Gustotopic mapping in humans: a high resolution fmri study to assess detailed topography and modulations

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Sch of Physics & Astronomy

Abstract

How and why do individuals perceive tastes differently? Our sense of taste evolved to encourage the consumption of nutrients, and to avoid ingestion of dangerous substances. However, today, the positive experience of sweet and salty taste can lead to the overconsumption and its associated detrimental effects on health. Conversely, bitterness and acidity can also prevent some individuals from consuming healthier foods such as bitter tasting green vegetables. Research progressing our fundamental understanding of taste perception will inform nutritional policy makers and the food industry to develop healthy diets and food products, hence improving the health and well-being of society in general.
There are five categories of taste: sweet, bitter, umami, salty and acidic, and the receptors for these tastes have been identified on taste receptor cells housed in papillae on the tongue. This proposal focuses on mapping how the brain processes these taste signals from the mouth. Modern neuroimaging methods have made it possible to study many neuroscience questions directly in the human. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), for example, we can track changes in the local blood flow that accompanies increased neural activity. We can measure which parts of the brain are more active while subjects consume different tastants. One of the problems with studying the neural mechanisms underlying our sense of taste is that in the human brain, these responses are relatively small. Using cutting-edge technology we can measure neural responses in the human cortex at very high spatial resolution in the living human brain. By using ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging techniques, we can measure robust neural responses non-invasively at a much higher spatial resolution than has previously been possible, whilst concurrently assessing perceived taste sensations, linking perception and the brain's responses.
In this proposal, we will investigate whether specific areas of the brain in the primary taste cortex can be identified that process sweet, bitter, umami (a savoury sensation), salty and sour tastes using improved state-of-the-art brain scanning technology. There is debate as to whether certain other 'tastes' exist, in particular 'fat' (fatty acid) and metallic 'taste'. We plan to determine if, and where, these stimuli are processed in the primary taste cortex, providing evidence as to whether these sensations should be termed tastes.
In addition we will study a recent phenomenon known as thermally induced taste whereby some individuals report a taste sensation, although there is no physical taste stimulus present, when the tongue is rapidly heated or cooled. As sensitivity to taste varies across individuals, we will determine how brain processing is affected by these known differences in taste perception. We are also interested to see if, and how, the phantom taste induced by temperature changes the brain's response in the primary taste cortex. The brains of thermal tasters (previously reporting sweet or bitter taste upon thermal stimulation) will be scanned whilst their tongue is rapidly cooled or warmed. This will enable us to determine if the phantom taste sensation modulates the same area of the primary taste cortex as is related to real taste stimuli.
Using different concentrations of taste stimuli we will also explore how concentration modulates brain response. Combinations of tastes are known to modify perception, for example sweetness reduces bitterness, and umami enhances saltiness. In a final experiment, we will ask the question of why mixing tastants can lead to enhancement or suppression of taste perception by assessing the brain's response to paired mixtures of tastants, and investigating the cortical representation of these suppression and enhancement effects.
Overall, this research will considerably advance our understanding of human taste perception.

Technical Summary

There are five basic tastes: sweet, salt, bitter, acid, umami. Animal studies using extracellular recordings suggest a chemotopic organization of the primary gustatory cortex (PGC), and a recent optical imaging study supports the preferential response to tastants in defined spatial areas of the PGC. A number of functional MRI (fMRI) studies have assessed the brain's response to tastants, however no human studies to date have achieved the high spatial resolution required to assess responses at the level of a chemosensory gustotopic map.
Our research will use experimental designs and analyses of ultra-high field (UHF) MRI data to map the representation of tastants in the PGC at very high spatial resolution. We have pilot data to show that bitter and sweet tastants are separated in the PGC. This proposal builds on this, forming a gustotopic map of primary tastants and examining other putative 'metallic' and 'fat' tastes.
Taste perception varies depending on PROP phenotype/gustin genotype, and a new thermal phenotype called 'thermal taster status', for whom thermal stimulation to the tongue elicits a phantom taste. We will investigate variation in gustotopic maps across these phenotypes. We will also directly examine the phenomenon of thermal taster status, studying how phantom taste modulates responses in the PGC. We will determine how cortical response is modulated by increasing tastant concentration to establish whether this is a linear response or saturates. We will then address the question of intra-modal responses, assessing combinations of tastants that lead to enhancement (umami/salt) or suppression (bitter/sweet), and how they modulate activity in the PGC.
Taste stimuli for fMRI studies will be well characterised using a sensory panel, and assessed by all subjects to link the brain and perceptual responses. These neuroscience questions fit squarely in the BBSRC remit of understanding normal human function and have a strong interdisciplinary component.

Planned Impact

We believe the research outlined in this proposal would benefit several potential stakeholders outside the immediate academic research arena, the current focus of industry focussed initiatives to understand taste perception include the need to combine behavioural sensory measures and neuroscience.
In the short term, basic and clinical neuroscience researchers would benefit from a neuroimaging tool to address this important research question. There have been 152 fMRI studies on taste perception (reported on Web of Knowledge) in the previous 5 years. The development of the acquisition and image analysis techniques for ultra-high field fMRI will improve the spatial resolution and sensitivity to assess taste processing. The impact in academic research is necessary to provide in the longer term wider industrial, clinical and economic benefits, and will also improve the clinical relevance of UHF fMRI.
The investment by Unilever in this project highlights the economic value of the work to the food industry. [ANNA - please add to this]. The collaborative nature of this project, with state of the art MR facilities, only available in two sites in the UK, will enhance the research capacity of business (here, specifically Unilever). The success of this project would attract R&D investment from further global business in both the food industry and clinical setting.
This project addresses several of the areas highlighted in the mission statement relevant to the Health and Wellbeing including the need to understand food choice. Changes in life style have led to increased consumption of pre-prepared, industrially-processed foods, which are generally high in sugar and salt. Obesity and associated metabolic disorders (diabetes, fatty liver and cardiovascular disease) now constitute the number one public health problem. As there is currently no evidence for a change in these social trends, this problem must be addressed by concerted efforts from many parties including the UK food industry to improve our understanding of how taste is perceived.
New windows into brain function will also fuel the public's interest in neuroscience and taste perception, creating educational impact across all age and societal groups, highlighting the importance of health and well-being and food choices. The project will improve the understanding of taste perception in individual subjects (here by phenotype), however it could be further developed as a clinical tool to assess cortical changes in patient groups such as schizophrenia and dementia.
Dr's Hort and Francis have over 10 years of experience working closely with industrial partners in the global food industry, with a previous BBSRC grant to assess cortical response to fat, which has led to a number of high impact papers, and media interest, and we believe that this work will equally attract such interest and outcomes. There are currently few sites researching taste perception, here we use state of the art technology coupled with renowned sensory expertise, placing the UK at the forefront of multidisciplinary taste research.
 
Description The six tastant samples (bitter, sweet, sour, umami, salt and metallic) have been successfully sourced and prepared.
We have added another aspect to the project, which now includes the assessment of papillae density of the tongue. This has led to the development of a protocol for imaging the tongue to be developed, along with a software package for automated detection of the papillae density and size.

Martha Skinner (PhD student) has worked with Unilever in two secondments.

We have now established fMRI acquisitions and analysis methods at ultra-high field to map the function of the human taste cortex at very high spatial resolution, by measuring the cortical response to well characterised tastants. We have applied a new method of multiband imaging to acquire spatial coverage of brain areas involved in taste perception bilaterally. We have collected 1mm isotropic resolution fMRI data at ultra-high field (7T) and demonstrated we can reveal separable responses to sweet and bitter tastants, and this was pronounced in both hemispheres. This has been performed on a group of 15 subjects.

We have developed a protocol for the study of phantom taste. We have developed a method to assess behavioural changes to phantom taste to record the timing of perception to phantom taste, and collected data on both thermal tasters (TTs) and thermal nontasters (TnTs) inside the 3T. This has revealed a cortical response in taste areas to the perception of phantom taste.
Exploitation Route These findings have established MR methods for studying gustotopic mapping at ultra-high field, and prepared stable samples for use with fMRI.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

URL http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/biosciences/research/research-themes/taste-map/taste-map.aspx
 
Description BBSRC CASE Studentship - Martha Skinner
Amount £66,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2017
 
Description Unilever supported work
Amount £198,841 (GBP)
Organisation Unilever 
Department Unilever Research and Development
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 08/2018
 
Title Phantom taste screening 
Description We have developed methods to robustly monitor the temporal response of thermal tastes, and are applying this methodology to both behavioural and fMRI data acquisition. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This methodology will allow screening of phantom thermal taste 
 
Title Tongue imaging 
Description One important question is the density of the papillae on the tongue. This has standardly been performed using crude methods. Here we have developed an automated method to count papillae on the tongue, and aim to develop this further to assess subregions of the tongue generating a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow the software to be widely useable. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The tool is still in development phase, and is being tested across a wider group of data. 
 
Title Tongue imaging GUI 
Description Automated method for detection and analysis of papillae on the tongue. We aim to determine how papillae density related to behavioural and functional MRI measures. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact To use as a tool to classify subjects for taste studies. 
 
Description Brock University, Canada 
Organisation Brock University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Nottingham have provided participants to explore the association between thermal taster status and psychometric measures. Data will also obtained to compare cortical thickness across thermal taste phenotypes.
Collaborator Contribution The psychometric measures were replicated at both the University of Nottingham and Brock University in a cross cultural study.
Impact This project is multi-disciplinary, combining sensory evaluation (University of Nottingham and Brock University) and fMRI techniques (University of Nottingham) 1) explore the association between thermal taster status and psychometric measures 2) compare cortical thickness across this taste phenotype.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Unilever 
Organisation Unilever
Department Unilever Research and Development
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution University of Nottingham have provided sensory panels to test samples, the capability to perform functional imaging. Improved understanding of thermal tasters for behavioural studies.
Collaborator Contribution Unilever have contributed to the development of samples. Unilever are a project partner on this grant which is a BBSRC IPA grant, and we have regular project meetings with Unilever to discuss the results.
Impact This project is multi-disciplinary combining physics, with sensory and food science 1) The cortical response to the oral perception of fat emulsions and the effect of taster status. A multidisciplinary collaboration between sensory science and functional MRI research groups 2) Does Fat Alter the Cortical Response to Flavor? sensory science and functional MRI. A multidisciplinary collaboration between sensory science and functional MRI research groups 3) The Effect of Body Position on Flavor Release and Perception: Implications for fMRI Studies. A multidisciplinary collaboration between sensory science and functional MRI research groups .
Start Year 2006
 
Title An automated method to detect and quantify fungiform papillae in the human tongue 
Description This is an automated method to detect and quantify distribution and density of fungiform papillae across the anterior 2 cm of the tongue from a high resolution digital image. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact The automated method could provide a valuable tool to food science research, reducing analysis time compared to manual counting, improving detection accuracy, and overcoming subjective discrepancies. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031938417304250?via%3Dihub#ec0005
 
Title fMRI software development and analysis 
Description We have developed a number of modifications to the 7T MR scanner code, image analysis steps in MR tools, and stand-alone matlab scripts. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact This code will be used across multiple fMRI projects in future 
 
Description 4th Nursten Postgraduate Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of talk on:

Title: Measuring Variation in the Phantom Taste Response in Thermal Tasters

Authors: Martha Skinner
which led to discussion afterwards and shaping of paper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ifst.org/news/nursten-postgraduate-flavour-symposium-2016
 
Description BBSRC meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Better knowledge of the funding body (BBSRC) and society of Biology. The brainstorming in the event has shed some light on possible research areas to be funded in the future, in addition to BBSRC strategy across scientific and training areas.

Community building among post doctoral BBSRC supports and networking between BBSRC and postdoc
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/events/1410-postdoc-networking-consultation.aspx
 
Description Eurosense (Seventh European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research) (Dijon, France) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of following work:
•Title: Mapping Brain Activity to 'Phantom' Taste in Thermal Tasters
Author: Martha Skinner, Rebecca Ford, Sally Eldeghaidy, Susan Francis, Joanne Hort
•Title: Super-taster, thermal taster or sweet-liker: where are we with individual variation in perception?
Author: Rebecca Ford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Eurosense Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research (Verona, Italy) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This event gives delegates the opportunity to network with other students and professionals working in the field of Sensory Science, which stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Presentation delivered by M. Skinner: Presentation titled: Variation in Thermally Induced Taste Responses in Thermal Tasters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Eurosense Workshop 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact We will be involved in organising a workshop that is based around taste sensitivity and particular focus on variation across people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.eurosense.elsevier.com/
 
Description Eurosense, A Sense Of Life 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The talk covered the sensory perception of taste and the multisensory perception of flavor, and this opened a fruitful discussion after the talk.

Increased network and possible future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.eurosense.elsevier.com/
 
Description Food Matters Live (London, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public engagement event to promote scientific concepts to the general public through interactive activities and poster presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Guest Seminar (Bath Spa University, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A lecture was delivered by S. Eldeghaidy and M Skinner to 25-50 Undergraduate students. The aim was to promote postgraduate study, and the use of multidisciplinary research techniques to explore individual variation in sensory perception.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Guest seminar (Unilever, Netherlands) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This seminar was delivered by M. Skinner to to share knowledge with industry partners, and to generate debate and research ideas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Institute of Food Science and Technology Sensory Science Group Conference (British American Tobacco Company, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This conference provides a platform where Sensory Scientists are able to network and share knowledge. Poster presentation delivered by M. Skinner: Title: 'Exploring the Perceptual Qualities of Metallic Compounds'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.ifst.org/civicrm/event/info?id=5&reset=1
 
Description Institute of Food Science and Technology Sensory Science Group Conference (University of Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This conference provides a platform where Sensory Scientists are able to network and share knowledge. Flash poster presentation delivered by M. Skinner: Title: 'Exploring the Perceptual Qualities of Metallic Compounds'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.ifst.org/knowledge-centre-conference-proceedings-sensory-science-group-conference-2015/s...
 
Description Institute of Food Science and Technology Sensory Science Group Discussion Forum (UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This event gives delegates the opportunity to network with other students and professionals working in the field of Sensory Science, which stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Invited talk to be delivered by M. Skinner: Presentation title: Individual Variation in Taste Perception.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) meeting (Singapore) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of poster at ISMRM meeting:

Title: Mapping 'Phantom Taste' in Thermal Tasters

Author: Sally Eldeghaidy, Martha Skinner, Rebecca Ford, Joanne Hort, Susan Francis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ismrm.org/
 
Description Invited Speaker Combined Nordic Sensory workshop & European Sensory Science Society Annual symposium Oslo, Norway 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited Speaker allowing presentation of our work on 'Individual Differences in Perception'. Audience was academics and industry form across Europe, with approximately 70 attendees
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.e3sensory.eu/
 
Description Invited Talk - Imperial 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was an invited talk at Imperial to highlight our work on using functional MRI to understand taste processing. It also forged new collaborations with imperial.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Knowledge exchange 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Knowledge exchange meet held at Port Sunlight, Unilvever
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2016
 
Description Link 15 Postgraduate Research Symposium (University of Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This event gives postgraduate students the opportunity to network and present their work to students from other academic disciplines. This stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Oral presentation delivered by M. Skinner. Presentation title: Exploring the Perceptual Qualities of Metallic Compounds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Neuroscience at Nottingham (N@N) Poster and Lecture Event - Martha Skinner 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Research highlighted within the University of Nottingham to the neuroscience community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Neuroscience at Nottingham Postgraduate Researcher event (University of Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This event gives PhD researchers the opportunity to network with other students working in the field of Neuroscience, which stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Poster presentation delivered by M. Skinner: Presentation title: Greater temperature related brain activity in thermal tasters than thermal non tasters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/psychology/newsandevents/neurosciencenottingham-day-2017.aspx
 
Description Nursten Flavour Symposium (Belfast, Ireland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This event gives postgraduate students the opportunity to network with other Food Science students, and present their work to the other student and academic delegates. This stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Talk delivered by M. Skinner: Presentation title: Exploring Temperature Perception in Thermal Tasters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Nursten Flavour Symposium (University of Northumbria, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This event gives postgraduate students the opportunity to network with other Food Science students, and present their work to the other student and academic delegates. This stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Oral presentation delivered by M. SKinner. Presentation title: Exploring the Perceptual Qualities of Metallic Compounds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.soci.org/news/food/3rd-nursten-symposium-2015
 
Description Nursten Flavour Symposium (University of Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This event gives postgraduate students the opportunity to network with other Food Science students, and present their work to the other student and academic delegates. This stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Talk delivered by M. SKinner: Presentation title: Gustotopic Mapping in the Human Brain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/biosciences/documents/tastemap/event-nursten-flavour-symposium-2014.pdf
 
Description Nursten Flavour symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This meeting provides an opportunity for early career researchers within Flavour and Sensory Science research to present and share their work. This presentation will discuss the interesting new taste phenotype termed 'thermal taste', which describes 20-50% of the population who experience 'phantom tastes' when the tongue is warmed or cooled but no true taste stimuli are present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Nutrition Society Irish Section Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The talk covered fMRI methodologies and applications for nutrition research and recent opportunities to network with colleagues from different background including basic science, nutrition, dietetics, public health and industry who attended the meeting,


Invited to Imperial College London, UK to give a talk and possible future collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2014
URL http://www.nutritionsociety.org/sites/www.nutritionsociety.org/files/ISM2014ProvisionalProgramme.pdf
 
Description Organisation of Human Brain mapping (OHBM) meeting (Geneva) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of a poster:
Title: The Cortical Response To Phantom Taste

Author: Sally Eldeghaidy, Martha Skinner, Rebecca Ford, Joanne Hort, Susan Francis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Pangborn Sensory Science Symposium (Gothenburg, Sweden) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This event gives delegates the opportunity to network with other students and professionals working in the field of Sensory Science, which stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Poster presentation delivered by M. Skinner: Presentation title: Exploring the Perceptual Qualities of Metallic Compounds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Pangborn Sensory Science Symposium (Rhode Island, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This event gives the opportunity to network with Sensory Science students from across the globe, which stimulates interesting debates and collaborations. Keynote talk delivered by J. Hort. Presentation title: Mapping Taste in the Human Brain. Talk delivered by M. Skinner: Presentation title: Measuring Temperature and Phantom Taste Related Brain Activity in Thermal Tasters Compared to Thermal non Tasters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Pint of Science (Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This talk will be delivered by M. Skinner and aims to engage the general public with scientific concepts. It will discuss the impact of individual variation in taste perception and food choice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Science Museum 'Lates' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This interactive session about the science of taste perception and how PROP taster status might impact overall flavour perception and alcohol
consumption levels raised many more questions from a very interested audience about alcohol metabolism.


The Guerilla Science who organised the event has invited us for other outreach events in order to connect people more with science through live experiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/biosciences/research/research-themes/taste-map/events.aspx
 
Description Secret Garden Party 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Connected people with science in new ways that entertain and inspire.

The organiser invited the team to run other interactive sessions on taste perception, as well as multi-modal flavour perception
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/biosciences/research/research-themes/taste-map/events.aspx
 
Description Trends in Food Flavour (University of Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This conference provides a platform where Food Scientists are able to network and share knowledge. Flash poster presentation delivered by M. Skinner: Title: 'Exploring the Perceptual Qualities of Metallic Compounds'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/facts/conference/trends-in-food-flavour.aspx
 
Description Unilever Knowledge Exchange meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Workshop held at Port Sunlight Liverpool which presented work to industry and other Universities. This sparked discussion of future research projects. Work presented included:
•Title: The Tastemap Project
Author: Susan Francis

•Title: Gustotopic Mapping in the Human Brain
Authors: Sally Eldeghaidy, Martha Skinner, Rebecca Ford, Joanne Hort, Susan Francis


•Title: Mapping 'Phantom Taste' in Thermal Tasters
Author: Sally Eldeghaidy, Martha Skinner, Rebecca Ford, Joanne Hort, Susan Francis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Unilever and BBSRC PhD Researcher Symposium (Unilever, Colworth, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The event allowed PhD researchers and industry delegates to network and discuss research ideas and future directions. Flash poster presentation delivered by M. SKinner. Presentation title: Gustotopic Mapping in the Human Brain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014