Identifying genomic resources against pests and pathogens in tree genera: a case study in Fraxinus

Lead Research Organisation: Queen Mary, University of London
Department Name: Sch of Biological and Chemical Sciences

Abstract

British ash trees are threatened by the fungal disease ash dieback, which has already arrived in the UK, and by the emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle found in the USA and Russia. Scientists are currently seeking to develop ash trees resistant to ash dieback, using genetic information already present in European ash trees. In the longer term, Britain and the World need ash trees that are resistant to both ash dieback and EAB. To achieve this, we may need to study not just in Fraxinus excelsior -- the ash species most common in Britain -- but in the whole ash genus, which consists of about 50 species worldwide. Preliminary studies suggest that some of these species are resistant to one or both of these problems, due to co-evolution. Looking in the whole genus may help us (i) to identify genes in Fraxinus excelsior that can give resistance to these threats, which would otherwise have been hard to find, and (ii) reveal genes in other ash species that give resistance but are not found in Fraxinus excelsior.

This consortium is an international team of leaders in research on ash trees, ash dieback, the EAB, ash taxonomy and phylogenetics, ash genomics, tree breeding, phylogenomics and social framings of nature. It is led by Dr Richard Buggs (Queen Mary, University of London) who is currently sequencing a Fraxinus excelsior genome funded by NERC. It will pioneer the application of a new method for finding genes responsible for traits developed by Dr Steve Rossiter's group (Queen Mary, University of London), funded by BBSRC, that has not been used before in tree health contexts. This works by building evolutionary trees for thousands of genes in the ash genus, and examining how the patterns of evolution seen in them fit with patterns of susceptibility/resistance to ash dieback and EAB. This evolutionary approach allows us to identify genes or gene variants that may be involved in resistance.

For this method to work, we need accurate information about the susceptibility of different ash species to ash dieback and the EAB. Our current knowledge of this is patchy and largely anecdotal, so we need to fill this gap. At the moment we do not even have good data on how susceptible the British ash species, Fraxinus excelsior, is to the EAB. We therefore propose an experiment on susceptibility of ash species to the EAB to be carried out in the USA, in an area where this pest is killing thousands of trees. This will be conducted by Dr Jennifer Koch (US Forest Service), who has years of experience and well developed protocols in testing ash trees for EAB susceptibility, but has not carried out a systematic study of the whole genus. This experiment will be carried out on clones of all ash species currently available in American living collections.

A similar experiment will be carried out in the UK, testing the susceptibility of all ash species currently available in British and Irish living collections to ash dieback. This experiment will be led by Dr Steve Lee (Forest Research) who is currently leading a project screening thousands of F. excelsior genotypes for resistance to ash dieback, funded by Defra. This proposal provides a logical extension to that project to include other ash species.

Whilst we carry out experimental work to identify genes for pest and pathogen resistance, a social science study will be conducted by Dr Paul Jepson (Oxford University) about how they might be used in a tree health context in a manner that is socially and politically acceptable. Could we develop ash populations resistant to EAB and ash dieback by planting other ash species? By hybrid breeding programes? By genetic modification? This study will seek answers to these questions in a social and political sense.

This project will pioneer new methods and approaches to tackling both a fungal pathogen and an invertebrate pest in a widespread tree genus. If successful these approaches can be used to tackle tree health issues in other tree genera.

Technical Summary

This consortium will develop a new approach for identifying genes conferring resistance to tree pests and pathogens, using phylogenomic information derived from the genus of a tree species that is at threat. This approach exploits new DNA sequencing technologies and apply the latest methods in phylogenomics, pioneered by co-PI Rossiter in his work on mammals. We will use Fraxinus as a model, as it faces two major threats and preliminary data suggest that resistance to both threats has evolved in parallel more than once in the genus. It is economically and ecologically valuable and some genomic data already exist. The genome of every available species in the genus Fraxinus will be sequenced and aligned, and phylogenies built for up to 10000 shared regions. Data on the susceptibility of each species to ash dieback and the emerald ash borer (EAB) will be generated in experiments in the UK (on ash dieback) and USA (on EAB). Candidate genes and alleles for low susceptibility will be sought by identifying those gene trees that are incongruent with the consensus species tree of Fraxinus, but congruent with patterns of low susceptibility in the genus. Signatures of selection will be analysed in these genes. Identification of these gene candidates will inform future breeding programmes. This complements other approaches currently seeking resistance to ash dieback in F. excelsior, by broadening the net to include over 30 related species; this is analogous to studies of wild relatives of crop species in agricultural pre-breeding programmes. As with crops, there is a danger that the possibilities made available by science may be mis-perceived by the public, causing sociological hindrance to their implementation. Thus, the proposal includes a social study to understand how new possibilities can be communicated to the public, and what possibilities are politically acceptable. The project will show us what solutions to tree health issues are feasible scientifically and politically

Planned Impact

Genomic scientists.-This project tackles a central issues in genome science: associating phenotypes to specific gene regions. We are using an approach that has only recently been developed and proved successful in identifying genes for echolocation in mammals. Demonstration of its usefulness in finding genes for low susceptibility to both an invertebrate pest and a fungal pathogen in trees will be a major step forwards in international genome science.

Tree geneticists.-New methods for discovering candidate genes for traits relating to tree health are of great international interest, because many of the methods used in crop genetics are difficult to carry out in trees due to their long lifespans

Tree breeders.-We aim to find candidate genes for low susceptibility to ash dieback and the emerald ash borer in the ash genus (Fraxinus), and recommend strategies by which tree breeders could implement these to produce ash trees resistant to both threats. Forest Research, the Future Trees Trust and the Earth Trust are the two main UK organisations involved in such research.

Biosecurity policy makers.-Our findings will inform policies for tree biosecurity throughout the northern hemisphere. Ash dieback is currently in Europe but not N. America. EAB is currently in the N. America but not in Europe, though it is near Moscow and spreading westwards. Our research will inform governments on both continents about the susceptibility of their local species of ash to these threats. We do not yet have rigorous data on the susceptibility of British ash trees to EAB, though anecdotal evidence suggests that it is susceptible. This project will provide rigorous data on this, allowing us to better parameterize the risks associated with EAB, with immediate impacts for biosecurity policy.

Biotechnology policy makers.-Our proposal includes a social science study of what genomic solutions to tree health issues would be acceptable to the public, interest and stakeholder groups, and the media. It will make recommendations about how these issues are framed in public discourse.

Plant health experts.-This project will exchange knowledge about EAB and ash dieback among experts in Europe and N. America, allowing efficient early warning of their spread to new continents. In the UK, the ObservaTREE network provides tree health training materials and volunteer networks to deliver a tree health early warning system.

Foresters.-Ash are one of only about six broad-leaved species that are planted commercially in Britain. They can tolerate moist conditions and squirrels. Death or reduced growth of ash due to ash dieback or EAB is a major challenge to the forestry industry. This is represented in the UK by Confor, Institute of Chartered Foresters, and other organisations. The forestry industry is very interested in increasing the resilience and species base of UK forestry.

Biodiversity.-Ash is one of the last trees in the UK to flush in the spring, allowing a rich assemblage of spring-flowering plants on forest floors. Its bark has an unusual pH, giving a niche for rare lichens. Organisations in the UK such as Earth Trust, Woodland Trust and National Trust seek to conserve this biodiversity.

Public health.-A 2013 American study has shown an increase in human mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties where ash trees have died due to the EAB (Am. J. Prev. Med. 44:139-145).

Quality of life.- There are 80 million ash trees the UK alone. If future generations can grow and enjoy ash trees in the UK, this will enhance quality of life and health. The British public is clearly very interested in, and concerned about, this issue. The success of this project will reassure them that ash trees are not lost forever from the landscape, and that there is also hope for other tree species that are currently threatened by pests.

Botanic Gardens/Arboreta.-We will demonstrate the benefits of living collections

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The most significant achievement from this award has been the sequencing and assembly of whole genome sequences from 24 diploid species and subspecies of Fraxinus (ash trees) and the identification from these whole genome assemblies of approximately 50 candidate genes for resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle. These genes have a range of functions that may be relevant to defence against EAB and through our analyses we have found that several ash tree species with resistance to EAB carry different versions of these genes to those found in ash trees that are susceptible to attack by the EAB beetle.
Exploitation Route The candidate genes we have identified, and the resistance-associated variants within them, can be taken forward to screen for potentially more resistant individuals within otherwise largely susceptible species, ultimately feeding into efforts to breed trees with better resistance to EAB that may be undertaken by the forestry sector. Further experimental studies of these genes by academic researchers could help to establish their precise function in Fraxinus and their exact role in the defence response against EAB. The whole genome assemblies we have generated, made available through our website (http://www.ashgenome.org/), can be utilised by international researchers to facilitate other studies of ash, including efforts to mitigate the impact of ash dieback disease.
We have demonstrated for the first time that genomic analyses of convergence among species can be used to identify candidate genes for pest resistance. We expect this method to be more widely used in future.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.ashgenome.org/worldwide
 
Description This work has informed Defra policy. Lord Gardiner, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Rural Affairs and Biosecurity has been briefed on the work by civil servants; Richard Buggs presented in 2017 to the Defra Chief Scientific Advisor, Ian Boyd, and the Defra Ash Dieback Health and Safety Taskgroup; and this research has contributed to Defra policy on ash dieback, with the major focus being on breeding UK trees for resistance, and enhancement of natural selection because 'outbreaks of disease are not just devastating to our natural landscapes and native species, they endanger our economy and wellbeing'. Defra's tree health resilience strategy estimates the value of trees at £175bn. In Spring 2019, Defra will publish an ash evidence strategy document partly based on this research. In December 2016 the media gave substantial coverage to the online publication of the ash genome paper. Buggs was quoted by the BBC News website, BBC Radio 4 Six O'Clock News, Financial Times, The Guardian (882 shares and 76 comments), El Mundo (Spain) and Daily Express. The story was also reported in The Daily Mail and numerous international media outlets. This led to increased public awareness of plant genetics. The work has been mentioned in sporadic media attention since. Prof. Buggs has spoken on this research at many meetings for stakeholders, including: "The Future for English Woodlands" Conference organised by The Central Association of Agricultural Valuers and The Royal Forestry Society, 30 Oct 2018, The National Memorial Arboretum, Staffordshire; "Plant Health Conference", The Earth Trust, Oxfordshire, 17th Oct 2018; Forestry Commission's "SE & London Tree Health Event 2018", 12 Feb 2018; Dissemination event for the Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative, at the Radisson Blu Grafton, London, 7 Feb 2018. In questionnaires handed out at "The Future for English Woodlands" Conference, comments included: "Dr Buggs explained v. complex issues in a clear and compelling way"; "I will work to try and get Natural England's policy on ash in SSSIs changed"; "Gave me a greater understanding of a topic I have found difficult to grasp in the past"
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Defra Ash Research Strategy Stakeholder Workshop 9 Jan 2019
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Advised on future Defra research strategy on ash trees
 
Description National Academies Report on Forest Health and Biotechnology, Washington, DC
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Our research papers were cited in this report: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25221. Our citations contributed to the following recommendations (p. 76): "Recommendation: Entities concerned about forest health should devote resources to identifying resistant trees within a population that have survived a pest outbreak. Research to understand the role of resistance in coevolved systems from the perspective of a global host-pest system, where the nonnative pathogen or insect originate, would help guide efforts in North America." "Recommendation: More research should be conducted on the fundamental mechanisms involved in trees' resistance to pests and adaptation to diverse environments, including a changing climate." "Recommendation: Sufficient investment of time and resources should be made to successfully identify or introduce resistance into tree species threatened by insects and pathogens."
URL https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25221/forest-health-and-biotechnology-possibilities-and-considerations
 
Description Organised FRAXBACK meeting to advise government and stakeholders about ash dieback research
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKs7pMv2Huc
 
Description Policy Options for Chalara meeting, Defra
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Presentation to Defra Chief Scientific Advisor
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Updated Chief Scientific Advisor to Defra on latest research findings
 
Description The Chalara Oversight Group (Research Lead)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description Defra grant to Kew for ash genomics research
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Defra grant to Kew for ash genomics research 10/2017-3/2018
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship
Amount € 195,455 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Department Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 07/2015 
End 07/2017
 
Description Science Without Borders PhD Studentship
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Brazil 
Department Science without Borders
Sector Public
Country Brazil
Start 06/2015 
End 06/2019
 
Title Ash genome read data and assembly 
Description Illumina and 454 reads for a British ash tree, and a draft genome assembly 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Genome available to other researchers 
URL http://www.ashgenome.org
 
Title Worldwide ash genomes 
Description Sequence data and assemblies of whole genome sequences from 24 diploid species and subspecies of Fraxinus (ash trees) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Acceleration of worldwide ash research 
URL http://www.ashgenome.org
 
Description Collaboration with Earth Trust 
Organisation Earth Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaboration on ash genomics
Collaborator Contribution Provided material
Impact Nature paper on ash genome
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Forest Research 
Organisation Forest Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sourcing of materials
Collaborator Contribution Grafting and propagation and ash dieback screening
Impact Still underway
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with TGAC 
Organisation Earlham Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sequencing of ash tree genomes
Collaborator Contribution DNA sequencing and analysis
Impact Nature paper on ash genomics
Start Year 2014
 
Description Oxford 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department School of Geography and the Environment
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Knowledge of tree genetics and breeding
Collaborator Contribution Sociological surveys and focus groups
Impact papers in press and policy document
Start Year 2014
 
Description US Forest Service 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution grant funding
Collaborator Contribution Ash tree collection, propagation and screening against emerald ash borer
Impact still underway
Start Year 2014
 
Description "Plant Health Conference", The Earth Trust, Oxfordshire, 17 Oct 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Politicians, policy makers and supporters of the Earth Trust attended this day confererence, which determined the future direction of research activities at the Earth Trust. Richard Buggs spoke on the value of the Earth Trust's ash tree collections.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 01/11/15 The Daily Telegraph Ash trees could be genetically modified to resist dieback disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Quoted in newspaper article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 01/11/15 The Observer With 90% of the UK's ash trees about to be wiped out, could GM be the answer? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Quoted in news article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 02/11/15 The Times GM trees to combat ash dieback 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact quoted in newspaper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 03/11/15 The Guardian Ash trees under threat if harmful borer beetle finds way to Britain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact quoted in newspaper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 05/12/18 BBC News Website "Ash dieback: Ash woodlands 'may flourish once again'" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This no doubt helped many people understand more about the expected outcomes of the ash dieback epidemic in Europe, but we do not have documentation to demonstrate the impact
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-46440389
 
Description 30/09/18 BBC One London News interview on ash dieback with Jim Wheble 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Recorded TV interview for BBC London News
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 31/01/15 The Sunday Telegraph British woods in crisis as ash disease triples 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact quoted in newspaper article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BBC News "Ash tree genome sequenced for first time" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact News article on BBC website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-38416116
 
Description BBC News TV Live Interview 7/10/14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact comments from viewers

none I am aware of
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dO0t4Vdikc
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Farming Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on BBC Radio 4 Farming Today on biosecurity and ash dieback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08hl5k5
 
Description BBC Radio Africa studio interview on State of the World's Plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Radio Africa studio interview on State of the World's Plants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BBC Radio London live studio interview with presenter Vanessa Feltz on State of the World's Plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact BBC Radio London live studio interview with presenter Vanessa Feltz on State of the World's Plants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BBC World TV News Today live studio interview with presenter Philippa Thomas on State of the World's Plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC World TV News Today live studio interview with presenter Philippa Thomas on State of the World's Plants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Babbage Podcast (The Economist) interview on ash tree health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Babbage Podcast (The Economist) interview on ash tree health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://soundcloud.com/theeconomist/babbage-what-can-science-do-for-my-garden
 
Description Babbage Podcast (The Economist) interview on tree health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Babbage Podcast (The Economist) interview on tree health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://soundcloud.com/theeconomist/babbage-trees-take-a-bough
 
Description Daily Express "Ash trees could be saved from killer disease after UK study cracks genetic code" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact News article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.express.co.uk/news/nature/747435/Ash-trees-killer-disease-British-study-cracks-code
 
Description Daily Mail "Trees resistant to killer fungus could be grown in Britain (but they are more likely to be ravaged by beetles)" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact News article in Daily Mail
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4067228/Trees-resistant-killer-fungus-grown-Britain-l...
 
Description Defra Group International Science Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Richard Buggs attended Defra Group International Science Event on 15 October 2018, listening to talks by senior civil servants and leaders of Defra group research organisations. He participated in break out groups on how Defra scientists can work with foreign governments to help them research environmental issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Dissemination event for the Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative, at the Radisson Blu Grafton, London, 7 Feb 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dissemination event for the Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative, at the Radisson Blu Grafton, London, 7 Feb 2018 attended by 50 stakeholders including Lord Gardiner of Kimble and Nicole Spence UK chief plant health officer
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Guardian "British ash trees may resist dieback disease, research reveals" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact News article in Guardian
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/dec/26/british-ash-trees-may-resist-dieback-disease-res...
 
Description Interview for The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I assume people thought about it afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://theconversation.com/despite-the-lush-summer-leaves-our-trees-are-under-attack-28237
 
Description Interview with France24 TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I have no idea
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.france24.com/en/20140514-tour-europe-3-lille-france-national-front-election-marine-le-pen...
 
Description Presentation to Defra Ash Dieback Health and Safety Taskgroup, Nobel House, Westminster, 11 May 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to Defra Ash Dieback Health and Safety Taskgroup, Nobel House, Westminster, 11 May 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to Ian Boyd, Defra Chief Scientific Advisor, Nobel House, Westminster, 24 Oct 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on ash dieback to Ian Boyd, Defra Chief Scientific Advisor, Nobel House, Westminster, 24 Oct 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk on ash dieback at Forestry Commission's "SE & London Tree Health Event 2018" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Forestry Commission's "SE & London Tree Health Event 2018" attended by 130 tree health professionals, 12 Feb 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Future for English Woodlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Richard Buggs spoke on ash genomics research at "The Future for English Woodlands" Conference organised by The Central Association of Agricultural Valuers and The Royal Forestry Society, 30 Oct 2018, The National Memorial Arboretum, Staffordshire. Over 100 chartered surveyors and professional foresters were present. Feedback questionnaires showed that many attendees learned a great deal from the talk and saw the relevance of the research for their own professional work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018