Optimising fertility in British broiler breeder flocks

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Zoology

Abstract

Resolving the mechanisms underpinning patterns of variation in fertility is one of the major outstanding challenges in Biology, and a key challenge in livestock production, where breeding for increasing efficiency of resource use has drastic knock-on effects on fertility rates. Fertility is a key determinant of profitability in commercial broiler breeder operations, and remains a considerable limiting factor in broiler productivity in the UK. Marginal (~1%) reductions in fertility cost the poultry industry millions of pounds annually, so the economic benefits of optimizing fertility are obvious. High flock fertility can also be associated with increased bird welfare. As one of the world's premier broiler breeding companies, Aviagen Ltd is a major supplier of grandparent broiler breeder stock to UK industry and globally. The Aviagen breeding program seeks to optimise a range of traits related to reproduction, health, production, environmental impact, robustness, food security, welfare, sustainability, and involves the assessment of >1,000,000 chickens annually. Key to Aviagen's balanced breeding goal is a strong focus to improve reproductive performance, by determining factors underpinning variation in fertility. Variation in broiler fertility has multiple sources: our preliminary analysis of 18 recent Aviagen broiler breeder flocks reveals significant fertility variation across different flocks, within flocks across different individuals, and within individuals as they age over time. This trend is reflected on a national scale. The European Ross 308 breeder (the major UK broiler breed supplied by Aviagen) has a 40-week target hatchability of 83%, but shows large variation in hatchability across UK flocks. While measures to improve fertility can be adopted, such as assisting flocks with replacement males, these measures are not always cost-efficient or effective. Clearly, fertility in broiler breeders has a complex, multifactorial nature, which can only be resolved by simultaneously considering multiple proximate behavioural, physiological and genetic mechanisms. Improved understanding of these correlated factors offers the opportunity for developing new selection and management tools to optimize genetic progress, bird management and thus animal balance and welfare. Key to this pluralistic approach is an understanding of the evolutionary significance of fertility-related traits, and the
way these have changed in broiler chickens through domestication and selection. Here, we propose a Stand Alone LINK research grant, which seeks to resolve the mechanisms underpinning infertility in British broiler breeder commercial stocks, which capitalizes on the synergistic combination of the expertise of TP's lab in the evolutionary ecology of chicken reproductive behaviour and fertility dynamics, and Aviagen research infrastructure and resources and extensive expertise of broiler breeder production and fertility in the UK. Three factors make this project particularly novel and robust. First, a novel automated genotyping technique recently developed by Aviagen, which enables high-throughput, real time parallel parentage assignment in pedigree broiler breeder flocks. Second, a series of quantitative tools and immune-physiological assays newly developed by TP's lab to study fertility at multiple levels, from the social structure of entire populations to in vitro molecular interactions. Third, a well-established partnership between TP and Aviagen through a CASE PhD scholarship, which is generating substantial preliminary results that inform the hypotheses and approaches proposed. We aim to harness these breakthroughs to identify the causes of variation in fertility in Aviagen broiler breeder stocks at three integrated levels: (1) social mechanisms, (2) inherent male or female factors, and (3) male*female incompatibilities.

Technical Summary

Resolving the mechanisms underpinning variation in fertility is a key challenge in livestock production, where breeding for increasing efficiency of resource use has drastic knock-on effects on fertility rates. Fertility is a key determinant of profitability in commercial broiler breeder operations, and remains a considerable limiting factor in broiler productivity in the UK. Marginal reductions in fertility cost the poultry industry millions of pounds annually, so the economic benefits of optimizing fertility are obvious. High fertility can also reflect better bird welfare. We propose a Stand Alone LINK research grant, which seeks to understand variation in fertility in British broiler breeder flocks in partnership with Aviagen Ltd. As one of the world's premier broiler breeding companies, Aviagen Ltd is a major supplier of grandparent broiler breeder stock to UK industry and globally. Our preliminary analysis of these flocks reveals substantial fertility variation across different flocks, within flocks, and within individuals as they age over time. This trend is reflected on a national scale. The European Ross 308 breeder (the major UK broiler breed supplied by Aviagen) has target hatchability of 83% with substantial inter-flock variability. Three factors make this project novel and robust. An automated genotyping technique recently developed by Aviagen, enabling high-throughput parentage assignment of broiler breeder flocks. Quantitative tools and immuno-physiological assays developed by TP's lab to study fertility at multiple levels, from population dynamics to in vitro molecular interactions. A well-established partnership between TP and Aviagen through a CASE PhD scholarship, which is generating preliminary results that inform the hypotheses and approaches proposed. We aim to harness these assets to identify the causes of variation in fertility at three integrated levels: (1) social mechanisms, (2) male/female factors, and (3) male*female incompatibilities.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research?
1) The main beneficiary of this research will be the POULTRY INDUSTRY in general, and the UK BROILER INDUSTRY in particular.
2) A related beneficiary will be DEFRA in its priority to improve the productivity and competitiveness of British food and farming businesses.
3) NGOs, learned societies and 3rd sector organisations focused on ANIMAL WELFARE (e.g. RSPCA, ASAB).
4) The GENERAL PUBLIC will also be a beneficiary of this research due to the tremendous interest in issues associated with the Food Industry, Food Safety and Animal Welfare.

How will they benefit from this research?
1-2) By ameliorating infertility problems of the broiler breeder industry the proposed research will foster global economic performance, and specifically the economic competitiveness of the British poultry industry.
3) Infertility problems are likely to be associated with poor welfare of the flock, especially through suboptimal mating behaviours, intra- and inter-sexual aggression, which can lead to severe (lethal or sublethal) consequences for members of the flock.
4) By generating new knowledge and disseminating information on the different causes of infertility and how science can help the industry develop more efficient and animal friendly ways to manage flock fertility.

Publications

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Carleial R (2020) Temporal dynamics of competitive fertilization in social groups of red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) shed new light on avian sperm competition. in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

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Firman RC (2017) Postmating Female Control: 20 Years of Cryptic Female Choice. in Trends in ecology & evolution

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Firman RC (2017) Cryptic Female Choice: A General Phenomenon. A Reply to Eberhard. in Trends in ecology & evolution

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McDonald G (2014) Animal Social Networks

 
Description This project investigated mechanisms underpinning variation in fertility in both commercial flocks and experimental flocks of red junglefowl. Most of the work on junglefowl and related theoretical studies has been published, work on commercial flocks is being written up for publication and is currently embargoed by confidentiality agreement with industrial partner.
A key development of this project has been unveiling multiple lines of evidence indicating a fundamental role of social behaviour in modulating fertility and reproductive success at the levels of individual birds as well as at the level of entire flocks. This evidence comes from (1) Long-term datasets of commercial flocks, and (2) Behavioural studies of domestic and red junglefowl flocks.
In junglefowl flocks, we have identified male aggression, social status and age as key factors determining the reproductive success of individual males (McDonald et al. 2017 Evolution). Male behaviour also plays an important role in determining the fertilisation success of individual mating opportunities: males exhibit a strong response to female sexual familiarity, allocating more sperm and a different set of seminal fluid proteins to sexually novel females. These responses are mediated by male social status and patterns of sperm and seminal fluid depletion (Alvarez-Fernandez et al. 2019 Sci. Reports). We have also shown that female social behaviour is an important modulator of mating rates and male fertilisation success. Older, more dominant females form social clusters within a flock which enables these females to manage mating behaviour more effectively and avoid male sexual harassment. Younger, more fecund females on the other hand attract more sexual interest by males and suffer higher levels of harassment (McDonald et al. 2019 Proc Roy Soc B). These male and female behaviours drive the structure of the mating network within a flock, which has critical repercussions for reproductive skew, fertilisation success and sexual selection (McDonald & Pizzari 2018 PNAS). A large study presenting the results of long-term datasets from commercial populations in combination with behavioural observations is in preparation and will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed international journal following embargo and confidentiality agreement with industrial partner (see below). Progress over the last year has been severely hampered by COVID-19, which has reduced the amount of quality time that members of the collaborative team (PI, Industrial partner, PDRA) have been able to dedicate to this project.
Exploitation Route The results of this research are currently under confidentiality agreement with the Industrial partner. We are working to disseminate these results through peer-reviewed publications (see above). Ultimately these data are expected to inform the husbandry and farming protocols of the broiler industry in order to maximise fertility. These results have informed on-going work conducted through an iCASE PhD studentship to groundproof the established patterns in commercial flocks and establish husbandry regimes to improve productivity. These results are also expected to provide a unique insight into the social mechanisms underpinning spatio-temporal dynamics of sexual selection in replicate populations.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment

 
Description This project investigated mechanisms underpinning variation in fertility in both commercial flocks and experimental flocks of red junglefowl. Most of the work on junglefowl and related theoretical studies has been published, work on commercial flocks is being written up for publication and is currently embargoed by confidentiality agreement with industrial partner. In general the results emerging from this project have revealed clear patterns and offer scope to inform husbandry practices in our industrial partner. In particular, evidence of strong behavioural drivers of fertility suggest that careful management of social competition among males and male sexual exclusivity of females can have significant consequences for flock fertility and production. Progress over the last years has been severely hampered by COVID-19, which has reduced the amount of quality time that members of the collaborative team (PI, Industrial partner, PDRA) have been able to dedicate to this project.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Changes in husbandry practices in broiler breeder flocks are being developed by Industrial partner in light of our results
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description How environmental complexity and sex ratio modulate sexual selection and sexual conflict
Amount £2,350 (GBP)
Organisation The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2021 
End 09/2021
 
Description Interrogating the seminal fluid proteome to resolve the molecular basis of fertility in poultry
Amount £550,233 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/V001256/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2020 
End 11/2023
 
Description PhD Scholarship to study fertility in fowl populations
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Description Seminal fluid proteomics of commercial turkey populations
Amount £66,349 (GBP)
Organisation Aviagen Group 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 02/2019 
End 08/2020
 
Description cNPQ Scholarship
Amount £43,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) 
Sector Public
Country Brazil
Start 09/2015 
End 09/2018
 
Description follow-on PDRA employment
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation Aviagen Group 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 06/2017 
End 07/2018
 
Description iCASE Industrial DTP Scholarship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Title Red junglefowl blood and spleen samples 
Description Uncoagulated blood samples and spleen samples collected post-mortem. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Initiation of a collaboration with Prof. Jim Kaufman (Cambridge University and Edinburgh University) for PCR-NGS typing the Major Histocompatibility Complex of individual birds. 
 
Title red junglefowl semen samples 
Description Collection of several hundreds of samples comprising centrifuged seminal fluid obtained from natural matings of a study population of red junglefowl 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Initiation of collaboration with Syracuse University to characterise seminal fluid proteomics 
 
Title Data from: Temporal dynamics of competitive fertilization in social groups of red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) shed new light on avian sperm competition 
Description Studies of birds have made a fundamental contribution to elucidating sperm competition processes, experimentally demonstrating the role of individual mechanisms in competitive fertilisation. However, the relative importance of these mechanisms and the way in which they interact under natural conditions remain largely unexplored. Here, we conduct a detailed behavioural study of freely-mating replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, to predict the probability that competing males fertilise individual eggs over the course of 10-day trials. Remating frequently with a female and mating last increased a male's probability of fertilisation, but only for eggs ovulated in the last days of a trial. Conversely, older males, and those mating with more polyandrous females, had consistently lower fertilisation success. Similarly, resistance to a male's mating attempts, particularly by younger females, reduced fertilisation probability. After considering these factors, male social status, partner relatedness and the estimated state of a male extragonadal sperm reserves did not predict sperm competition outcomes. These results shed new light on sperm competition dynamics in taxa such as birds, with prolonged female sperm storage and staggered fertilisations. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://datadryad.org/stash/dataset/doi:10.5061/dryad.cz8w9gj1d
 
Title Fertility and parentage in domestic flocks 
Description Large long-term dataset of fine-grained fertility and parentage in domestic flocks 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We are currently developing this information for scientific dissemination in a way compatible with confidentiality agreement with industrial partner. 
 
Title Mating and reproductive success in red junglefowl 
Description These dataset contains information on mating and sexual behaviour, reproductive success in multiple replicate flocks of red junglefowl. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This work is in the process of being developed and disseminated in the scientific community. Some of these results are already under review for publication. 
 
Title Red junglefowl reproductive microbiome 
Description Large dataset comprising the operational taxonomic units identified through 16S sequencing of samples from different regions of the reproductive tract and ejaculates of the study population. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Collaboration with Prof Tom Bell (Imperial College) and Dr Melissa Rowe (Netherlands Institute of Ecology, NIOO) to study reproductive microbiota in bird species 
 
Title sperm agglutination 
Description These datasets contain: (a) the results of a series of experiments characterising variation in in vitro sperm agglutination to blood serum in junglefowl and domestic chickens and patterns of female sperm utilisation in vivo following insemination, including the results of experimental immunisation work; and (b) the results of immunological tests investigating the proximate mechanisms of differential sperm agglutination, e.g. through ELISA-based in vitro work. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This information is in the process of being analysed and submitted for publication. Aspects of these data and results have been presented at workshops and conferences. 
 
Title sperm allocation dataset 
Description This dataset contains information on mating behaviour and ejaculate characteristics for natural ejaculates produced by male junglefowl under different experimental conditions. The dataset is partly published in open access (Alvarez-Fernandez et al. 2019 Sci Reports; Borziak et al. 2016 Sci Reports). More recent parts of the dataset are in the process of being analysed for future publication. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Expression of interest from academics and members of commercial poultry companies. Request of new collaborations. 
URL https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41336-5
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Bernd Kaspers, Institut für Tierphysiologie, University of Munich, Germany 
Organisation Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU Munich)
Department Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration seeks to harness the power of chicken genetic knockout lines developed in Munich to establish the causal effect of antibody response in sperm agglutination.
Collaborator Contribution Access to knock-out birds (homozygotes and heterozygote controls) for experimental work.
Impact This collaboration is expected to make a key contribution to future publications.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Marian Dawkins (Oxford University), Aviagen and Moy Park to develop predictive assessment of flock fertility using optical flow technology 
Organisation Aviagen Group
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Leadership and coordination of the collaboration, expertise in fertility and reproductive behaviour
Collaborator Contribution In addition to collaborations represented by LINK grant, iCASE studentship and seminal fluid proteomic studies, Aviagen will provide fertility data and videos of some of their flocks in order to investigate optic flow patterns of flock behaviour predictive of high or low fertility. Moy Park will provide similar data for their commercial flocks. Prof Marian Dawkins (Oxford) provides expertise on OPTICFLOCK, an optic-flow technology she has contributed to develop to study behaviour and welfare in poultry flocks.
Impact The collaboration is at an early stage of development, no outputs or outcomes have been generated.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Marian Dawkins (Oxford University), Aviagen and Moy Park to develop predictive assessment of flock fertility using optical flow technology 
Organisation Moy Park
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Leadership and coordination of the collaboration, expertise in fertility and reproductive behaviour
Collaborator Contribution In addition to collaborations represented by LINK grant, iCASE studentship and seminal fluid proteomic studies, Aviagen will provide fertility data and videos of some of their flocks in order to investigate optic flow patterns of flock behaviour predictive of high or low fertility. Moy Park will provide similar data for their commercial flocks. Prof Marian Dawkins (Oxford) provides expertise on OPTICFLOCK, an optic-flow technology she has contributed to develop to study behaviour and welfare in poultry flocks.
Impact The collaboration is at an early stage of development, no outputs or outcomes have been generated.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Marian Dawkins (Oxford University), Aviagen and Moy Park to develop predictive assessment of flock fertility using optical flow technology 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford University Innovation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Leadership and coordination of the collaboration, expertise in fertility and reproductive behaviour
Collaborator Contribution In addition to collaborations represented by LINK grant, iCASE studentship and seminal fluid proteomic studies, Aviagen will provide fertility data and videos of some of their flocks in order to investigate optic flow patterns of flock behaviour predictive of high or low fertility. Moy Park will provide similar data for their commercial flocks. Prof Marian Dawkins (Oxford) provides expertise on OPTICFLOCK, an optic-flow technology she has contributed to develop to study behaviour and welfare in poultry flocks.
Impact The collaboration is at an early stage of development, no outputs or outcomes have been generated.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Jim Kaufman (Cambridge University and Edinburgh University) for Initiation of a collaboration with Prof. Jim Kaufman (Cambridge University and Edinburgh University) for PCR-NGS typing the Major Histocompatibility Complex of the red junglefowl 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to coordination of the collaboration from conceptual to logistic. Provision of biological samples and biological information.
Collaborator Contribution Application a newly developed PCR-NGS typing approach.
Impact The collaboration has only just started.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Steve Dorus (University of Syracuse, US), and industrial partners Aviagen and Moy Park to study seminal fluid proteomics of commercial poultry populations 
Organisation Aviagen Group
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution This LINK grant has led to new collaborations with the two additional collaborators as well as continuing work with industrial partner Aviagen, in order to study seminal fluid proteomics associated with fertility in different commercial populations of poultry (e.g. broiler breeders and turkeys). The role of my group is to lead and coordinate the different lines of the collaboration from experimental design to data analysis, as well as conduct the sampling for broiler breeders and our own study population (red junglefowl). The work on turkeys involves Syracuse University and Aviagen, and is currently on-going. The project investigating broiler breeders and junglefowl involves primarily Syracuse University and Moy Park and has led to an application for a research grant from the BBSRC (decision pending).
Collaborator Contribution Aviagen which were the industrial partner in the LINK grant, now provide samples from commercial turkey populations and related biological information. Syracuse University provides expertise and training in proteomics and related bioinformatic analysis. Moy Park will provide birds from broiler breeder lines for raising and sampling at Oxford as well as providing training and relevant information on the commercial lines studied.
Impact This collaboration has led to a BBSRC research grant in collaboration with Dr Dorus and Moy Park ("Interrogating the seminal fluid proteome to resolve the molecular basis of fertility in poultry")
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Steve Dorus (University of Syracuse, US), and industrial partners Aviagen and Moy Park to study seminal fluid proteomics of commercial poultry populations 
Organisation Moy Park
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution This LINK grant has led to new collaborations with the two additional collaborators as well as continuing work with industrial partner Aviagen, in order to study seminal fluid proteomics associated with fertility in different commercial populations of poultry (e.g. broiler breeders and turkeys). The role of my group is to lead and coordinate the different lines of the collaboration from experimental design to data analysis, as well as conduct the sampling for broiler breeders and our own study population (red junglefowl). The work on turkeys involves Syracuse University and Aviagen, and is currently on-going. The project investigating broiler breeders and junglefowl involves primarily Syracuse University and Moy Park and has led to an application for a research grant from the BBSRC (decision pending).
Collaborator Contribution Aviagen which were the industrial partner in the LINK grant, now provide samples from commercial turkey populations and related biological information. Syracuse University provides expertise and training in proteomics and related bioinformatic analysis. Moy Park will provide birds from broiler breeder lines for raising and sampling at Oxford as well as providing training and relevant information on the commercial lines studied.
Impact This collaboration has led to a BBSRC research grant in collaboration with Dr Dorus and Moy Park ("Interrogating the seminal fluid proteome to resolve the molecular basis of fertility in poultry")
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Steve Dorus (University of Syracuse, US), and industrial partners Aviagen and Moy Park to study seminal fluid proteomics of commercial poultry populations 
Organisation Syracuse University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This LINK grant has led to new collaborations with the two additional collaborators as well as continuing work with industrial partner Aviagen, in order to study seminal fluid proteomics associated with fertility in different commercial populations of poultry (e.g. broiler breeders and turkeys). The role of my group is to lead and coordinate the different lines of the collaboration from experimental design to data analysis, as well as conduct the sampling for broiler breeders and our own study population (red junglefowl). The work on turkeys involves Syracuse University and Aviagen, and is currently on-going. The project investigating broiler breeders and junglefowl involves primarily Syracuse University and Moy Park and has led to an application for a research grant from the BBSRC (decision pending).
Collaborator Contribution Aviagen which were the industrial partner in the LINK grant, now provide samples from commercial turkey populations and related biological information. Syracuse University provides expertise and training in proteomics and related bioinformatic analysis. Moy Park will provide birds from broiler breeder lines for raising and sampling at Oxford as well as providing training and relevant information on the commercial lines studied.
Impact This collaboration has led to a BBSRC research grant in collaboration with Dr Dorus and Moy Park ("Interrogating the seminal fluid proteome to resolve the molecular basis of fertility in poultry")
Start Year 2020
 
Description A feature article for Open Access Government on scientific approaches for precision management of fertility in poultry farming 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The feature article entitled 'Improving poultry production through precision fertility management' outlined modern approaches to improve fertility and productivity in commercial poultry flocks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.openaccessgovernment.org/improving-poultry-production-precision-fertility-management/399...
 
Description Feature article in the open access 'Impact' publication 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The feature article was entitled "A novel approach to improving avian reproduction" outlined recent research developments with translational impact for the poultry industry and farming, largely based on the research tools and approaches developed through our BBSRC LINK-funded work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319674437_Optimising_fertility_in_British_broiler_breeder_f...
 
Description GoCAS workshop on Sexual Selection and Sexual Conflict, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Workshop bringing together an international panel of experts to clarify outstanding issues in the field of sexual selection. The workshop resulted in a join publication in PeerJ.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://peerj.com/articles/7988/
 
Description Media communication 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact My understanding is that the BBC series was well received and sparked interest in the behaviour and welfare of domestic animals

Difficult to quantify impact of this contribution to the series as a whole.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Plenary speaker at LVI Symposium Poultry Scientific Symposium of Spanish Poultry Science Association - World's Poultry Science Association (AECA-WPSA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary presentation detailing the role of basic and applied research in our lab in elucidating mechanisms underpinning fertility for commercially important populations. The meeting was attended by poultry scientists, veterinarians and commercial companies from different countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://56symposiumavicultura.com/es/Inicio
 
Description Plenary talk at Graduate Symposium of the Zoology Department of Stockholm University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A plenary presentation of basic and applied work in our research group aimed at unravelling mechanisms underpinning fertility in poultry. The audience comprised graduate students, academic researchers, a number of donors from different countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poster at the biannual Biology of Sperm conference (Sweden) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of preliminary work on sperm allocation patterns in male red junglefowl. The conference brings together researchers from different basic and applied fields related to reproductive biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Summer School outreach activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact UNIQ Summer school activity by members of the group to introduce pupils from secondary schools to our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL http://www.uniq.ox.ac.uk/c/biology
 
Description Talk at local primary school (S.S. Mary and John, Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact ~50 pupils and several teaching staff attended this
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description participation in the BBC documentary Attenborough's Wonder of Eggs (BBC 2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our study population of red jungefowl was featured and our research on the reproductive biology of this species informed the narrative of this part of the documentary
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p062qkqy