Controlling enteric pathogens of poultry: Host/microbiota interactions, risk assessment and effective management interventions

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Veterinary College
Department Name: Pathology and Pathogen Biology

Abstract

The global human population is predicted to increase by a third over the next 25 years, with countries of the developing world hosting 97% of this expansion. The ability to 'feed 9Bn people sustainably by 2050' is an urgent priority Indian and UK governments with the 12th Indian Five Year Plan requiring growth of the agricultural sector at 4% per annum to achieve food security. Poultry farming is a highly efficient and cost-effective system for producing animal protein for human consumption, but circulating infectious diseases compromise gut health and impact dramatically on farm economics, animal welfare and occasionally human health through transmission of zoonoses. Poultry gastrointestinal infections of most concern in UK and India are caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Eimeria and Salmonella.

Susceptibility to gut colonisation and the outcomes of infection are directly influenced by many factors including host genotype, immune status, age at infection, strain of infecting microbe, composition of commensal enteric microbiota and presence of other acute or chronic infections. There are significant interactions between host and microbe biology, genetics, epigenetics, the environment and farm practices. Changes to diet, use of vaccines or antimicrobials, and flock-level interventions such as 'thinning', can have profound effects on intestinal health and the evolution and spread of disease-causing microbes and may be amplified by genetic variation in host and microbe populations. Whilst major advances in genomics and genotyping of commercial poultry lines is facilitating the identification of loci linked to susceptibility or resistance, the impact of host and pathogen diversity on disease and production outcomes remains largely unexplored.

There is rich genetic diversity in India's native poultry breeds, and the hybrid exotic lines often used in Indian commercial production are distinct from the majority of poultry reared in the UK. The prevalence and dynamics of gastrointestinal infection at farm-level has a direct bearing on economic risk to individual farmers and contributes to overall global concerns of food security and food safety.
Gaps in current knowledge prompt four fundamental questions around which this proposal is framed:

1. What is the epidemiology of specified gastrointestinal infections, and co-infections, across UK and Indian poultry production systems?

2. Does host genotype exert an influence on (a) the prevalence, evolution and transmission of specified microbes and (b) the composition of flock-level enteric microbiota?

3. What is the level of genetic variation within specific microbial populations in Indian and UK poultry production?

4. What on-farm factors affect the risk of enteric colonisation and carriage of specified microbes and how can changes in poultry husbandry and management practices mitigate this risk?

The proposal brings together UK and India experts in poultry genetics, animal health, epidemiology, pathology and pathogen biology. A multidisciplinary approach combining metagenomic sequencing, high density SNP-based QTL mapping, bacteriology, parasitology, molecular epidemiology and mathematical modelling will be used to quantify and predict disease risks at farm and national levels and to inform the development of intervention and management strategies, including future breeding and husbandry planning.

Technical Summary

Our overarching hypothesis is that QTL controlling resistance to micro-organisms of veterinary and zoonotic importance are segregating in native Indian and modern commercial chickens. Further, we hypothesise that the composition of the commensal enteric microbiota, and thus its influence on colonisation by a panel of pathogenic micro-organisms, is also underpinned by host QTL. Finally, we hypothesise that the impact of management strategy on this dynamic system is also shaped by QTL.

We will perform whole genome association (WGA) for traits including resistance to enteric colonisation by a panel of pathogens with veterinary and zoonotic relevance, as well as variation in microbiome composition, as defined by metagenomic next-generation sequencing and qPCR of the caecal microbiota. These data will also be used to investigate genetic diversity among the targeted micro-organisms, supplemented by whole genome shotgun sequencing of up to 40 cultured field isolates, informing on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors. These data will support molecular epidemiological characterisation of microbial flow and development of existing mathematical models of pathogen interactions and spread within farmed chickens. Ultimately these interlinked data will be integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment of poultry management to identify optimal parameters for production using local and global commercial chicken lines.

The overall aim is to identify markers (SNPs), candidate genes and eventually causative mutations for resistance/susceptibility to colonisation by specific micro-organisms. The resistance-associated genotypes will inform commercial breeding programmes to reduce risk to the secure supply of safe animal protein and improve animal welfare. In a broader context these studies will develop a series of recommendations for effective and safe poultry production utilising native Indian breeds and regional production strategies.

Planned Impact

Details of the research and recommendations developed will be disseminated through traditional means including peer-reviewed publication, prioritising open access journals, and public presentation to audiences including students, professional forums, academics and politicians as well as the two planned BBSRC/DBT events. Priority audiences in India and the UK will be informed through workshop-based training to farmers, public servants and industry, supplemented by scientific and lay-article publications and web-based releases. More specifically we have identified the following stakeholders:

Industry stakeholder meetings. The applicants have contacts with all of the major international animal production and health companies (i.e. Aviagen, Cobb-Vantress, Merck and Pfizer) and their national representatives (e.g. Suguna Foods and the VH Group). Company representatives will be invited to each annual programme meeting. Additionally, each company's views will be sought during the first six months of the project and our results will be shared in UK and Indian workshops early in the final year of the project.
Impact on policy. The research undertaken is likely to have implications for policy makers and regulatory bodies in the public sector concerned with the poultry/livestock industry and food safety. We will continue to engage with representatives of the key UK and Indian bodies to ensure the application of our research for the benefit of all potential users including the farming industry, pharmaceutical industry and the general public. This will be achieved via forums such as the British and Indian Veterinary Poultry Associations, the British Poultry Council and the Indian Poultry Science Association, with whom the applicants have regular dialogue (two or more times per annum). Exploitation of results has been described in section iv.

Poultry producers. The applicants regularly interact with poultry producers through presentations, workshops and practical training. Research we have generated in India under BBSRC/DFID project BB/H009337/2 has already been made publically available online (Indian Coccidia Alert Network) and used to prepare a series of six pamphlets in seven different languages/dialects in India. From the start, we will aim to collaborate closely with animal health services to create awareness, build capacity and elaborate feasible strategies that take into account local practices and culture.

Academic impact. Novel data will be disseminated via publications in peer-reviewed journals of high standing, and via presentations at national and international symposia. Raw data will be made publically available as appropriate after reasonable consideration of IP.
Training and Capability. Project staff will be expected to contribute substantially to the dissemination activities, developing skills in diverse areas including project management, knowledge transfer and presentation skills, supported by training courses.

Deliverables
- Publication in academic journals (more than three over the course of the grant).
- Presentations at relevant conferences (more than once in each of years 2 and 3).
- Industry events including representation at annual project meetings.
- Press releases on significant findings aimed at the public when relevant.
- Deposition of SNP and sequencing data in the public domain.
- At least one article to be authored for the popular scientific press.
- Staff training in public engagement activities.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Journal cover image 
Description Front cover image for the International Journal for Parasitology 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Improved awareness of the associated research article and linked blog. 
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00207519/46/9
 
Title Parasitology journal cover image 
Description Journal cover image 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Improved awareness of the associated research article. 
URL https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/parasitology/issue/F2BB6612AC2CA7F1FA269B440448EEDA
 
Description Enteric microbiome composition and structure varies widely between individuals, and has been associated with multiple health conditions and differences in productivity in farm animals. Enteric microbial communities are clearly influenced by environmental factors and food, but host genotype may also have an impact. In this project we sampled a panel of commercial (global-genotype), native and hybrid chickens reared under commercial production conditions in India and the UK to comprehensively profile interactions between chicken genetic variation and the composition of the gut microbial ecosystems on a genome-wide scale. Next generation sequencing was used to define intestinal bacterial populations from all chickens and reconstruct specific bacterial genomes. Chickens were genotyped using a panel of ~600,000 genetic markers. Social, commercial and environmental variations were recorded through a detailed questionnaire. Results identified geographic location as a key factor influencing bacterial diversity, likely reflecting a combination of husbandry, environmental and climatic factors. Normalising to remove these factors found chicken breed to exert a significant impact on intestinal bacterial populations, suggesting that it may be possible to selectively breed chickens for defined bacterial populations. A panel of 42 breed-specific biomarkers were identified with utility for future study. Genome wide association study (GWAS) analysis of the chicken genomes identified significant associations between host genetic variation and gut microbiome composition.
Expansion of the work to assess the impact of co-infecting intestinal parasites revealed a significant association between disease severity and bacterial populations, illustrating the indirect consequences of infectious disease. Clustering data collected in the questionnaire revealed three distinct types of chicken production system in each region, associated with distinct bacterial and parasite populations. The findings of the study can be used to prioritise farms to launch and optimise appropriate pathogen control strategies.
Partnerships and data developed through this project made a fundamental contribution to the establishment of a new Global Challenges Research Fund hub focused on One Health poultry production in South and Southeast Asia.

This research has discovered: (i) evidence of interactions between Eimeria parasites and chicken enteric microbiomes, with relevance to development and application of live vaccines; (ii) a strong association between host breed and enteric microbiome structure, with relevance to poultry husbandry and selective breeding; (iii) host genetic markers which associate with broad and specific microbiome parameters; (iv) new components of the chicken enteric microbiota have been described and sequenced; (v) an association between Eimeria infection and replication/localisation of Campylobacter jejuni.
Exploitation Route (i) The application of live anticoccidial vaccines in broilers can be optimised; (ii) selective breeding may now be an effective option for chicken microbiome structure; (iii) knowledge derived here may be applied to improve food security and safety in low income and least developed countries; (iv) contacts and data generated have supported development of a Global Challenges Research Fund hub: One Health Poultry
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description Knowledge defining the interaction between Eimeria species parasites, used in live anticoccidiosis vaccines, has informed the application of existing vaccines and development of new vaccines. Development of a successful application for GCRF Hub (One Health Poultry).
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description BBSRC DTP (LIDo)
Amount £76,594 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description BBSRC-GCRF Impact Accelerator Award
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Commonwealth scholarship and fellowship plan
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Commonwealth Scholarship Commission
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2017
 
Description GCRF One Health Poultry Hub
Amount £17,718,608 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S011269/1 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 02/2025
 
Description KTN CASE Studentships
Amount £110,000 (GBP)
Organisation Knowledge Transfer Network 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2020
 
Title Quantitative PCR for Eimeria parasite genome counting during in vivo infection 
Description A pre-existing quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay used to count Eimeria parasite genomes has been complemented by addition of a second qPCR to quantify host genomes. The assay has been validated and compared with traditional parasitological measures such as total oocyst output per bird. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This research tool will be essential to map the genetic basis of chicken susceptibility/resistance to infection and disease caused by Eimeria species parasites where experimental group sizes will exceed capacity for traditional measures of parasite replication. The technique can also be applied to field studies of coccidiosis and offers considerable opportunitites to improve bird welfare since: 1. In some experimental models there is now no need to cage birds individually to assess parasite replication. Housing birds in groups in floor pens allows them to express more natural behaviours (REFINEMENT). 2. The precision achieved using qPCR improves statistical power, facilitating the use of smaller group sizes (REDUCTION). A manuscript describing this work is currently in preparation. 
 
Title Chicken caecal 16S microbiome 
Description Illumina 16S amplicon sequencing + analysis derived from >700 chicken caecal microbiome samples 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The provision of such a large NGS microbiome sequence database provides a valuable resource for genetic, microbiome and husbandry analyses. To be complemented by host genotypes in due course. 
 
Title Chicken caecal 18S NGS 
Description Illumina 18S amplicon sequencing + analysis derived from >700 chicken caecal microbiome samples 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The provision of such a large NGS microbiome sequence database provides a valuable resource for genetic, microbiome and husbandry analyses. To be complemented by host genotypes in due course. 
 
Title Chicken caecal microbiome shotgun 
Description Illumina whole microbiome shotgun sequencing + analysis derived from >700 chicken caecal microbiome samples 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The provision of such a large NGS microbiome sequence database provides a valuable resource for genetic, microbiome and husbandry analyses. To be complemented by host genotypes in due course. 
 
Title Indian chicken husbandry survey 
Description Access database including surveys from >150 chicken producers in India describing health, husbandry and social parameters. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This work is ongoing. 
 
Description Accelerating impact of RVC poultry health projects in South Asia 
Organisation Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Workshop exploring future applications for research and pathways to impact
Collaborator Contribution Workshop exploring future applications for research and pathways to impact
Impact Still active, outputs are pending.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Accelerating impact of RVC poultry health projects in South Asia 
Organisation Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
Country Italy 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Workshop exploring future applications for research and pathways to impact
Collaborator Contribution Workshop exploring future applications for research and pathways to impact
Impact Still active, outputs are pending.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Accelerating impact of RVC poultry health projects in South Asia 
Organisation Poultry Research Institute
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Workshop exploring future applications for research and pathways to impact
Collaborator Contribution Workshop exploring future applications for research and pathways to impact
Impact Still active, outputs are pending.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Accelerating impact of RVC poultry health projects in South Asia 
Organisation University of Peradeniya
Country Sri Lanka 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Workshop exploring future applications for research and pathways to impact
Collaborator Contribution Workshop exploring future applications for research and pathways to impact
Impact Still active, outputs are pending.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Poultry pathogen carriage 
Organisation Ahmadu Bello University
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Training in molecular techniques and epidemiology
Collaborator Contribution Collection of samples, provision of metadata, comparison with human health.
Impact PhD thesis in preparation. Manuscripts for peer reviewed publication in preparation.
Start Year 2017
 
Description 12th International Coccidiosis Conference - invited presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited presentation, disseminating results to a N. American audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description British Egg Marketing Board (BEMB) Trust 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation followed by discussion of parasite/host/microbiome interactions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description British Egg Marketing Board - working group + presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Working group meeting reviewing UK research related to poultry health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description British Society for Immunology vaccine affinity group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact ~60 people attended the presentation, which prompted questions and discussion afterwards.

I have become a reviewer for a new journal as a result of increased awareness of RVC science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Britsh Poultry Council 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented to the BPC and engaged in discussion on intestinal dysbiosis, impact of Eimeria and microbiomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Countryfile appearance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Countryfile appearance focused on the occurrence of apicomplexan parasites and the risks to farming and the general public.

As a direct result of this appearance D. Blake was acted as external examiner for a PhD thesis at the University of Liverpool.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Engormix interview at Poultry Universe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Interview related to microbiomes and host genetics talk at Poultry Universe. Published online through the Engormix website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Engormix video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Video of conference presentation 'Broilers, Eimeria and enteric microbiomes - a tale of tolerance' launched on the Engormix website, supplemented by a recorded interview.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/videos/broilers-eimeria-enteric-microbiomes-tale-toleran...
 
Description European Coccidiosis Discussion Group (ECDG) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Industry/academia networking event including presentations and discussions around ongoing RVC projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Eurotier, Hannover 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attended Eurotier tradeshow, including presentation on current projects and relevance to poultry producers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Further education college visit (Bedfordshire) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 15 pupils attending a short lecture on DNA fingerprinting and its application, followed by two practical sessions. In the first session we extracted genomic DNA. In the second we set up a PCR and resolved the product by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sessions sparked questions and discussion, including some email correspondence over the following week.

Several of the students reported that they had enjoyed the sessions, prompting them to consider registering for a third year degree upgrade programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Hipra visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Visit to animal health company to discuss projects and future possible opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Huvepharma advanced Eimeria workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Industry led training workshop - included theoretical and practical aspects in two day format.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description IHSIG lecture posted online 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Recording of conference presentation, posted on Engormix network
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/videos/broilers-eimeria-enteric-microbiomes-tale-toleran...
 
Description Internet interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview with Engormix at the IHSIG conference, loaded onto website with international audience, advertised to network by email.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/videos/damer-blake-talks-about-his-research-eimeria-geno...
 
Description Intestinal Health Scientific Interest Group (IHSIG) - invited presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited conference presentation, followed by participation in public debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Parasites and Vectors blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We provided a blog to the BugBitten site describing Eimeria genome sequencing and its value to global chicken production. Special mention was included of the possible impact on poultry production in the developing world.

The blog was Tweeted and recommended on Facebook.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bugbitten/2014/09/
 
Description Postdoc invited presentation: 12th International Coccidiosis Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact First invited presentation for a postdoctoral scientist, built network and enhanced experience/career
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Poultry Diseases Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poultry practitioner workshop covering current issues in poultry health and production - included host, parasite and microbiome information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poultry Diseases group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ~20 people, including veterinary practitioners, animal production and health company representatives, government officials and academics, attended the meeting. During this meeting we briefly presented and discussed our work to map the genetic basis of resistance or suscpetibility to Eimeria in chickens.

Discussion about provision of samples and future data dissemination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Poultry Health Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting the pathology and control of Eimeria, including interactions with host genetics and the enteric microflora.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Poultry Universe orund table debate 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Round table debate on poultry health, dysbiosis, coccidiosis and the importance of husbandry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description RVC Bioinformatics day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact ~50 people including undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as early career researchers, attended a workshop focused on improving awareness and understanding of next-generation sequencing technologies. Prompted questions and discussion, as well as one embryonic collaboration.

Support offered to a postgraduate towards application for research fellowship funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SAPHIR network newsletter contribution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Contributed article to SAPHIR network newsletter
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description World Veterinary Poultry Association - scientific committee and conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific committee + public panel debate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017