Smart materials for targeted stem cell fate and function in skeletal repair

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: Development Origin of Health and Disease

Abstract

We are now living much longer than we used to. But an unfortunate consequence of this is that as we reach later life the chances that we can become ill or injured increase dramatically. One big problem that elderly people face is illness and injury associated with the bones and joints. Diseases like osteoporosis and arthritis cause pain, cause bone fractures and lead to immobility and distress to tens of thousands of people each year, costing the taxpayer tens of millions of pounds. So new treatments that enable the skeleton to heal better are urgently required.

Often a transplant of pieces of bone taken from a healthy site on an injured or diseased person might be used to promote bone healing at an injury site (called an 'autograft'), or alternatively bone from a person who has recently died might be used (an 'allograft'). But these approaches have several weaknesses - for instance, limited tissue, poor healing or even the potential of the transmission of life-threatening diseases. We need alternative approaches to help cure the many people affected by bone disease and injury.

A potential way of overcoming these problems is to make new tissue from scratch in the lab by using artificial materials and a source of cells - such as stem cells - as building materials. Alternatively, artificial materials could be designed and developed to encourage the body to heal itself better than it would do alone. Such materials are sometimes called 'bioactive' or 'smart' materials because the chemical information in them can direct cells and tissue already present in the body to regenerate the missing tissue. In this research proposal we want to try to make a new kind of smart tissue scaffold that will improve bone healing.

To do this, we plan to design scaffolds and materials which can be implanted in the body and which contain millions of tiny hollow reservoirs of drugs or chemicals, called nanoparticles. Such nanoparticles have diameters of less than the width of a single human hair and we believe we can engineer them to have many qualities necessary for promoting the regeneration of tissue. For example, we plan to change the chemical composition of their 'shell' so that they release their drug cargo at different rates. This is very important, because tissue healing involves a series of important steps occurring at very different rates - the incorrect release of a chemical at an early stage, for instance, may stop or slow healing, whereas its release at a later stage may be very important in promoting healing. This is why it is vitally important to design scaffolds that release different compounds at different rates. Also, certain chemicals may be important for encouraging one type of cell to promote healing, but may stop other types cells from doing their correct jobs. To ensure the right chemicals are delivered to the right cells, we also plan to design particles that have markers on their surface that target them to a particular sort of cell - a bone cell for instance. We then plan to tether these chemical release packets to different types of biocompatible materials.

We will next test how effective our 'smart' scaffolds are in delivering chemicals to the correct cells at the correct times, as well as seeing how well the scaffolds function in promoting bone healing. To do this, we will tag the contents of nanoparticles with a dye and measure their release and uptake by a variety of different cells, for example bone cells or blood vessel cells. Finally we will implant scaffolds in simulated bone injuries in experimental rodents to test if they improve how fast and how well bones heal, using exciting techniques in x-ray computed tomography.

Ultimately, we want to do these experiments so that we can develop new treatments to prevent bone disease and improve bone healing in people. This project brings together an interdisciplinary team of engineers and biologists to try and achieve this goal.

Technical Summary

Bone disease and injury are burgeoning in our ageing populations, leading to a high economic and social cost. Treatments for bone injury are often ineffective or inappropriate. Autograft may be limited in supply and causing morbidity at the donor site, whereas allogeneic material may be poorly osteoinductive or of unreliable efficacy and in some cases may act as an agent for the transmission of life-threatening infectious disease. To address these challenges, we propose to develop a new tissue replacement that augments bone formation through temporal and targeted delivery of chemical cues for bone induction.

To achieve this we will build on an existing collaboration between the universities of Edinburgh and Southampton focused on developing a new generation of biomaterials for bone regeneration. We will first engineer polymer nanoparticles which can carry a range of chemical cues (growth factors, small molecules, nucleic acids) and which degrade at controlled, predetermined rates. We will test this by examining release of fluorophores and by measuring uptake of released dyes by cells in in vitro assays. Next, we will use couple chemistries to tether such nanoparticles to the backbone of a variety of hard and soft tissue scaffolds. In this way, the scaffolds will provide an environment for cell in growth and will provide a reservoir of heterogeneous factors that are released at the appropriate times for the appropriate cell populations. Finally we will test the efficacy of such scaffolds in ex vivo models, such as the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick egg, and in in vivo small animal defect models. We take full advantage of the high-resolution CT imaging facilites available at Southampton to track drug delivery and tissue healing.

Our approach will provide a new technology for controlling - temporally and spatially - the delivery of factors from hard and soft tissue scaffolds. This will enable the controlled redevelopment of tissues following injury.

Planned Impact

Our research project aims to bring together a multidisciplinary team to develop a new technology for improving tissue regeneration, and will have a number of academic, industrial, societal, economic and awareness impacts.

ACADEMIA
Many optional training opportunities will be available to the Research Fellows (Oreffo is Associate Dean International and Enterprise at the University of Southampton) to tie in with the aims of the RC UK, to develop entrepreneurship within the academic culture and the development of enterprise skills for researchers that will further enhance our fellows and critically, the impact of the research from this project grant. We will engage on an international basis to promote the UK as a centre of excellence in all aspects of materials science, stem cells and regenerative medicine. Our track records show evidence of impact in Japan (Joint publications, student research exchange with Kyoto University (Oreffo-Tabata); Europe (Leverhulme visiting fellowship -Oreffo to Dr de Andres Catalonia University), Middle East (Oreffo adjunct chair and joint research programmes at Stem Cell Unit, King Saud University, China /Hong Kong (Joint Stem Cell lab between Centre for Human Development, Stem cells and regeneration and Chinese University of Hong Kong) and many other linkages.

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY
We have a number of industry links (see track record for MB and ROCO) and will communicate openly with appropriate industry partners (IP discussions will be undertaken underunder CDAs) especially towards the final phase of our programme as we develop robust strategies for growth factor delivery from our various scaffolds for tissue regeneration. See 'Pathways to Impact' for more details.

GENERAL PUBLIC - PUBLIC AWARENESS AND POLICY
We will engage with the general public to explain, sensitively (management of expectation is key in this area of research) the clinical and commercial potential of our work. We believe that stem cell biology and the life sciences - encapsulated by our project have a special responsibility to explain stem cell science, materials chemistry and bioengineering to schoolchildren. There is significant potential in this area including vast potential from a reparative standpoint for bone stem cells in orthopaedics and skeletal stem cell biology across a range of clinical areas and the importance of multidisciplinary science - our outreach programme will provide impact over the next 3 years through active schools outreach by ROCO, MB, NDE and all the applicants.

GENERAL PUBLIC - HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
TSB Cell Therapy Catapult Centre: We will engage with the Cell Therapy Catapult as appropriate especially from a stem cell clinical translation perspective in the end phase of our programme again as appropriate (preclinical and early clinical development).
Improving Public Services: Bradley and Oreffo work closely with the clinical community (see track record) including specifically the orthopaedic community (7 clinical MD/PhD trained in the last eight years and over 30 papers and 15 awards to clinical fellows) - we will look to translate our unique scaffold approaches through to the clinic in regenerative projects, programmes as appropriate including the UK Regenerative Medicine and Medical Technologies Innovation and Knowledge Centre programmes.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Stem Cell Mountain 
Description Large 2m diameter stem cell mountain exhibit with interactive pinball - marble run that aids the participant to understand stem cell transition form pluripotent state ( top of mountain) and progression to specialised developed tissues. The participant can determine stem cell fate and tissue orientation and development using the pinball levers 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact 1) Impact on public: (all numbers are robust estimates unless specified) Southampton Science and Engineering Festival (1 day) - regional general public, predominantly families Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 1300 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on your stand; 400 Thomas Hardye School science day, Dorchester - Dorset secondary school students Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 300 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on your stand; 300 [i.e. managed throughput so all students stayed at stand for length of time] Cheltenham Science Festival (6 days) - central exhibit in Discover Zone, mixed public audience (science specialists, general public, schools): Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 1250 per day = 7500 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on your stand; 300 per day = 1800 Glastonbury science tent (5 Days) - exhibit in shared Science Tent, mixed Festival audience (academics, post-docs, science specialists, general public, families and young people) Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 1100 per day = 5500 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on your stand; 500 per day = 2500 Winchester Science Festival (3 days - some bad weather!) - exhibition stand, family audience, SciFest talk attendees Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 300 per day = 900 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on your stand; 150 per day = 450 Bestival Science Tent (4 days) - exhibit in shared Science Tent, mixed Festival audience (mainly general public and especially young people 17-25) Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 1400 per day = 5600 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on your stand; 500 per day = 2000 Qualitative feedback from visitors: "This model illustrates stem cell science brilliantly, and it's fun too" "The stem cell machine was so brilliant - it really helped to explain how the body works in such an interactive and easy way" "Helpful, informative team of staff on hand" "Interesting to learn why stem cell research is so controversial" "Great explanation from volunteers about the stem cell model. My Year 6 pupils could then explain the purpose of the model - great" "That's how you teach science!" "It's great to see this activity is in the busiest tent in the field" "I'm glad we saw this - it makes a difference" "That's amazing - a really great way to show stem cell analysis" "I was considering doing a PhD at one point - I didn't think I'd reconsider it here" "The stem cell mountain - thank you for having this idea. It's such a clever way to explain the concept" "Such a simple way to represent a very complicated thing" "We need science like this in school. It's so much more interesting" The exhibit has substantially enhanced our engagement activities both in terms of quality and quantity of impact. As well as touring with the Bringing Research to Life Roadshow - which recognised it as the 'Best Engagement Activity - and through which over 7000 people have interacted with it to learn about stem cell biology, the exhibit is on permanent display at the Winchester Science Centre (>100,000 visitors annually). So popular is the exhibit there that we have now produced a replica to 
URL https://issuu.com/university_of_southampton/docs/3297_uos_ris_e-mag_aw/c/spysdbe
 
Description The ability to generate biomaterials and bioactive factors to stimulate a body's own stem cells and progenitor cells is of key interest for the treatment of conditions such as where bone healing capacities are compromised.
The aim of this grant was to deliver new strategies to deliver growth factors to aid bone formation.
To address this need a "scaffold-decoration platform" was developed in which a biocompatible (cells will like the material) 3D structural material (a polymer) was made and "functionalised" to allow nanoparticle binding. We created a range of nanoparticles that could hold and deliver growth factors of interest ( in this case to drive osteogenesis and angiogenesis or blood vessel formation) called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and L-Ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P)

We modified the levels of encapsulated and released VEGF and AA2P to fall within the desired range to promote biological activity as confirmed by an increase in the cells needed for blood vessel formation (endothelial cell tubule formation) and collagen production by bone cells (osteoblast cells) in response to nanoparticle release of VEGF and AA2P, respectively.
The release of VEGF from the scaffolds had a significant effect on vasculature development within a chick assay (the chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenic assay). We have developed a new set of scaffolds and technology for localised delivery of bioactive molecules with applications in both hard and soft tissue engineering.. This work offers a method to apply many growth factors, potentially at the same time to allow cells to be stimulated for bone tissue repair.

Project has now completed and key findings submitted to J Materials Chemistry. We have developed protocols to allow nanoparticle strategies to enable growth factor delivery to augment tissue regeneration - The work has now been published:Combinatorial Delivery of Bioactive Molecules by a Nanoparticle-Decorated and Functionalized Biodegradable Scaffold, E. Czekanska, J. Geng, M. Glinka, K. White, J. M. Kanczler, N. D Evans, R. O. Oreffo and M. Bradley, J. Mater. Chem. B, 2018
Exploitation Route innovative approaches for skeletal tissue regeneration - specifically the development of innovative growth factor delivery nanoparticle vehicles and delivery smart scaffolds to aid osteogenesis and angiogenesis
Sectors Healthcare

URL https://www.southampton.ac.uk/medicine/about/staff/roco.page
 
Description We have used the ability to deliver growth factors using nanotechnology platforms to inform our public understanding of science detailing in science festivals and events how nanotechnology can be used for health benefits as well as informing school children through school visit sessions and Speaker for School sessions (Oreffo) how nanotechnology can impact on health and new approaches to consider for developing therapies for the general public to consider.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Education
Impact Types Societal

 
Company Name Renovos Biologics Limited 
Description Business Summary Renovos is a new company based in Southampton capitalising on decades of orthopaedic research. The company aims to be a leader in bone repair technologies. Business Description Renovos will offer: • products (stem cells for research) • services (low-cost, high-value in vivo screening assay) • therapeutics (patent-pending nanoclay preparations for drug delivery and tissue repair) 
Year Established 2017 
Impact Formed only 3 months ago- yet to reach potential
Website http://renovos.co.uk/
 
Description BBSRC GB Bioscience 2014 Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Large science festival over four days - reaching politicians and policy makers on day 1, school children on day 2 and public on days 3 and 4

Event held November 13-16th - over 6000 attended our stand over four days form school children to aged individuals, research councils and various education stakeholders
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/society/exhibitions/gb-bioscience-festival/scaffolds-cells-making-replacement...
 
Description Bringing Research to Life Roadshow (Thomas Hardy School, Dorchester) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Bringing Research to Life Roadshow (presenters: E Czekanska, E Budd, C Black); number of participants/visitors: 100-120 children (age 11-13).

The event was organized at Thomas Hardy School in Dorchester. Children from various local schools visited stations prepared by different departments of University of Southampton. The presentation from the Bone and Joint Research Group focused on explanation of the tissue engineering principles and its application to bone regeneration. Areas covered included i) what stem cells are, ii) stem cell fate and iii) how stem cells can be used in combination with supportive biomaterials to treat bone pathologies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival - Central Exhibit in Discover Zone 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Stem Cell Mountain featured in 'Doc Brown's Lab' (in keeping with the 2015 Back to the Future Theme) at the famous Cheltenham Science Festival Discover Zone. The team interacted with an estimated 1800 visitors over 6 days. Received feedback such as the following: "Great explanation from volunteers about the stem cell model. My Year 6 pupils could then explain the purpose of the model - great" and "That's how you teach science!"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cheltenhamfestivals.com/science/
 
Description Interview on Radio Solent about the Stem Cell Mountain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview on Radio Solent with Louisa Hannan about our group's involvement in the BBSRC Great British Bioscience Festival and the idea behind the Stem Cell Mountain. A family member listening to broadcast commented - 'First time someones explained what a stem cell is in a way I can understand'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0295kzk
 
Description Invited Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Over 125 people attended a workshop on "Safety and Stem Cell-Derived Cell Replacement Therapies' on 7th/8th October 2019 in Edinburgh, which raised a number of issues and approaches aorund the safety and application of stem cell derived cell therapies. The workshop provided a forum to discuss the safety around cell therapies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Speaker - DASCS 2017 Conference, Odense 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2nd November 2017: Invited Speaker - DASCS (Danish Stem Cell Society) 2017 Conference, Odense - Skeletal Cell Based Strategies for Bone Repair - Opportunities and Challenges
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited speaker - 2018 Croucher Program, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker - 2018 Croucher Program - Stem Cells Biology and Regenerative Medicine -Location (Site): Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.
Lecture 1: New approaches to skeletal cell based bone regeneration: repair, restore and recreate
Lecture 2: Harnessing ex vivo and in vivo models to interrogate and validate bone formation strategies
Lecture 3: Understanding anabolic and catabolic gene regulation in osteoarthritis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.ort.cuhk.edu.hk/csc2018/index.html
 
Description Keynote speaker at symposium in Spain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Keynote talk "New approaches to skeletal cell based bone regeneration: repair, restore and recreate" to an audience of people working in Biomedical Institutes in Coruña and Santiago and students (Biology, Medicine and Masters students).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description LifeLab - School Interaction 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Poster Presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Several schools involved in learninig about health, nutrition and disease risk - up to 100 Children involved

Schools interested in continuing the programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2013
 
Description NHS OPEN DAY 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A full day presentation on Scaffolds and cells - making replacement body parts in the lab at Southampton General Hospital- attended by over 1000 people

Strong interest from children as a result of a new "Stem Cell Pinball" display built specifically for the event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.stemcells.org.uk/
 
Description National Science Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Several thousand visitied University of Southampton Science event- the Bone and Joint Musculoskeletal Activity drew approx 200-300 individuals who activelty participated (made models, discussed bone repair, handeled samples) in the last science week exhibition.

Candidates asked specifically about Medicine Bachelor of Medicine programmes and how to apply. Patients asked if they could jopin clinical trials in the future as availalble for impaction bone grafting - so extremely positive feedback for the researchers on this project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2015,2016
 
Description Open Conference "Stem cells for bone regeneration: state-of-the-art research and solutions" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Speaker - Bonebank Conference, Odense, Denmark. "Skeletal stem cells for bone tissue regeneration.".
The audience were peer scientists, clinicians and industrialist to inform, educate and debate developments in translational bone research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Postgraduate Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Scaffolds and cells - making replacement body parts in the lab - an exhibition showcasing the ability to harness cells and scaffolds - including 3D print technology for orthopaedic regenerative medicine applications

Interest for future research projects and collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.stemcells.org.uk/
 
Description Science Day at University of Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science Day ('Stem Cell Mountain' & Bone regenerative medicine display') at University of Southampton - 14/03/15. (Open to the general public - 1000+ visitors)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2011,2013,2015,2016
 
Description Scientific Committee & Invited Speaker at European Orthopaedic Research Society (EORS) 2018 in Galway, Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Gave talk on "Skeletal Cell Based Strategies for Bone Repair - Opportunities and Challenges"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Southampton Science and Engineering Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stem Cell Mountain at the Southampton Science and Engineering Festival (1 day) - regional general public, predominantly families Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 1300 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on the stand; 400
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Speaker at UKRMP Conference UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Speaker - Inaugural UK Regenerative Medicine Conference, London. "Size matters - Harnessing biomimetic materials for skeletal tissue engineering."
The audience were peer scientists, clinicians and industrialist to inform, educate and debate developments in translational bone research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Stem Cell Mountain Outreach Programme (New Forest Country Show) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stem Cell Mountain outreach programme at the New Forest Country Show 28/07/15 (general public, farmers, agricultural community. 105,000 people visited over 3 days).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stem Cell Mountain at Bestival Music Festival Science Tent 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stem Cell Mountain at the Bestival Music Festival Science Tent (4 days) - exhibit in shared Science Tent, mixed Festival audience (mainly general public and especially young people 17-25) Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 1400 per day = 5600 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on stand; 500 per day = 2000 Particularly notable was the impact of this activity on the researchers themselves and how they viewed the importance of their own research. For example one researcher reported: "This festival was great to see how amazed people are about the potential of stem cells"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stem Cell Mountain at the Glastonbury Music Festival Science Tent 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stem Cell Mountain exhibit in shared Science Tent, mixed Festival audience (academics, post-docs, science specialists, general public, families and young people) Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 1100 per day = 5500 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on stand; 500 per day = 2500 Engaged classically hard to reached audience. Quote: "I was considering doing a PhD at one point - I didn't think I'd reconsider it here"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stem Cell Mountain on Tour - Overview 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The EPSRC funded Stem Cell Mountain Roadshow Exhibit combines the fun of a pin ball machine with a profound metaphor for a key biological concept. The stem cell mountain was designed in collaboration with Winchester Science Centre to bring to life the complex idea of stem cell potential. The exhibit has engaged festival goers at Glastonbury and Bestival, science aficionados at the UK's top Science Festivals, as well as the 100000 visitors per year that visit the Winchester Science Centre where a replica is full time resident (see individual entries for numbers at each event) Qualitative feedback on Stem Cell Mountain from the public: "This model illustrates stem cell science brilliantly, and it's fun too" "The stem cell machine was so brilliant - it really helped to explain how the body works in such an interactive and easy way" "Helpful, informative team of staff on hand" "Interesting to learn why stem cell research is so controversial" "Great explanation from volunteers about the stem cell model. My Year 6 pupils could then explain the purpose of the model - great" "That's how you teach science!" "It's great to see this activity is in the busiest tent in the field" "I'm glad we saw this - it makes a difference" "That's amazing - a really great way to show stem cell analysis" "I was considering doing a PhD at one point - I didn't think I'd reconsider it here" "The stem cell mountain - thank you for having this idea. It's such a clever way to explain the concept" "Such a simple way to represent a very complicated thing" "We need science like this in school. It's so much more interesting" Qualitative feedback from the Stem Cell Mountain team of researchers: "One of the amazing perks that come with researching! Great day, talked to many interesting people from various backgrounds and ages (from 5yr olds to 70 year old ex-specialists in the area). Very good and helpful for both the people that we talk to and for us as researchers" "It made me think my research matters" "It helps you to step back and see the amazing things you get to study in university with fresh eyes" "People were really interested in what are doing in our research" "It is a great opportunity to leave the academic bubble and a useful and interesting attempt to explain science research to a wide audience. The best thing is seeing people's reactions when everything clicks and makes sense to them!" "The stem cell mountain is very impressive. Proud to represent" "This festival was great to see how amazed people are about the potential of stem cells" " A brilliant way to inform the public about the work we do" " A pleasure to meet and collaborate with the range and depth of skills and knowledge in our roving science tent" "I was blown away by the strength, diversity and great nature of the team" "I've really enjoyed manning the stem cell volcano - my first experience of the exhibit. I'd quite like one in my living room!" "It's good to see so many people interested in stem cell research"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Talk at ICORs workshop, Montreal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on "Regenerative Medicine Approaches and Technologies for Bone Augmentation" at ICORS Workshop: BORS Regenerative Medicine - Coming to a Clinic Near you Soon?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Technology for Life Showcase at University of Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Knowledge exchange with policy stakeholders to inform, potentially, research directions in the future

Following visit policy makers aware of the research activity of the group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Thomas Hardye School Science Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A Dorset secondary school open day engaging 300 students with translational stem cell medicine. First experience of public engagement for several colleagues who reported great satisfaction with the experience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.southampton.ac.uk/per/university/roadshow.page
 
Description Wessex Medical Charity Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approx 80 attendees attended presentation - this resulted in extensive discussion and debate afterwards and over dinner

Request for a repeat presentation for Wessex Charity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2015
 
Description Winchester Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stem Cell Mountain at a three day up and coming science festival. Engaged largely family audience and science festival talk attendees Measure 1: visitors passing stand; 300 per day = 900 Measure 2: visitors interacting with researchers on stand; 150 per day = 450
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015