Engineering resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: The Roslin Institute

Abstract

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease of pigs that causes major economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving small enveloped RNA virus. Whilst improvements have been effected with changes in husbandry and vaccination, PRRS still has major impacts on pig health and welfare. PRRS accounts for ca.1/3 of the cost of infectious disease to the US pig industry, ~$600M p.a.. PRRS is the most costly disease to pig industries of Europe and North America and new PRRSV variants have the potential to be even more devastating. PRRSV infects subpopulations of differentiated macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the major target cells.

There is growing evidence from in-vitro and in-vivo challenge experiments and field studies that there is host genetic variation in responses to and outcomes of PRRSV infection. Thus, there is scope for genetically improving traits related to the capacity of pigs to cope with PRRS infection and disease at the innate immune level. However, breeding for disease resistance is constrained by the nature of the available genetic variation in susceptibility to infection. Whilst evidence for genetic variation in host responses to infection with PRRSV exists, the genetic control of these responses is polygenic and there is no evidence to date of major genes conferring complete resistance to PRRSV.

The increased efficiency and sophistication of methods to genetically modify farmed animals offers alternative approaches to generate animals which are genetically resistant to specific pathogens. The approaches to engineering resistance to a viral pathogen, such as PRRSV, include interfering with the receptor(s) through which the virus gains entry, for example by ablating the receptor or over-expressing a soluble form of the receptor which could bind the virus and blocks its entry.

Recent studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms through which PRRSV enters macrophages during infection. The macrophage specific scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) CD163 has been shown to be a key role in these processes. Cells which are refractory to PRRSV infection can be converted to a PRRSV permissive state by the addition of transgenes expressing CD163. Treating susceptible porcine alveolar macrophages with anti-CD163 antibodies reduces PRRSV infection in a dose-dependent manner. There is evidence to indicate that the SRCR domain 5 of the CD163 protein is the key component involved in PRRSV entry and release.

The aim of this project is to test the hypothesis that cells and pigs can be engineered to be resistant to infection with PRRSV by genetic modification of the CD163 gene. We propose three strategies to engineer resistance to PRRSV: knocking out the CD163 gene; knocking out the SRCR domain 5 of the CD163 gene and over-expressing a soluble form of the extracellular domains of CD163.

Technical Summary

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) which is a viral disease of pigs is the most costly disease to the pig industry. PRRS virus (PRRSV) which is a rapidly evolving small enveloped RNA virus infects subpopulations of differentiated macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the major target.
The increased efficacy of genetic modification methods offers approaches to generate animals which are genetically resistant to specific pathogens. In particular, genome editing technology using Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) injected directly into zygotes enables efficient and precise modification of animal genomes, including the pig. The approaches to engineering resistance to a viral pathogen, such as PRRSV, include interfering with the receptor(s) through which the virus gains entry, for example by ablating or mutating the receptor or over-expressing a soluble form of the receptor which could bind the virus and blocks its entry.
Recent studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms through which PRRSV enters macrophages during infection. The macrophage specific scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) CD163 has been shown to have a key role in these processes. Cells which are refractory to PRRSV infection can be converted to a PRRSV permissive state by the addition of transgenes expressing CD163. Treating susceptible porcine alveolar macrophages with anti-CD163 antibodies reduces PRRSV infection in a dose-dependent manner. There is evidence to indicate that the SRCR domain 5 of the CD163 protein is the key component involved in PRRSV entry and release.
We aim to test the hypothesis that cells and pigs can be engineered to be resistant to infection with PRRSV by genetic modification of the CD163 gene. We propose three strategies to engineer resistance to PRRSV: knocking out the CD163 gene; knocking out the SRCR domain 5 of the CD163 gene and over-expressing a soluble form of the extracellular domains of CD163.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research?
The potential non-academic beneficiaries of this research include pig breeding companies, pig producers and ultimately the entire chain of users of pig products, including meat packers, processors, retailers and consumers. There are also potential benefits to the biotechnology sector, including our collaborators at Recombinetics Inc.

How will they benefit from this research?
PRRS is the most costly disease to pig industries of Europe and North America and new PRRSV variants have the potential to be even more devastating. Thus, the development of novel and/or more effective strategies to control PRRS will improve the sustainability of the pig industry and potentially reduce the cost of pig products.

In the pig breeding sector the research outputs will have the potential to inform future breeding programmes. The pig breeding industry has already incorporated selection for desirable disease resistance genes into breeding programmes. To date selection for disease resistance has been limited to diseases for which susceptibility is determined by a single major gene. Moreover, breeding for disease resistance is constrained by the nature of any genetic variation in susceptibility to infection. Whilst evidence for genetic variation in host responses to infection with PRRSV exists, the genetic control of these responses is polygenic and there is no evidence to date of major genes conferring complete resistance to PRRSV. With increasing capabilities to genetically modify farmed animals there are opportunities to engineer resistance. It is now timely to explore the opportunities for engineering pigs for enhanced resistance or tolerance to PRRSV infection. The interaction between host (pig) and pathogen (PRRSV) are better understood and new genome editing technologies facilitate the necessary engineering.

Public acceptance of genetically modified animals remains uncertain, especially in Europe. However, the development of non-transgenic pigs engineered for enhanced disease resistance using genome editing technology, which introduces no exogenous DNA, has the potential to re-shape the debate. Moreover, given the impact of PRRS in key markets such as North America and China where genetically edited animals are potentially acceptable, beneficial impacts could be delivered to the pig industry within 3-5 years of project completion.

The participation of Genus plc, the leading global supplier of genetically improved germplasm to the pig industry, will greatly facilitate the realisation of the project impact in the pig breeding sector. Through the activities of the COST Action FA902 on "Understanding and combating porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Europe" [EuroPRRS] chaired by the coI (TAA) we have excellent links to the animal health sector with interests in PRRS.

For Recombinetics Inc. the benefits would include exemplification of their licensed genome editing technology.
 
Description Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome is an endemic infectious disease of pigs, manifesting differently in pigs of different ages but primarily causing late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV).
PRRSV only infects a specific subset of cells of the innate immune system of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Previous research found that the virus needs a specific receptor, CD163, in order to make its own membrane fuse with the host cell membrane in an uptake vesicle to release the viral genetic information into the cytosol and achieve a successful infection. CD163 has a pearl-on-a-string structure, whereby the "pearl"/ domain number 5 was found to interact with the virus and allow it to infect a cell.
We generated pigs lacking the CD163 subdomain 5 using so-called CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in zygotes (single cell fertilised eggs). The pigs were healthy under normal husbandry conditions and other biological functions conducted by the CD163 were found to be intact. We isolated a variety of monocyte and macrophage cells from these pigs and found them to be completely resistant to infection by both major genotypes of PRRSV.

Beyond the term of this grant we performed an in vivo challenge of pigs that had been gene edited to remove the CD163 domain 5. Pigs in which both copies of the CD163 gene had been edited to remove exon 7 that encodes domain 5 were resistant to challenge with a European PRRSV-1 genotype virus. Pigs which retained one intact CD163 gene becames infected.
Exploitation Route PRRS is endemic in most pig producing countries worldwide. Vaccines have mostly failed to stop the spread of the virus, which continues to evolve rapidly. Consequently, it is one of the greatest challenges facing pig producers today. In Europe alone, the disease is estimated to cost the pig industry more than €1.5 billion each year.
Genome-editing offers opportunities to boost food security by reducing waste and losses from infectious diseases, as well as improving animal welfare by reducing the burden of disease. Our results take us closer to realising these benefits and specifically address the most important infectious disease problem for the pig industry worldwide.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/news-events/latest-news/edited-pigs-show-resistance-to-disease
 
Description Edinburgh Innovations is currently negotiating a commercial licence with a pig breeding company to exploit the IP associated with this project.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club
Amount £94,126 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M502984/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club
Amount £94,126 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M502972/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2020
 
Description Responsive Mode - Christine Tait-Burkard - Understanding the CD163 - PRRS virus interaction to improve genetic engineering for resistance
Amount £674,353 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R004463/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2020
 
Description Biochemical interaction of CD163 with PRRSV glycoproteins GP2, GP3, and GP4 
Organisation Free University of Berlin
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing purified, tagged CD163 protein variations for the assessment of biochemical and biophysical interactions of the protein with the PRRSV glycoproteins GP2, GP3, and GP4 and glycoprotein complex GP2/3/4.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaboration partners area analysing the biochemical and biophysical interactions of CD163 variants with the PRRSV glycoproteins GP2, GP3, and GP4 and glycoprotein complex GP2/3/4 using their established baculoviral expression system.
Impact So far we are in the early stages of this collaboration and many protocols are still being optimised.
Start Year 2018
 
Description In vivo challenge of genome edited deltaSRCR5 pigs with PRRSV-1 
Organisation Genus plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Following the successful generation of pigs lacking domain 5 (SRCR5) of the CD163 and the promising in vitro results, showing primary cells of these pigs to be resistant against PRRSV infection we obtained further funding from Genus plc. to conduct an in vivo study. 4 delta SRCR5 pigs and 4 wild type pigs were challenged with PRRSV-1. We conducted the study and analysed the outcomes.
Collaborator Contribution Genus plc contributed funding to conduct the in vivo study to assess infectability of delta SRCR5 pigs with PRRSV-1
Impact We published the results of this study in a scientific publication, disseminated the results in a press release package, as well as presented the work at various scientific conferences and public engagement events.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Maintenance of delta SRCR5 pigs 
Organisation Genus plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Breeding and maintenance of the genome edited delta SRCR5 pig line from the end of "Engineering resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)" (BB/L004143/1) and the beginning of "Understanding the CD163 - PRRS virus interaction to improve genetic engineering for resistance" (BB/R004463/1).
Collaborator Contribution Genus plc provided the funds for breeding and maintenance of the delta SRCR5 pigs.
Impact The outcomes of this project are directly interlinked with the outcomes of the grants mentioned above.
Start Year 2017
 
Description PRRSV genotype II in vitro challenge 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Roslin Institute team established the gene-edited pigs in which part of the CD163 gene had been removed. Cells from the gene-edited pigs plus reagents for testing for PRRSV were provided.
Collaborator Contribution The Pirbright Institute team performed the in vitro challenges of cells from the gene-edited pigs.
Impact Published paper: Burkard et al. 2017. PLOS Pathogens 13(2): e1006206
Start Year 2016
 
Description Roslin-Genus Cooperative Partnership Addendum 16 
Organisation Genus plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Roslin Institute team conceived and executed the research project to test the hypothesis that gene-editing the pig CD163 gene would confer resistance to infection with PRRSV.
Collaborator Contribution The Genus team contributed to the project design and management.
Impact Paper published: Burkard et al. 2017. PLOS Pathogens 1392): e1006206
Start Year 2010
 
Title Domain 5 of CD163 for use in antiviral compositions against PRRS, and transgenic animals 
Description The present invention relates to methods and compositions useful for the prevention and/or treatment of PRRS in animals, typically domestic pigs. The invention relates to proteins which comprise fragments of CD163, nucleic acid constructs encoding such proteins, and methods of modifying expression or activity of CD 163 in vivo. 
IP Reference WO2015011483 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact Steps along the way to converting this intellectual property into socio-economic impact including establishing regulatory approval, if necessary, for products from gene edited pigs to enter the food chain generally or in this specific example and agreeing licensing terms with appropriate players in the agri-food chain.
 
Title SWINE COMPRISING MODIFIED CD163 AND ASSOCIATED METHODS 
Description The present invention relates to genetically edited swine which produce CD163 protein in which the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich 5 (SRCR5) domain (also known as CD163 domain 5) has been deleted. Such swine have been found to be healthy and do not exhibit negative properties, and are resistant to PRRSV infection. CD163 expressed in the edited swine also demonstrates retention of the ability to function as a haemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenger. Methods of producing such swine are also provided. 
IP Reference WO2018073237 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed No
Impact The patent on hand describes methods by which to generate animals resistant to PRRSV by genome editing SRCR domain 5 of the porcine protein CD163.
 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club Fourth Dissemination Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A retrospective report on the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club project on "Engineering resistance to Porcine Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV)" was presented including the ongoing research in the BBSRC project " Understanding the CD163 - PRRS virus interaction to improve genetic engineering for resistanc" (BB/R004463/1) and outreach activities. This was followed by questions and discussions from/with scientists engaged in other BBSRC Animal Health Research Club and with representatives from the industrial co-funders of the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club Fourth Dissemination Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A progress report on the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club project on Engineering resistance to Porcine Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) was presented followed by questions and discussions from/with scientists engaged in other BBSRC Animal Health Research Club and with representatives from the industrial co-funders of the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club Second Dissemination Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A progress report on the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club project on Engineering resistance to Porcine Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) was presented followed by questions and discussions from/with scientists engaged in other BBSRC Animal Health Research Club and with representatives from the industrial co-funders of the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club Third Dissemination Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A progress report on the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club project on Engineering resistance to Porcine Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) was presented followed by questions and discussions from/with scientists engaged in other BBSRC Animal Health Research Club and with representatives from the industrial co-funders of the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description British Science Festival Hull 2018: "From lab to farmyard: genome editing our livestock" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on genome editing and it's potential impact on livestock breeding was presented to the general public at the British Science Festival in Hull in 2018. Around 50-100 people attended the talk. Publicity around the event, including blogging, press releases etc. reached a much larger public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.britishsciencefestival.org/event/from-lab-to-farmyard-genome-editing-our-livestock/
 
Description GENOME 10K & GENOME SCIENCE Invited Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation by Alan Archibald at the NORWICH RESEARCH PARK, NORWICH, UK on "Precision engineering for PRRSV resistance in pigs".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Gene-edited pigs: can we engineer immunity? - Guardian Science Weekly podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome is the most significant disease affecting pigs worldwide. In the United States, it costs around $644m (£486m) every year, and for Europe, it's believed that figure is almost €1.5bn (£1.3bn). There is no cure, and vaccines have proven ineffective. However, hope is on the horizon. Scientists at The Roslin Institute at the University of Edinburgh have found that deleting a section of pigs' DNA has rendered them immune to the virus.
This podcast that involved Hannah Devlin speaking to Dr Georgina Crayford from the National Pig Association about the disease and its effects on the industry, and to Prof Alan Archibald from The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh about the breakthrough was a response to media interest in the publication of the research results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theguardian.com/science/audio/2018/jun/22/gene-edited-pigs-can-we-engineer-immunity-scie...
 
Description Invited Talk at the Wellcome Animal Genetics and Diseases conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of the Wellcome Animal Genetics and Diseases conference I presented our and other peoples work on genome editing for disease resistance and production traits in livestock. The audience was a conglomerate of national and international scientists at all career stages and highly engaged in debating both scientific as well as policy questions surrounding genome editing technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited round table lead World Vaccine Congress 2018, Lisbon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact In a session looking out to new developments in the world-wide vaccine sector I was asked to lead a round table on genome editing (for disease resistance) in livestock and how that may affect the sector but also whether the biopharma industry should invest in genome editing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker Heinrich Pette Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk about using genome editing in livestock for disease resistance and why understanding protein interactions is essential to this. The audience were primarily staff and students of the HPI and the university of Hamburg. The institute is highly engaged in structural interaction studies and there was a fruitful discussion on how interdisciplinary collaborations can contribute to the larger picture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited speaker Production Diseases in Farm Animals, 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Around 200 people attended my talk at the Production Diseases in Farm Animals conference. I presented on genome editing for disease resistance in livestock species, implications on breeding, and the regulatory framework and policies. This sparked a wide and interesting discussion with many follow-up questions primarily from members of industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited speaker summer school Leiden University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture on genome editing in livestock for production traits and disease resistance, the technology behind it, and the policy changes happening around the world. Around 25 students (both under- and postgraduate) attended the lecture and were engaged in a very broad discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk European Veterinary Vaccinology Workshop 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk on career opportunities in academia for young scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTujbImUCcI
 
Description Invited talk FU Berlin - Genome editing in livestock 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on genome editing in livestock in general (and the opportunities that creates) as well as specifics on genome editing in pigs for disease resistance. Both fellow scholars from different universities in Berlin as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students were attending the talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk on Enabling Collaboration in Livestock Research. BBSRC Session. BSAS Annual Conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the annual conference of the British Society of animal Science 2018 on "Gene edited pigs are resistant to PRRSV infection whilst maintaining biological function of the editing target gene CD163"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Keynote Lecture IPRRSS / IPVS 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on "Gene edited pigs are resistant to PRRSV infection whilst maintaining biological function of the editing target gene CD163" at the international PRRSV symposium and the International Pig Veterinary Society meeting 2018 in Chonqing, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Panel interview for Chinese media 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Under the framework of the Newton Swine and Poultry Workshop in Beijing, China, a panel interview with selected grant holders of the "UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative" was held at China Agricultrual University. Chinese and China-based international press was in attendance (amongst others, Reuters) and reported on the initiative, developing new antiviral strategies, diagnostics and on other developments in the pig- and poultry industry in China and related research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press interviews on PRRSV-resistant pigs press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In connection with the publication of our research paper "Pigs Lacking the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain 5 of CD163 Are Resistant to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 Infection" (doi: 10.1128/JVI.00415-18) numerous press interviews were held and inquiries from the public responded to.

Media broadcast interviews (Radio or TV) UK:
• BBC Scotland
• BBC National
• BBC International
• BBC Farming Today
• BBC Sunday Morning Live

Print media interviews UK:
• The Guardian
• The Times
• Veterinary Times
• Vet Record
• The Scientist

International print and broadcast interviews:
• Swiss Radio & TV (SRF)
• NTN24 (CST Science, Health & Technology Magazine, Latin Americas)
• Country Today (Victoria, Australia, Radio)
• Country Life (Agricultural Newspaper, BC, Canada)
• Agri-Pulse (Agri Newspaper, Washington DC, USA)
• Bloomberg / Newsroom (Hong Kong)
• Rabobank / Raboworld (The Netherlands / Worldwide, Finance)

Requests from the general public / public organisations:
• Quality Meat Scotland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Press reports on PRRSV-resistant pigs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In connection with the publication of our research paper "Pigs Lacking the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain 5 of CD163 Are Resistant to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 Infection" (doi: 10.1128/JVI.00415-18) we published a press package and answered interview request from many broadcasting and media agencies. As a result the following print and broadcast pieces were released:

International Broadcast:
BBC Scotland, BBC News at Six, BBC News at Ten, BBC World, BBC Sunday Morning Live, BBC Radio 4 Farming Today, BBC Radio Five Live, BBC Radio 4, BBC Radio Scotland, BBC World Service, Guardian Podcast, BBC Radio Shetland, Swiss Radio & TV (SRF), Country Today (Victoria, Australia, Radio), Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, France 24

Print UK:
The Daily Telegraph, The Times, The Guardian, Scottish Daily Mail, The i, Scottish Daily Express, The Sun, Scottish Sun, Daily Mirror, Daily Star, Metro, The Herald, Scotsman, Daily Record, Dundee Courier, Edinburgh Evening News, Aberdeen Evening Express, The Week, Press & Journal, Yorkshire Post

Online UK
BBC Online, Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, The Times, The Guardian, Daily Mirror, Daily Express, Scotsman, Irish News, Irish Examiner, Shropshire Star, Express & Star, Hastings Observer, Scarborough News, Eastbourne Herald, Shoreham Herald, West Sussex County Times, Yorkshire Evening Post, Glasgow South & Eastwood Extra, Rye & Battle Observer, Crawley Observer, Bognor Regis Observer, Mid Sussex Times, Worthing Herald, Littlehampton Gazette, Bexhill-on-Sea Observer, Portsmouth News, Chichester Observer, Midhurst & Petworth Observer, Dundee Evening Telegraph, Aberdeen Evening Express, Independent Recorder, TDNews, BT.com, BreakingNews.ie, The London Economic, The Weekly Observer, The Scientist, The London Economic, Science Magazine, Earth.Com, Independent Recorder, BT.com, Breakingnews.IE, I4U News, Press & Journal, Livekindly.co, Tech Times, IFLScience, Technology Networks

Online / Print International:
NTN24 (CST Science, Health & Technology Magazine, Latin Americas), Infosurhoy, The Economic Times (India), First Post (India), Eurasia Review, HealthEuropa, Jstor Daily, Times Of India, St Lucia News Online, Times Now (India), Business Standard (India), CanIndia.com (India), Green Report (Italy), New Kerala.com, Fanpage.It (Italy), Le Monde Veterinaire (France)

Veterinary / Science-related press:
Agri-Pulse, Veterinary Times, Vet Record, Pig World, Feedstuffs, Laboratory Equipment, GlobalMeatNews.com, Animal Pharm, Ag Daily, Agribusiness Intelligence, Laboratory Equipment, Pig Progress, Pig World, Labiotech.EU, MRCVS, Farmweek, National Hog Farmer, Farming UK, Frontline Genomics, Farmers Weekly, Food Weekly News
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/news-events/latest-news/gene-edited-pigs-resistant-billion-dollar-virus
 
Description Seminar on genome editing for PRRSV resistance at CLSU, Munoz, The Philippines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Genome editing for disease resistance in livestock in general and in pigs for PRRSV resistance was presented to all veterinary students and other department students at Central Luzon State University in the Philippines. Students could inquire the techniques and developments in this field and assess identify new approaches to disease treatments / prevention in animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Transgenic Animal Research Conference XI 2017 - Invited talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at the Transgenic Animal Research Conference XI 2017 at Lake Tahoe, CA, USA on "Precision engineering for PRRSV resistance in pigs: Macrophages from pigs lacking CD163 SRCR domain 5 are PRRSV resistant"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description article on gene edited pigs' resistance to virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact article on gene edited pigs appearing on Roslin Institute and other departmental University of Edinburgh webpages plus various local, national and international news publications plus professional publications and national television
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/news-events/latest-news/gene-edited-pigs-resistant-billion-dollar-virus
 
Description video about PRRS-resistant pigs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact video around PRRS-resistant pigs/ purpose to raise awareness/ outcome of press release/television interview increased number of views of the video to 8000+
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018