co-funding from QUB, based on the data collected during the BBSRC project
Collaborator Contribution Financial contribution to execute animal experiments during the course of the phd study
Impact A fully funded PhD studentship
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration Teagasc on SRUC studentship 
Organisation Teagasc
Department Teagasc Food Research Centre
Country Ireland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were successful in the bid for a SRUC internally funded PhD studentship, which will be carried out in collaboration with Teagasc
Collaborator Contribution Teagasc will provide input and technical guidance to part of the PhD studentship
Impact The PhD studentship will start later in 2016. The project is multi-disciplinary, combining animal science and social science.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Michigan State University 
Organisation Michigan State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sub-contractor in two successful USDA funded grants on aggression in pigs. The first examines the genomic basis to aggressive behavioural strategies (in progress). The second seeks to develop automated methods to phenotype aggressive personalities in pigs utilising data captured in the BBSRC grant (to begin April 2017).
Collaborator Contribution Michigan State University lead both projects
Impact The collaboration brings together specialists in genetics, image processing and ethology.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Queen's University Belfast 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Researcher at Queen's University of Belfast is contracted on the research team (financial contribution) to provide guidance on theory and data analyses, and to contribute to the writing of manuscripts.
Collaborator Contribution Researcher at Queen's University of Belfast provided guidance on theory, experimental designs and data analyses, and contributed to writing a manuscript.
Impact Outputs: experimental designs + one manuscript
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Queens University Belfast on PhD studentship 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast
Department School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joined supervision between PI and Queen's University of a PhD student registered at Queen's University of Belfast. The student will use data collected in the current project.
Collaborator Contribution Contributed with supplying data; collecting additional data; PhD student supervision; joined writing of manuscripts
Impact Outputs are expected to come in 2017. The current output is an abstract for an international congress.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Article in Pig e-newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An article based on the research outcomes appeared in an e-newsletter from the SRUC pig strategy group. This newsletter is send around to all pig farmers related to SRUC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Article on ISRA website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Article on the research on blog website of International Society for Research on Aggression
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.israsociety.com/yi-corner-blog/aggression-research-in-animal-sciences
 
Description Article on blog of Queens University Belfast 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Article on the research at the University's blog
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://blogs.qub.ac.uk/qubio/2016/09/16/game-theory-and-animal-contest-behaviour/
 
Description Blog article on ISRA website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog on game theory and the project on website for international society for research on aggression (ISRA)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.israsociety.com/blog/applying-game-theory-to-the-study-of-aggression
 
Description Farmer's leaflet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Leaflet developed for pig farmers, providing information on pig aggression and how to reduce it on their farm. Reducing pig aggression can have financial benefits for farmers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Farmers survey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A survey was send out to 1,000 pig farmers in UK to ask for their perception on aggression between pigs and their opinion on a method of co-mingling piglets. Over 150 farmers responded and several expressed further interest in the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Farmers survey 2 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A survey was send out to 150 pig farmers to study their perception of aggression. This was a follow up study on the previous survey and goes more in depth. Responses are currently being collected. The survey is also online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.surveymonkey.co.uk/r/pigaggression
 
Description ISAE 2016 Theatre presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A theatre presentation was given on an International congress with ca 500 attendees of the congress.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.isae2016.co.uk/
 
Description ISRA 2016 Theatre presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Theatre presentation of 30 min on our work on pig aggression at the International Congress for Aggressive behaviour. This was mainly attended by scientists from animal and human behaviour sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.israsociety.com/
 
Description Poster presentation IPWC Denmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation at the international pig welfare congress IPWC in Copenhagen Denmark in March 2015. This resulted in various conversations and strengthening of network relationships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation Behaviour, Cairns, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An oral presentation on the international Behaviour congress, held in Cairns in Australia in August 2015. The presentation sparked many discussions afterwards and resulted in good network opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation EAAP Warsaw Poland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited for an oral presentation at the international EAAP congress in Warsaw Poland in August 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation ISAE Hokkaido Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation at the international ISAE congress, held in Hokkaido Japan in September 2015. This has resulted in an invitation to submit a manuscript to a special issue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation regional ISAE Cork Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation on the regional ISAE congress in Cork Ireland in November 2015. This has resulted in many new contacts and has strengthen old relationships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stakeholder meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A stakeholder meeting was organized to discuss about the research (aggression between pigs) en to gain the opinion of industry and practice on the current situation of aggression in practice and their opinion about a method called co-mingling of piglets, which may reduce aggression. Representatives of almost all our targeted institutions/companies participated, resulting in a group of 10 people of diverse backgrounds (industry, farmer, veterinarian, animal protection organization, research). The discussions were very valuable and provided us with information for the experiment on co-mingling piglets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Video study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A video survey was developed in which the emotional response to videos of pigs during or after an aggressive interaction are shown. This is displayed to groups of farmers in UK and Ireland (7 different groups) and to groups of undergraduate students (controls). The aim of this study is to investigate desensitization of farmers to common farm practices such as aggression. The data is currently still being gathered.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017